JFK Foreign Policy


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Visual support for JFK lecture on Foreign Policy strategy and challenges.

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  • JFK Foreign Policy

    1. 1. Bobby Kennedy, Attorney General
    2. 2. Robert McNamara, Secretary of Defense
    3. 3. Dean Rusk, Secretary of State
    4. 4. Flexible response: Kennedy’s plan to expand US military options, continuing to build nuclear capabilities and also strengthening conventional weapons.
    5. 5. Green Berets—special military units to assist with combating Communism
    6. 6. Alliance for Progress: a program to expand economic aid to Latin America, offering billions in aid in exchange for democratic and capitalist reforms
    7. 7. Peace Corps—volunteers to assist in developing countries.
    8. 8. Kennedy’s Cold War battleground #1: The Bay of Pigs
    9. 11. Kennedy’s Cold War battleground #2: Berlin
    10. 12. Post-war Germany
    11. 13. It is 1961, and after only a few months in office you face a challenge from the Soviets. Premier Khrushchev has issued an ultimatum on Berlin: The Western powers must join the Soviet Union in signing a peace treaty with East and West Germany; recognize East Germany; and withdraw from Berlin by year's end. Western access to Berlin would require East German permission. Any violation of East German territory would be regarded as an act of aggression. If you don't sign, Khrushchev promises to sign his own treaty with East Germany with substantially the same terms. The message is clear: Withdraw from West Berlin, or you may be forced to leave. If you call his bluff and stay put, you risk a major confrontation with Moscow -- perhaps even military conflict. If you withdraw, you risk appearing weak to your allies and to the Soviets, who might respond with even more provocative policies in the future. What do you do?
    12. 19. Kennedy’s Cold War battleground #3: Cuban Missile Crisis
    13. 27. <ul><li>You are the President. What do you do? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Wait for international pressure and support </li></ul><ul><li>“ Surgical air strike” </li></ul><ul><li>All out air strike </li></ul><ul><li>Invade </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of choices above </li></ul><ul><li>Other…what? </li></ul>
    14. 30. Results of the Cuban Missile Crisis <ul><li>No nuclear war </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Test Ban Treaty: US, USSR, GB </li></ul><ul><li>Hot line established </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet buildup </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with Cuba get worse </li></ul><ul><li>JFK’s popularity increases </li></ul>
    15. 32. I am talking about genuine peace, the kind of peace that makes life on earth worth living, the kind that enables men and nations to grow and to hope and to build a better life for their children-not merely peace for Americans but peace for all men and women, not merely peace in our time but peace for all time. JFK, June 10, 1963
    16. 33. Kennedy’s Cold War battleground #4: Vietnam
    17. 34. Ngo Dinh Diem American supported South Vietnamese leader
    18. 36. Ngo Dinh Diem American supported South Vietnamese leader
    19. 37. <ul><li>Kennedy and Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>1961: 700 advisors; 1963: 16,000 advisors </li></ul><ul><li>US aid: $1.5 billion </li></ul>
    20. 38. Kennedy’s Cold War battle“ground” #5: Space
    21. 39. Sputnik: Soviets Win
    22. 40. Sputnik II: Soviets Win; Laika the dog loses
    23. 41. Explorer I: US catches up
    24. 42. Yuri Gagarin: Soviets—big step ahead April 12, 1961: Vostok 1
    25. 43. Alan Shepard: US answer to Gagarin May 5, 1961: Freedom 7
    26. 44. Gherman Titov: 25.3 hours—17 times August 6, 1961
    27. 45. Enos the Chimpanzee: November 29, 1961: 1 hour, 28 minutes
    28. 46. John Glenn: US keeping it close February 20, 1962: Mercury Atlas 6
    29. 47. <ul><li>&quot;I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the Earth.&quot; </li></ul>
    30. 48. <ul><li>“ No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish…” </li></ul><ul><li>JFK </li></ul>
    31. 49. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too. JFK, September 12, 1962