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Hydrogen Hydrogen Presentation Transcript

  • Kacy
    • Atomic number
      • The number of protons in an atomic nucleus
    • Atomic mass
      • The mass of an atom
    • Number of Protons/Electrons: 1
    • Number of Neutrons: 0
    • Classification: Non-metal
    • Melting point: -259.14*C -434.45203*F
    • Boiling point: -252.87*C -423.166*F
    • Date of discovery: 1766 by Henry Cavendish
    • Name origin: Greek words hudor (water) and gennan (generate)
    • Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe
    • It is estimated that 90% of the visible universe is composed of hydrogen.
    • U.S. production: 3 billion cubic feet per year.
    • Hydrogen is prepared by:
      • steam on heated carbon
      • decomposition of certain hydrocarbons with heat
      • reaction of sodium or potassium hydroxide on aluminum
      • electrolysis of water
      • displacement from acids by certain metals
    • There is an estimated 400 to 500 hydrogen-fueled vehicles in the U.S.
      • Mostly in California
    • Most of these vehicles are buses and automobiles powered by electric motors
      • They store hydrogen gas or liquid on board and convert the hydrogen into electricity for the motor using a fuel cell
      • Only a few of these vehicles burn the hydrogen directly (producing almost no pollution).
    • The present cost of fuel cell vehicles greatly exceeds that of conventional vehicles in large part due to the expense of producing fuel cells
    • Liquid hydrogen is used in the study of superconductors and, when combined with liquid oxygen, makes an excellent rocket fuel.
    • Pure hydrogen is a gas, but it is barely found in our atmosphere
    • Hydrogen occurs primarily in combination with oxygen in water
      • Its also present in organic matter such as living plants, petroleum, coal, etc.
    • Hydrogen is the lightest element, so it can combine with all other elements -- sometimes explosively -- to form compounds.
    • Large amounts of hydrogen are combined with nitrogen from the air to produce ammonia (NH 3 ) through a process called the Haber process.
    • Hydrogen is also added to fats and oils, such as peanut oil, through a process called hydrogenation.
  • H 2 O                           
    • Hydrogen has three common isotopes.
    • The simplest isotope, called protium, is just ordinary hydrogen.
    • The second is a stable isotope called deuterium
      • Discovered in 1932
    • The third isotope is called tritium
      • Discovered in 1934
    • 16 Nov 2008 <http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~ch111/L12. htm>.
    • 19 Nov 2008 <www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sourc es/IntermediateHydrogen.html >.
    • 15 Nov 2008 http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/1.html.