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Going by the Rules - We're racing

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Going by the Rules - We're racing

1. 1. Start Section Start show We’re racing!We‟re racing! Main Menu Section Start 1
2. 2. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Let‟s assume we‟ve started. WindWe‟re getting close to another boat. Main Menu Section Start 2
3. 3. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Let‟s assume we‟ve started. WindWe‟re getting close to another boat.If one of us doesn‟t dosomething, we‟ll collide. Main Menu Section Start 3
4. 4. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Let‟s assume we‟ve started. WindWe‟re getting close to another boat.If one of us doesn‟t dosomething, we‟ll collide.Let‟s invent a rule: “Every boat shall avoid contact with every other boat”. Main Menu Section Start 4
5. 5. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Let‟s assume we‟ve started. WindWe‟re getting close to another boat.If one of us doesn‟t do something,we‟ll collide. Kerrunch!Let‟s invent a rule: “Every boat shall avoid contact with every other boat”. Main Menu Section Start 5
6. 6. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Let‟s assume we‟ve started. WindWe‟re getting close to another boat.If one of us doesn‟t dosomething, we‟ll collide. Kerrunch!Let‟s invent a rule: “Every boat shall avoid contact with every other boat”.Perhaps that’s not going to work…so we need some better rules. Main Menu Section Start 6
7. 7. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Safety when two boats meet• One of them must keep clear• The other has right of way, but her freedom to manoeuvre is restricted• But if the keep-clear boat does not avoid contact, the right-of-way boat must try to do so• Applies to both • the Racing Rules of Sailing (RRS) and … • the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (IRPCAS) Main Menu Section Start 7
8. 8. Start Section Start show We’re racing!When boats meet – it has to be easy for both to know which onemust keep clear. Just three criteria:1. Which tack is each boat on?2. Are they on the same tack or on opposite tacks?3. Are they overlapped? Italics mean a define d word or term Main Menu Section Start 8
9. 9. Start Section Start show We’re racing!How do you decide which tack a boat is on?Tack is a defined termTack, Starboard or PortA boat is on the tack, starboard or port, corresponding to herwindward side.Leeward and WindwardA boat‟s leeward side is the side that is or, when she is head towind, was away from the wind. However, when sailing by the leeor directly downwind, her leeward side is the side on which hermainsail lies. The other side is her windward side… Main Menu Section Start 9
10. 10. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat?W - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 10
11. 11. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat?And so which tack is she on? W LW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 11
12. 12. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat?And so which tack is she on? W Port LW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 12
13. 13. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W Port LW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 13
14. 14. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat?And so which tack is she on? Head to wind W L but still on same tack W Port LW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 14
15. 15. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat?And so which tack is she on? W L Port W Port LW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 15
16. 16. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W L Port W Port LW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 16
17. 17. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? WAnd so which tack is she on? L W L Port W Port LW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 17
18. 18. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W PortAnd so which tack is she on? L W L Port W Port LW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 18
19. 19. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W Port L W L Port W Port LW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 19
20. 20. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W PortAnd so which tack is she on? L W L L W Port W Port LW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 20
21. 21. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W PortAnd so which tack is she on? L Port W L L W Port W Port LW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 21
22. 22. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W Port L Port W L L W Port W Port LW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 22
23. 23. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W PortAnd so which tack is she on? L Port W L L By the W lee, but Port W still on Port the L L same W tackW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 23
