Hard Copy handout Graphic Organizer Article? January, 2012
Clarifying, understanding, and sharing learning intentions curriculum philosophy Engineering effective classroom discussions, tasks and activities that elicit evidence of learning classroom discourse, interactive whole-class teaching Providing feedback that moves learners forward feedback Activating students as learning resources for one another collaborative learning, reciprocal teaching, peer-assessment Activating students as owners of their own learning metacognition, motivation, interest, attribution, self-assessment January, 2012
Coaching team select a cut-out.
Big “aha”- more time later
Students DemonstrateLearningDebbie SchraederESU#3
Experience ConnectionStudents Demonstrate LearningTeachers have a crucial role to play in designingthe situations in which learning takes place, butonly learners create learning.-Dylan Wiliam, page 158 (2011)As you make table group introductions, consider the quote belowand discuss: Do you agree or disagree with Dylan Wiliam? How do you get students more involved in their learning?
Unpacking Formative AssessmentWhere the learneris goingWhere the learner is How to get thereTeacherPeerLearnerClarifying, sharing andunderstanding learningintentionsEngineering effectivediscussions, tasks, and activitiesthat elicit evidence of learningProviding feedbackthat moveslearners forwardActivating students as learningresources for one anotherActivating students asowners of their learningEmbedded Formative Assessment breakout presented by Dylan Wiliamwww.authorspeak2011.com
Clarifying, understanding, and sharing learning intentionsEngineering effective classroom discussions, tasks and activities thatelicit evidence of learningProviding feedback that moves learners forwardActivating students as learning resources for one anotherActivating students as owners of their own learning(Wiliam & Thompson, 2007)Embedded Formative Assessment breakout presented by Dylan Wiliamwww.authorspeak2011.comFive Key Strategies
Self-Assessment of Current Application•Feedback: Seven Perspectives•Seven Practices for Effective LearningLow Knowledgeand Low Use1 2 3 4 5High Knowledgeand Low UseHigh Knowledgeand High Use
Seven Practices for Effective Learning1. Use summative assessments to frame meaningfulperformance goals.2. Show criteria and models in advance.3. Assess before teaching.4. Offer appropriate choices.5. Provide feedback early and often.6. Encourage self-assessment and goal setting.7. Allow new evidence of achievement to replace oldevidence.McTighe, Jay and O’Connor, Ken .“Seven Practices for Effective Learning” EducationalLeadership, November, 2005; pp 10-17. ASCD.
Connecting the Seven Practices to MarzanoThe assessment strategies…address three factors that influence student motivation tolearn (Marzano, 1992). Students are more likely to put forth the required effort whenthere is* Task clarity—when they clearly understand the learning goal and know howteachers will evaluate their learning (Practices 1 and 2).* Relevance—when they think the learning goals and assessments are meaningfuland worth learning (Practice 1).* Potential for success—when they believe they can successfully learn and meet theevaluative expectations (Practices 3–7).By using these seven assessment and grading practices, all teachers can enhancelearning in their classrooms.McTighe, Jay and O’Connor, Ken .“Seven Practices for Effective Learning” EducationalLeadership, November, 2005; pp 17. ASCD.
Feedback: Seven PerspectivesRick Stiggins Descriptive FeedbackSusan Brookhart Feedback that FitsKen O’Connor Feedback as MotivationCarol Ann Tomlinson Provide Feedback Earlyand Jay McTighe and OftenRobert Marzano Research and Theory on ProvidingFeedbackASCD Feedback ToolsMcREL Feedback Sort
1. At the designated poster:• Make introductions• Read and discuss content• Take notes on your graphic organizer1. Every 3 minutes, you will bechimed to move to a new chart.Research Walking Tour
Share with your coachingpartner the top 2 things youlearned from your researchwalking tour.Take 2
Sorting through Feedback1. Read the scenario.2. Remove the “Praise Slips” from the envelope.3. Categorize the “Praise Slips” as eitherEffective or Ineffective.4. Talk about your choices.5. Check answer key.
