State and government notes
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  • Force theory—the strongest ruled: O’Doyle Rules Evolutionary theory—Family—clan—tribe—agriculture/nomadic— state Divine right theory—God created the state; God gave those of royal standing the “Divine Right” to rule Social Contract theory—four primary philosophers: John Locke, James Harrington, Thomas Hobbes, and Jean Jacques Rousseau: because life in the state of nature was “nasty, brutish, and short,” humans agreed to a social contract  
  • Force theory—the strongest ruled: O’Doyle Rules Evolutionary theory—Family—clan—tribe—agriculture/nomadic— state Divine right theory—God created the state; God gave those of royal standing the “Divine Right” to rule Social Contract theory—four primary philosophers: John Locke, James Harrington, Thomas Hobbes, and Jean Jacques Rousseau: because life in the state of nature was “nasty, brutish, and short,” humans agreed to a social contract  
  • Force theory—the strongest ruled: O’Doyle Rules Evolutionary theory—Family—clan—tribe—agriculture/nomadic— state Divine right theory—God created the state; God gave those of royal standing the “Divine Right” to rule Social Contract theory—four primary philosophers: John Locke, James Harrington, Thomas Hobbes, and Jean Jacques Rousseau: because life in the state of nature was “nasty, brutish, and short,” humans agreed to a social contract  
  • Force theory—the strongest ruled: O’Doyle Rules Evolutionary theory—Family—clan—tribe—agriculture/nomadic— state Divine right theory—God created the state; God gave those of royal standing the “Divine Right” to rule Social Contract theory—four primary philosophers: John Locke, James Harrington, Thomas Hobbes, and Jean Jacques Rousseau: because life in the state of nature was “nasty, brutish, and short,” humans agreed to a social contract  
  • Democracy —supreme political authority rests with the people Direct —will of the people is directly turned into public policy Indirect —representative democracy Dictatorship —those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people Autocracy —single person holds unlimited power Monarchy —hereditarily entitled Dictatorship —entitled by force Oligarchy —power is held by a small, usually self-appointed group
  • Democracy —supreme political authority rests with the people Direct —will of the people is directly turned into public policy Indirect —representative democracy Dictatorship —those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people Autocracy —single person holds unlimited power Monarchy —hereditarily entitled Dictatorship —entitled by force Oligarchy —power is held by a small, usually self-appointed group
  • METHOD 2: Geographic distribution of power Unitary government —all powers by the government belong to a single, central agency Federal government —powers are divided between a central government and a local government (division of powers) Confederate government —an alliance of independent states
  • METHOD 3: Relationship between Legislative and Executive Branches Presidential government —executive and legislative branches of the government are   Parliamentary government —the executive branch comes from the legislative branch

Transcript

  • 1.
    • Government: What? Why? How?
    • A BASIC STARTING POINT FOR GOVERNMENTAL STUDY
  • 2. What is a state? The state —a body of , living in a organized and with the to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority PEOPLE POWER POLITICALLY DEFINED TERRITORY
  • 3. What are the necessary qualities of a state?
    • POPULATION
    • TERRITORY
    • SOVEREIGNTY— the possession of supreme and absolute power within its boundaries
    • GOVERNMENT
  • 4. What is government?
    • the institution through which a society
    makes and enforces its public policies
  • 5. Why did governments come about?
      • We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
  • 6. So…
    • Form a more perfect union
    • Establish justice
    • Insure domestic tranquility
    • Provide for the common defense
    • Promote the general welfare
    • Secure the blessings of liberty
  • 7. How did governments come about?
    • FORCE THEORY—the strongest rule
    THEORY 1
  • 8. How did governments come about?
    • EVOLUTIONARY THEORY—governments build from simpler groups (family…clan…tribe, etc)
    THEORY 2
  • 9. How did governments come about?
    • DIVINE RIGHT THEORY—God created the state; God ordained those with royal standing the “divine right” to rule
    THEORY 3
  • 10. How did governments come about?
    • SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY—in the state of nature, life was “nasty, brutish, and short.” Humans agreed to a mutual agreement between the rulers and the ruled for the benefit of all.
    THEORY 4
  • 11. Three ways to classify governments
    • DEMOCRACY —supreme political authority rests with the people
    METHOD 1: By who can participate DIRECT— the will of the people is directly turned into public policy INDIRECT— the will of the people is represented by appointed leaders Also known as REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY Impractical Poor decisions ELITIST THEORY OF DEMOCRACY
  • 12. Three ways to classify governments
    • DICTATORSHIP— those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people
    METHOD 1: By who can participate AUTOCRACY—a single person holds unlimited power MONARCHY—heredity determines ruler MILITARY—force determines ruler OLIGARCHY—power is held by a small, usually self-appointed group
  • 13. Three ways to classify governments
    • UNITARY— all powers by the government belong to one central government
    • FEDERAL GOVERNMENT— powers are divided between a central government and a local government (division of power)
    • CONFEDERATE GOVERNMENT —an alliance of independent states
    METHOD 2: Geographic distribution of power
  • 14. Three ways to classify governments
    • PRESIDENTIAL GOVERNMENT— executive and legislative branches of the government are elected by the voters
    • PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT— the executive branch is elected by the legislative branch
    METHOD 3: Relationship between the legislative and executive branches
  • 15. Zoom in on representative democracy
  • 16. Who has the power? To what ends do they use the power?
  • 17. Who has the power? To what ends do they use the power? Karl Marx
  • 18. Who has the power? To what ends do they use the power? CAPITALISTS (BOURGEOISE) WORKERS POLITICAL POWER ECONOMIC STRUGGLE —WHOEVER CONTROLS ECONOMY, CONTROLS GOVERNMENT
  • 19. Who has the power? To what ends do they use the power? Max Weber
  • 20. Who has the power? To what ends do they use the power? POLITICAL POWER TRUE POWER IS HELD BY POSTION AND STRUCTURE RATHER THAN ECONOMICS (BUREAUCRACY) LEADERS BUREAUCRACY
  • 21. Who has the power? To what ends to they the power? C. Wright Mills
  • 22. Who has the power? To what ends do they use the power? MILITARY POLITICAL POWER MILITARY MILITARY BUSINESS BUSINESS BUSINESS BUSINESS PEOPLE PEOPLE PEOPLE PEOPLE PEOPLE PEOPLE PEOPLE PEOPLE POLITICIANS POLITICIANS POLITICIANS MILITARY MILITARY MILITARY POLITICIANS POLITICIANS POLITICIANS POLITICIANS POLITICIANS POLITICIANS POLITICIANS POLITICIANS POLITICIANS POLITICIANS POLITICIANS POLITICIANS POLITICIANS POLITICIANS POLITICIANS SELECT MILTARY AND BUSINESS LEADERS (WEALTH, POWER, PRESTIGE) WEILD POWER ON SELECT POLITICIANS
  • 23. Who has the power? To what ends do they use the power? Pluralist
  • 24. Who has the power? To what ends do they use the power? MANY LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT; MANY COMPETING INTERESTS/GROUPS/PEOPLE
  • 25. Who has the power? To what ends do they use the power?
    • POWER—the ability of one person to get another person/group to do what the first person wants
    • AUTHORITY—the right to use power
    • LEGITIMACY—the source from which power comes