24. 24. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W PortAnd so which tack is she on? L Port W L L W Port W Port Port L L WW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 24
25. 25. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W Port L Port W L L W Port W Port Port L L WW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 25
26. 26. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W PortAnd so which tack is she on? L Port W L L W Port W Port Port L L W W LW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 26
27. 27. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W PortAnd so which tack is she on? L Port W L L W Port W Port Port L L W W Starboard LW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 27
28. 28. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W Port L Port W L L W Port W Port Port L L W W Starboard LW - windwardL - leeward Main Menu Section Start 28
29. 29. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W PortAnd so which tack is she on? L Port W L L W Port W Port Port L L W W Starboard W LW - windwardL - leeward L Main Menu Section Start 29
30. 30. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W PortAnd so which tack is she on? L Port W L L W Port W Port Port L L W W Starboard W LW - windward StarboardL - leeward L Main Menu Section Start 30
31. 31. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W Port L Port W L L W Port W Port Port L L W W Starboard W LW - windward StarboardL - leeward L Main Menu Section Start 31
32. 32. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W PortAnd so which tack is she on? L Port W L L W Port W Port Port L L W Head to wind but still on L W Starboard same tack W W LW - windward StarboardL - leeward L Main Menu Section Start 32
33. 33. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W PortAnd so which tack is she on? L Port W L L W Port W Port Port L L W L W Starboard W Starboard W LW - windward StarboardL - leeward L Main Menu Section Start 33
34. 34. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W PortAnd so which tack is she on? L Port Head to wind W L L W but still on Port same tack W Port Port L L W L W Starboard W Starboard W LW - windward StarboardL - leeward L Main Menu Section Start 34
35. 35. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W PortAnd so which tack is she on? L Port Head to wind W L L By the W but still on lee, but Port same tack W still on Port Port the L L same W tack L W Starboard W Starboard W LW - windward StarboardL - leeward L Main Menu Section Start 35
36. 36. We’re racing! Definitions, Leeward and Windward, and Tack, Starboard or PortWhich are the windward and leewardsides of the boat? W PortAnd so which tack is she on? L Port Head to wind W L L By the W but still on lee, but Port same tack W still on Port Port the L L same W tack Head to wind but still on L W Starboard same tack W Starboard W LW - windward StarboardL - leeward L Main Menu Section Start 36
37. 37. Start Section Start show We’re racing!When boats meet – it has to be easy for both to know which onemust keep clear. Just three criteria:1. Which tack is each boat on?2. Are they on the same tack or on opposite tacks?3. Are they overlapped?Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapOne boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipmentin normal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermostpoint of the other boat‟s hull and equipment in normal position.The other boat is clear ahead. They overlap when neither is clearastern. However, they also overlap when a boat between themoverlaps both. These terms always apply to boats on the sametack. They do not apply to boats on opposite tacks unlesss rule 18applies or both boats are sailing more than ninety degrees fromthe true wind. Main Menu Section Start 37
38. 38. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs one of these same-tack boats clear astern of the other? Clear astern Clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 38
39. 39. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs one of these same-tack boats clear astern of the other?YES – All of Blue is behind Yellow‟s „transom line.So they are not overlapped Clear astern Clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 39
40. 40. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs one of these same-tack boats still clear astern of the other? Clear astern Clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 40
41. 41. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs one of these same-tack boats still clear astern of the other?No, some of Blue is ahead of Yellow‟s „transom line‟.So they are overlapped. Clear astern Clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 41