Related to the Seven Practices for Effective Learning,Observations might look like:Practice 1: Observing authentic assessment that connects instruction toreal-world application.Practice 2: Sharing and discussing a rubric with students.Practice 3: Using pre-assessment to inform instruction.Practice 4: Student choice in demonstrating their learning.Practice 5: Teacher providing timely and specific feedback to students.(PLPs, student conferences…)Practice 6: Observations of opportunities for learners to self-assess and/or set goals.Practice 7: Another opportunity for students to demonstrate theirlearning.
Related to Effective FeedbackObservations might look like:• Addressing Misconceptions• Corrective Feedback• Applying/Transferring/Enriching• Instilling Confidence• Aiding Retention• Facilitating Student Improvement• Taking the learner to the next level
ImplementationPlanning•What practice or perspective will you try?•What will this look like in your learningenvironment?•As a coaching team, how will you provide feedbackto each other?
Fisher, Douglas; and Frey, Nancy. Checking for Understanding (2007) ASCD. Page 2.When their teachers regularlycheck for understanding, studentsbecome increasingly aware of howto monitor their ownunderstanding.
Discussion:What kinds of assessment most accurately reflect the way students will likelybe required to perform in a real world situation?Practice 1: Use summative assessments to frame meaningful performance goals.To avoid the danger of viewing the standards and benchmarks [ELOs and assessments]as inert content to “cover,” educators should frame the standards and benchmarks interms of desired performances and ensure that the performances are as authentic aspossible. Teachers should then present the summative performance assessment tasks tostudents at the beginning of a new unit or course…summative assessments clarify thetargeted standards and benchmarks for teachers and learners.Second, the performance assessment tasks yield evidence that reveals understanding...we want students to transfer knowledge—to use what they know in a new situation.Consider a sports analogy. Coaches routinely conduct practice drills that both developbasic skills and purposefully point toward performance in the game. Too often,classroom instruction and assessment overemphasize decontextualized drills andprovide too few opportunities for students to actually “play the game.” Authenticperformance tasks provide a worthy goal and help learners see a reason for theirlearning.McTighe, Jay and O’Connor, Ken .“Seven Practices for EffectiveLearning” Educational Leadership, November, 2005; pp 12-13. ASCD.
Discussion:What is your experience with rubrics or showing models of work?Practice 2: Show criteria and models in advance.A second assessment practice that supports learning involves presenting evaluativecriteria and models of work that illustrate different levels of quality… authenticperformance assessments are typically open-ended and do not yield a single, correctanswer or solution process.A rubric is a widely used evaluation tool consisting of criteria… and descriptions ofthe characteristics for each score point. Well-developed rubrics communicate theimportant dimensions, or elements of quality, in a product or performance and guideeducators in evaluating student work…Rubrics also benefit students. When studentsknow the criteria in advance of their performance, they have clear goals for their work.Providing a rubric to students in advance of the assessment is a necessary, but ofteninsufficient, condition to support their learning. Learners are more likely to understandfeedback and evaluations when teachers show several examples that display bothexcellent and weak work. These models help translate the rubrics abstract languageinto more specific, concrete, and understandable terms.McTighe, Jay and O’Connor, Ken .“Seven Practices for EffectiveLearning” Educational Leadership, November, 2005; pp 13-14. ASCD.
Discussion:What ways have you pre-assessed?Practice 3: Assess before teaching.Diagnostic assessment is as important to teaching as a physical exam is to prescribingan appropriate medical regimen. At the outset of any unit of study, certain students arelikely to have already mastered some of the skills that the teacher is about to introduce,and others may already understand key concepts. Armed with this diagnosticinformation, a teacher gains greater insight into what to teach, by knowing what skillgaps to address or by skipping material previously mastered; into how to teach, byusing grouping options and initiating activities based on preferred learning styles andinterests; and into how to connect the content to students interests and talents.Teachers can use a variety of practical pre-assessment strategies, including pre-tests ofcontent knowledge, skills checks, concept maps, drawings, and K-W-L (Know-Wantto learn-Learn) charts. … A sizeable number of students come into school withmisconceptions about subject matter. To uncover existing misconceptions, teacherscan use a short, nongraded true-false diagnostic quiz that includes several potentialmisconceptions related to the targeted learning.McTighe, Jay and O’Connor, Ken .“Seven Practices for EffectiveLearning” Educational Leadership, November, 2005; pp 14. ASCD.