42. 42. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs one of these same-tack boats still clear astern of the other?No, some of Blue is ahead of Yellow‟s „transom line‟.So they are overlapped. Clear astern Technically, a line Overlapped abeam from the aftermost point of hull AND equipment, which Clear would include a ahead transom-mounted rudder. Main Menu Section Start 42
43. 43. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs one of these same-tack boats clear astern of the other? Clear astern Overlapped Clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 43
44. 44. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs one of these same-tack boats clear astern of the other?No, some of Yellow is ahead of Blue‟s „transom line‟.So they are still overlapped. Clear astern Overlapped Overlapped Clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 44
45. 45. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs one of these same-tack boats clear astern of the other? Clear Clear astern ahead Overlapped Overlapped Clear Clear ahead astern Main Menu Section Start 45
46. 46. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs one of these same-tack boats clear astern of the other?Yes, all of Yellow is now clear astern of Blue‟s „transom line‟.The overlap has ended. Clear Clear astern ahead Overlapped Overlapped Clear Clear ahead astern Main Menu Section Start 46
47. 47. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapClearastern Clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 47
48. 48. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapClear Overlappedastern Clear Overlapped ahead Main Menu Section Start 48
49. 49. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapClear Overlapped Overlappedastern Clear Overlapped Overlapped ahead Main Menu Section Start 49
50. 50. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapClear Clear Overlapped Overlappedastern astern Clear Overlapped Overlapped Clear ahead ahead Main Menu Section Start 50
51. 51. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapOne boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment innormal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point ofthe other boat‟s hull and equipment in normal position. The otherboat is clear ahead.Equipment that is NOT in its normal position cannot create anoverlap. For example:• a spinnaker allowed to fly forwards by freeing its halyard• a retractable „sprit‟ that is extended when there is no immediateintention of setting a gennakerIf a boat astern with such equipment in an abnormal position iscatching the boat ahead, then:• No overlap until the first piece of hull, or equipment in normalposition (such as the spinnaker pole) crosses the transom line• and so ( in the case of the spinnaker) the overlap will happen laterthan if the equipment had been in its normal position Main Menu Section Start 51
52. 52. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapOne boat is clear astern of another when her hull and equipment innormal position are behind a line abeam from the aftermost point ofthe other boat‟s hull and equipment in normal position. The otherboat is clear ahead.Equipment that is NOT in its normal position cannot create anoverlap. For example:• a spinnaker allowed to fly forwards by freeing its halyard• a retractable „sprit‟ that is extended when there is no immediateintention of setting a gennakerSimilarly:• a „spinnaker-only‟ overlap will end if the spinnaker halyard is easedto make the sail fly forwards• a „sprit-only‟ overlap will end if the gennaker is removed but thesprit is left extended if that is not its normal position at that time Main Menu Section Start 52
53. 53. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs any part of Yellow behind Blue‟s „transom line‟?Is any part of Blue behind Yellow‟s „transom line?‟ Main Menu Section Start 53
54. 54. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs any part of Yellow behind Blue‟s „transom line‟?Is any part of Blue behind Yellow‟s „transom line‟?No – so neither is clear astern, so they are overlapped Main Menu Section Start 54
55. 55. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs any part of Yellow behind Blue‟s „transom line‟?Is any part of Blue behind Yellow‟s transom line? Main Menu Section Start 55
56. 56. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs any part of Yellow behind Blue‟s „transom line‟?Is any part of Blue behind Yellow‟s transom line?No – so neither is clear astern, so they are overlapped Main Menu Section Start 56
57. 57. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs any part of Yellow behind Blue‟s „transom line‟?Is any part of Blue behind Yellow‟s transom line? Main Menu Section Start 57
58. 58. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; Overlap Is any part of Yellow behind Blue‟s „transom line‟? Is any part of Blue behind Yellow‟s transom line? No – so neither is clear astern, so they are overlappedEach pair is on the same tack, and the term overlap „alwaysapplies to boats on the same tack.‟ (Definition Overlap) Main Menu Section Start 58
59. 59. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapAre Yellow and Blue overlapped?No. The term does not apply to opposite tack boats sailing towindward and away from marks Main Menu Section Start 59
60. 60. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapAre Yellow and Blue overlapped? Main Menu Section Start 60
61. 61. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapAre Yellow and Blue overlapped?Technically YES, because the definition Overlap says that the termapplies to boats sailing more than ninety degrees from the wind.However, in open water, this fact has no further significance in therules. BLUE on port must keep clear of YELLOW on starboard. Main Menu Section Start 61
62. 62. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapAre Yellow and Blue overlapped? Main Menu Section Start 62
63. 63. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapAre Yellow and Blue overlapped? Yes, even though they are on opposite tacks, both because rule 18, Mark- Room, applies, and also because they are both sailing more than ninety degrees from the true wind. In this case, BLUE on port still has to keep clear of YELLOW on starboard, but rule 18 puts a limitation on YELLOW, which will have to give mark-room. Main Menu Section Start 63
64. 64. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs Blue clear ahead of Yellow?IS Yellow clear astern of Blue?The terms Clear Astern and ClearAhead do not apply to boats onopposite tacks away from marksand obstructions.This situation is resolved by rule10 that deals with opposite-tackboats, and not by rule 12 thatdeals with same-tack boats whereone is clear astern of the other. Main Menu Section Start 64
65. 65. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Clear Astern and Clear Ahead; OverlapIs Blue clear ahead of Yellow?IS Yellow clear astern of Blue?YES. The terms Clear Astern andClear Ahead apply to opposite-tackboats when rule 18 applies, or whenboth boats are sailing more thanninety degrees from the wind.Both of these criteria make this aclear-ahead / clear-astern situation.As we will see, BLUE on port stillhas to keep clear of YELLOW onstarboard, but rule 18 requiresclear-astern YELLOW to give mark-room to clear-ahead BLUE Main Menu Section Start 65
66. 66. Start Section Start show We’re racing! Italics mean a defined word orThree Main Rules termWhen boats are on opposite tacks, a port-tack boat shall keep clear ofa starboard-tack boat. (Rule 10)When boats are on the same tack and overlapped, a windward boatshall keep clear of a leeward boat. (Rule 11)When boats are on the same tack, and NOT overlapped, a boat clearastern shall keep clear of a boat clear ahead. (Rule 12)Keep ClearOne boat keeps clear of another if the other can sail her course withno need to take avoiding action and, when the boats are overlappedon the same tack, if the leeward boat can change course in bothdirections without immediately making contact with the windwardboat. Main Menu Section Start 66
67. 67. Start show Start Section We’re racing! Definition, Keep ClearIs RED keeping clear of GREEN?What is the test for rule 10?When boats are on oppositetacks, the test is whether GREEN, thestarboard-tack right-of-way boat, „cansail her course with no need to takeavoiding action‟.Can you make that judgement fromthis diagram?FACTORS• Wind and weather• Size and manoeuvrability of the boats• Speed of boats, and are speeds different?• Eye contact between helms• Hail from RED that she will duck – and a duck! Main Menu Section Start 67
68. 68. Start show Start Section We’re racing! Definition, Keep ClearIs RED keeping clear of GREEN?What is the test for rule 10?When boats are on oppositetacks, the test is whether GREEN, thestarboard-tack right-of-way boat, „cansail her course with no need to takeavoiding action‟.Can you make that judgement fromthis diagram?FACTORS• Wind and weather• Size and manoeuvrability of the boats• Speed of boats, and are speeds different? Main Menu Section Start 68
69. 69. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Keep ClearIs BLUE keeping clear of YELLOW?What is the test for rule 12?When boats are on the same tack but notoverlapped, the test is still whetherYELLOW, the right-of-way boat, can „sail hercourse with no need to take avoiding action.‟Can you make that judgement from thisdiagram?FACTORS•Wind and weather•Size and manoeuvrability of the boats• Is BLUE closing on YELLOW? Main Menu Section Start 69
70. 70. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Keep ClearIn all these cases – opposite tacks, orsame tack, not overlapped - the test iswhether the right-of-way boat, can „sailher course with no need to take avoidingaction‟.So it‟s not just a question of what thekeep-clear boat is doing.Rather, it‟s the effect of the keep-clearboat‟s actions on the right-of-way boat. Main Menu Section Start 70