Discussion:What kinds of strategies do you use to make the process of assessingfor learning manageable?Practice 4: Offer appropriate choices.Students differ not only in how they prefer to take in and process information but also inhow they best demonstrate their learning. Some students need to “do”; others thrive on oralexplanations... A standardized approach to classroom assessment may be efficient, but it isnot fair because any chosen format will favor some students and penalize others.Allow choices—but always with the intent of collecting needed and appropriate evidencebased on goals. Learners often put forth greater effort and produce higher-quality workwhen given a variety of choices.Three Cautions:1. Collect appropriate evidence of learning on the basis of goals rather than simply offer a“cool” menu of assessment choices.2. Options must be worth the time and energy required. It would be inefficient to havestudents develop an elaborate display for content that a multiple-choice quiz could easilyassess.3. Teachers have only so much time and energy, so they must be judicious in determiningwhen it is important to offer product and performance options.McTighe, Jay and O’Connor, Ken .“Seven Practices for EffectiveLearning” Educational Leadership, November, 2005; pp 14-15. ASCD.
Discussion:What types of feedback are we providing students about their learning?Practice 5: Provide feedback early and often.All kinds of learning, whether on the practice field or in the classroom, requirefeedback based on formative assessments. To serve learning, feedback must meet fourcriteria: It must be timely, specific, understandable to the receiver, and formed to allowfor self-adjustment on the students part (Wiggins, 1998). Specificity is key to helpingstudents understand both their strengths and the areas in which they can improve…Although good grades and positive remarks may feel good, they do not advancelearning.“Kid language” rubrics can make feedback clearer and more comprehensible.Heres a simple, straightforward test for a feedback system: Can learners tellspecifically from the given feedback what they have done well and what they could donext time to improve? If not, then the feedback is not specific or understandableenough for the learner.Finally, the learner needs opportunities to act on the feedback—to refine, revise,practice, and retry. The best feedback often surfaces in the performance-based subjects—such as art, music, and physical education. Indeed, the essence of coaching involvesongoing assessment and feedback.McTighe, Jay and O’Connor, Ken .“Seven Practices for EffectiveLearning” Educational Leadership, November, 2005; pp 15-16. ASCD.
Discussion:What is the result of students being actively involved in theassessment process?Practice 6: Encourage self-assessment and goal setting..The most effective learners set personal learning goals, employ proven strategies, andself-assess their work. Teachers help cultivate such habits of mind by modelingself-assessment and goal setting and by expecting students to apply these habitsregularly.Rubrics can help students become more effective at honest self-appraisal andproductive self-improvement. Initially, the teacher models how to self-assess, setgoals, and plan improvements by asking such prompting questions as:* What aspect of your work was most effective?* What aspect of your work was least effective?* What specific action or actions will improve your performance?* What will you do differently next time?Questions like these help focus student reflection and planning. Over time, studentsassume greater responsibility for enacting these processes independently.Educators who provide regular opportunities for learners to self-assess and set goalsoften report a change in the classroom culture.McTighe, Jay and O’Connor, Ken .“Seven Practices for EffectiveLearning” Educational Leadership, November, 2005; pp 16-17. ASCD.
Discussion:To more accurately report student learning; are there strategies youutilize or could utilize to show recent evidence in lieu of an averageof evidence?ractice 7: Allow new evidence of achievement to replace old evidence.McTighe, Jay and O’Connor, Ken .“Seven Practices for EffectiveLearning” Educational Leadership, November, 2005; pp 17. ASCD.Classroom assessments and grading should focus on how well—not on when—thestudent mastered the designated knowledge and skill. Two concerns may arise whenteachers provide students with multiple opportunities to demonstrate their learning.Students may not take the first attempt seriously once they realize theyll have a secondchance. In addition, teachers often become overwhelmed by the logistical challengesof providing multiple opportunities. To make this approach effective, teachers need torequire their students to provide some evidence of the corrective action they will take—such as engaging in peer coaching, revising their report, or practicing the neededskill in a given way—before embarking on their “second chance.”As students work to achieve clearly defined learning goals and produce evidence oftheir achievement, they need to know that teachers will not penalize them for eithertheir lack of knowledge at the beginning of a course of study or their initial attempts atskill mastery. Allowing new evidence to replace old conveys an important message tostudents—that teachers care about their successful learning, not merely their grades.