71. 71. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Keep ClearIs BLUE keeping clear of YELLOW?What is the test?The test is first whether YELLOW, the right-of-way boat, can sail her coursewith no need to take avoiding action.If their courses are parallel, even if BLUE is close, YELLOW can sail hercourse. Is BLUE keeping clear? Main Menu Section Start 71
72. 72. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Keep ClearIs BLUE keeping clear of YELLOW?What is the test?The test is first whether YELLOW, the right-of-way boat, can sail her coursewith no need to take avoiding action.If their courses are parallel, even if BLUE is close, YELLOW can sail hercourse.But as they are overlapped on the same tack, the test is secondly whetherthe leeward boat can change course (hypothetically) in BOTH directionswithout immediate contact. Is BLUE keeping clear? Main Menu Section Start 72
73. 73. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Keep ClearIs BLUE keeping clear of YELLOW?What is the test?…the test is secondly whether the leeward boat can change course(hypothetically) in BOTH directions without immediate contact.If YELLOW were to luff, there may be contact, but probably notimmediately. So BLUE passed that part of the test. Is BLUE keeping Suppose a luff clear? by YELLOW Main Menu Section Start 73
74. 74. Start show We’re racing! Definition, Keep ClearIs BLUE keeping clear of YELLOW?What is the test?…the test is secondly whether the leeward boat can change course(hypothetically) in BOTH directions without immediate contact.If YELLOW were to luff, there may be contact, but probably notimmediately. So BLUE passed that part of the test.But if YELLOW were to bear away, and there would be contact, it is morelikely to be immediate. If that‟s what a protest committee thinks, then BLUEwas not initially keeping clear. Is BLUE keeping Suppose a luff Suppose a bear- clear? by YELLOW away by YELLOW Main Menu Section Start 74
75. 75. Start show Start Section We’re racing!Rule 10 - On Opposite TacksWhen boats are on oppositetacks, a port-tack boat shall keepclear of a starboard tack boat.Which boat would you prefer to be? Main Menu Section Start 75
76. 76. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 10 - On Opposite TacksWhen boats are on oppositetacks, a port-tack boat shall keepclear of a starboard tack boat.Which boat would you prefer to be? Main Menu Section Start 76
77. 77. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 10 - On Opposite TacksWhen boats are on oppositetacks, a port-tack boat shall keepclear of a starboard tack boat.Which boat would you prefer to be? Main Menu Section Start 77
78. 78. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 10 - On Opposite TacksWhen boats are on oppositetacks, a port-tack boat shall keepclear of a starboard tack boat.Which boat would you prefer to be? Main Menu Section Start 78
79. 79. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 10 - On Opposite TacksWhen boats are on oppositetacks, a port-tack boat shall keepclear of a starboard tack boat.Which boat would you prefer to be? Main Menu Section Start 79
80. 80. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 11 - On the Same Tack, OverlappedWhen boats are on the same tack andoverlapped, a windward boat shall keep clearof a leeward boat. Main Menu Section Start 80
81. 81. Start Section Start show We’re racing!SPOT THE DIFFERENCE Main Menu Section Start 81
82. 82. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 12 - On the SameTack, Not OverlappedWhen boats are on the sametack, and NOT overlapped, aboat clear astern shall keepclear of a boat clear ahead. Main Menu Section Start 82
83. 83. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 13 - While TackingAfter a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of otherboats until she is on a close-hauled course. During that time rules10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule atthe same time, the one on the other‟s port side or the one asternshall keep clear.„Tacking‟ is not a defined. The word in the rule title is used in itsgeneral sense of going from one tack to the other.However, the words of the rule itself apply to only a part of thisaction, from when a boat passes head to wind until she is on aclose-hauled course. Her sails need not be full at that moment.During that time, a boat shall keep clear of other boats. Theprevious three rules (10, 11, 12) don‟t apply at that time.A tacking boat is always on one tack or the other. The tack changeswhen passing head to wind. Main Menu Section Start 83
84. 84. Start Section Start show We’re racing!So Rule 13 suspends the three main rules when a boat has passedhead to wind but is not yet on a close-hauled course YELLOW has right of way under rule 10 BLUE must keep clear (port and starboard) Main Menu Section Start 84
85. 85. Start Section Start show We’re racing!So Rule 13 suspends the three main rules when a boat has passedhead to wind but is not yet on a close-hauled courseBLUE must keep clear YELLOW still has right of way under rule 10 (port and starboard) YELLOW has right of way under rule 10 BLUE must keep clear (port and starboard) Main Menu Section Start 85
86. 86. Start Section Start show We’re racing!So Rule 13 suspends the three main rules when a boat has passedhead to wind but is not yet on a close-hauled course BLUE temporarily has YELLOW has passed head to wind and right of way must now keep clear of BLUEBLUE must keep clear YELLOW still has right of way under rule 10 (port and starboard) YELLOW has right of way under rule 10 BLUE must keep clear (port and starboard) Main Menu Section Start 86
87. 87. Start Section Start show We’re racing!So Rule 13 suspends the three main rules when a boat has passedhead to wind but is not yet on a close-hauled course YELLOW has reached a close-hauled course and so has regained right of BLUE must keep clear way, under rule 11, (windward and leeward) BLUE temporarily has YELLOW has passed head to wind and right of way must now keep clear of BLUEBLUE must keep clear YELLOW still has right of way under rule 10 (port and starboard) YELLOW has right of way under rule 10 BLUE must keep clear (port and starboard) Main Menu Section Start 87
88. 88. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Two boats that havepassed head to windbut are neither yetclose-hauled YELLOW BLUE has right must keep of way clear under under rule rule 10 10 Main Menu Section Start 88
89. 89. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Two boats that havepassed head to windbut are neither yetclose-hauled YELLOW BLUE has right must keep of way clear under under rule rule 10 10 Main Menu Section Start 89
90. 90. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Two boats that havepassed head to wind BLUEbut are neither yet YELLOW has rightclose-hauled must keep of way clear under under rule rule 13 13 YELLOW BLUE has right must keep of way clear under under rule rule 10 10 Main Menu Section Start 90
91. 91. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 14 - Avoiding ContactA boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible.However, a right-of-way boat or one entitled to room or mark-room (a) need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear or giving room or mark-room, and (b) shall not be penalized under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage or injury.Keeping clear is more than just avoiding contact. So this rule does notadd to the requirements of a keep-clear boatDespite the first line of the rule, it‟s safer and fairer for a right-of-wayboat to „stand on‟ until it is clear that the keep-clear boat isn‟t doing soEven if a right-of-way or room-entitled boat wrongfully allows a collisionto happen, she will be penalized only when damage or injury resultsSo a right-of-way boat or one entitled to room or mark-room can breakthe first line of this rule - at her own risk Main Menu Section Start 91
92. 92. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 15 - Acquiring Right of WayWhen a boat acquires right-of-way, she shall initially give the other boatroom to keep clear…. Keep clear, clear astern 1 1 Right of way, clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 92
93. 93. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 15 - Acquiring Right of WayWhen a boat acquires right-of-way, she shall initially give the other boatroom to keep clear…. Keep clear, clear astern 2 Keep clear, 2 Right of way, clear astern 1 clear ahead 1 Right of way, clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 93
94. 94. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 15 - Acquiring Right of WayWhen a boat acquires right-of-way, she shall initially give the other boatroom to keep clear…. Keep clear, windward 3 Right of way, Keep clear, leeward 3 clear astern 2 Keep clear, 2 Right of way, clear astern 1 clear ahead 1 Right of way, clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 94
95. 95. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 15 - Acquiring Right of WayWhen a boat acquires right-of-way, she shall initially give the other boatroom to keep clear…. Keep clear, Right of way beyond head Keep clear, 4 to wind windward 4 3 Right of way, Keep clear, leeward 3 clear astern 2 Keep clear, 2 Right of way, clear astern 1 clear ahead 1 Right of way, clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 95
96. 96. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 15 - Acquiring Right of WayWhen a boat acquires right-of-way, she shall initially give the other boatroom to keep clear…. Right of way, Keep clear, starboard port tack 5 Keep clear, Right of way beyond head 5 Keep clear, 4 to wind windward 4 3 Right of way, Keep clear, leeward 3 clear astern 2 Keep clear, 2 Right of way, clear astern 1 clear ahead 1 Right of way, clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 96
97. 97. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 15 - Acquiring Right of WayWhen a boat acquires right-of-way, she shall initially give the other boatroom to keep clear… unless she acquires right of way because ofthe other boat’s actions. Keep clear, 1 clear astern Right of way, 1 clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 97
98. 98. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 15 - Acquiring Right of WayWhen a boat acquires right-of-way, she shall initially give the other boatroom to keep clear… unless she acquires right of way because ofthe other boat’s actions. Keep clear, 2 clear astern Right of way, 2 Keep clear, clear ahead 1 clear astern Right of way, 1 clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 98
99. 99. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 15 - Acquiring Right of WayWhen a boat acquires right-of-way, she shall initially give the other boatroom to keep clear… unless she acquires right of way because ofthe other boat’s actions. Keep clear, windward Right of way, 3 leeward Keep clear, 3 2 clear astern Right of way, 2 Keep clear, clear ahead 1 clear astern Right of way, 1 clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 99
100. 100. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 15 - Acquiring Right of WayWhen a boat acquires right-of-way, she shall initially give the other boatroom to keep clear… unless she acquires right of way because ofthe other boat’s actions. Keep clear, Right of way beyond head to wind 4 Keep clear, 4 windward Right of way, 3 leeward Keep clear, 3 2 clear astern Right of way, 2 Keep clear, clear ahead 1 clear astern Right of way, 1 clear ahead Main Menu Section Start 100
101. 101. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 16 - Changing Course16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give theother boat room to keep clear. Main Menu Section Start 101
102. 102. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 16 - Changing Course16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give theother boat room to keep clear. • So the rate of any change of course by the right-of-way boat is limited by how close the other boat is, before and during the change of course • If the give-way boat responds promptly, and in a seamanlike way in the prevailing conditions, yet is unable to keep clear, the right-of-way boat has not given her room to keep clear • There is an exception when boats are rounding a mark, as we shall see later Main Menu Section Start 102
103. 103. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 16 - Changing Course16.1 When a right-of-way boat changes course, she shall give theother boat room to keep clear.16.2 In addition, when after the starting signal a port-tack boat iskeeping clear by sailing to pass astern of a starboard-tack boat, thestarboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continuekeeping clear. Main Menu Section Start 103
104. 104. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 16.2Additional to rule 16.1After the starting signal -P is keeping clear -by sailing to pass astern of S - Main Menu Section Start 104
105. 105. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 16.2Additional to rule 16.1After the starting signal -P is keeping clear -by sailing to pass astern of S - GREEN (S) will not break rule 16.1 if RED (P) has room as defined towhich alters towards her - duck or tack to keep clearand P now needs to changecourse immediately to keep But GREEN breaks rule 16.2 if REDclear now needs to act immediately to keep clearRule 16.2 works in a narrow window – if GREEN changes course before itapplies, GREEN breaks no ruleBut if GREEN changes course after it applies, GREEN breaks rule 16.1 Main Menu Section Start 105
106. 106. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 17 Rule 17An overlap to leeward from clearastern and within two lengths Not Rule 17 Main Menu Section Start 106
107. 107. Start show Start Section We’re racing!Rule 17 Rule 17An overlap to leeward from clearastern and within two lengthsWhile they remain on the sametack and overlapped and… Rule 17 over Main Menu Section Start 107
108. 108. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 17 L breaks rule 17An overlap to leeward from clearastern and within two lengths Ls proper courseWhile they remain on the sametack and overlapped and…are still within two of L‟s lengths… Rule 17 stops applying to LL must not sail above her propercourse… Ls proper course Main Menu Section Start 108
109. 109. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 17 BLUE breaks rule 17An overlap to leeward from clearastern and within two lengths Ls proper courseWhile they remain on the sametack and overlapped and…are still within two of L‟s lengths… BLUE still breaks rule 17 even though shes notL must not sail above her proper near YELLOWcourse… Ls proper course Main Menu Section Start 109
110. 110. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 17 BLUE IS BREAKING RULE 17...An overlap to leeward from clearastern and within two lengths L cou s pr rse opWhile they remain on the same ertack and overlapped and…are still within two of L‟s lengths…L must not sail above her proper ...unless she promptly sails astern of yellowcourse…Unless she sails astern Main Menu Section Start 110
111. 111. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 17 4 Ru YE…This rule does not apply if the le 3 13 LOWoverlap begins when the 4 ap Lwindward boat is required by rule plie13 to keep clear. st 3 2 oBLUE becomes overlapped while L cou 2YELLOW is between head to s pr rse opwind and close hauled 1 er 1So here, rule 17 DOES NOTrestrict BLUE. She can luffabove a proper course at anytime during this overlap Main Menu Section Start 111
112. 112. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Rule 17 4 R ul YE 3…This rule does not apply if the e 13 LL ap OWoverlap begins while the pl iewindward boat is required by rule s to 413 to keep clear. 2Here, that hasn‟t happened. 3When rule 13 stopped applying to 1YELLOW at position 3, BLUE hadnot yet become overlapped. Only L cou safter that did the overlap begin. pr rse 2 op erRule 17 DOES apply, and BLUEmust not luff above a proper 1course after position 4. Main Menu Section Start 112
113. 113. Start Section We’re racing!Test your KnowledgeShortly before the starting signal, you in BLUE see YELLOW for the first time. YELLOW is head to wind. Which keeps clear of which? Main Menu Section Start 113
114. 114. Start Section Start show We’re racing! Test your Knowledge It depends on which tack YELLOW is on. You need more information.YELLOW is on the tack on which she approached the line and stopped. Main Menu Section Start 114
115. 115. Start Section Start show We’re racing! Test your Knowledge It depends on which tack YELLOW is on. You need more information.YELLOW is on the tack on which she approached the line and stopped. If she came in on port tack, she is still on port. Which keeps clear, and under which rule? Main Menu Section Start 115
116. 116. Start Section Start show We’re racing! Test your Knowledge It depends on which tack YELLOW is on. You need more information.YELLOW is on the tack on which she approached the line and stopped. If she came in on port tack, she is still on port. YELLOW keeps clear, rule 10 (port & starboard) Next Section Main Menu Section Start 116
117. 117. Start Section Start show We’re racing! Test your Knowledge It depends on which tack YELLOW is on. You need more information.YELLOW is on the tack on which she approached the line and stopped. If she came in on starboard tack, she is still on starboard. Which keeps clear, and under which rule? Main Menu Section Start 117
118. 118. Start show We’re racing! Test your Knowledge It depends on which tack YELLOW is on. You need more information.YELLOW is on the tack on which she approached the line and stopped. If she came in on starboard tack, she is still on starboard. Same tack, overlapped, windward (BLUE) keeps clear under rule 11 Main Menu Section Start 118
119. 119. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Test your Knowledge For each YELLOW - BLUE pair, which keeps clear of which? Main Menu Section Start 119
120. 120. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Test your Knowledge P S W W S P P S P S L L Main Menu Section Start 120
121. 121. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Test your Knowledge P S W W S P P S P S L L BLUE (11) BLUE (11) YELLOW (10) BLUE (10) - are the keep clear boats Main Menu Section Start 121
122. 122. Start show We’re racing!Test your KnowledgeAfter start, RED will clearGREEN, then a windshift liftsGREEN and backs RED.There is a protest.RED‟s case:GREEN broke rule 16.2because I had to luffimmediately after her coursechange.GREEN‟s case.Simple port / starboard – and I was entitled to take advantage of thewindshift. Main Menu Section Start 122
123. 123. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Test your KnowledgeBoth are wrong.Not rule 16.2, as RED was passingahead, not astern.GREEN has to comply with rule 16.1,even when being lifted on a shift. Main Menu Section Start 123
124. 124. Start Section Start show We’re racing!Test your KnowledgeBoth are wrong.Not rule 16.2, as RED was passingahead, not astern.GREEN has to comply with rule16.1, even when being lifted on ashift.When GREEN was lifted, RED now had to act to keep clear.Did RED have room to keep clear by tacking promptly in a seamanlikeway in the prevailing conditions?If so, GREEN did not break rule 16.1, and RED broke rule 10 (port andstarboard) by making the wrong decision and bearing away.If not, then GREEN altered too close to RED and broke rule 16.1It will all depend on the conditions. Main Menu Section Start 124
125. 125. GOING BY THE RULESWhat’s cooking?THE MAIN COURSE STARTERSBasically and Fundamentally… What‟s new for 2009 – quick guideWe‟re racing! What‟s new for 2009 – in detailWe‟re starting! INGREDIENTSWe‟re rounding! Reading the signalsWe‟re taking turns! Major definitions in actionWe‟re finishing! The Racing Rules of SailingWe‟re unhappy! The Definitions 125