II
What is a state? The state —a body of  , living in a  organized  and with the  to make and enforce law without the consent...
What are the necessary qualities of a state? <ul><li>POPULATION </li></ul><ul><li>TERRITORY </li></ul><ul><li>SOVEREIGNTY—...
What is government? <ul><li>the institution through which a society  </li></ul>makes and enforces its public policies
Why did governments come about? <ul><ul><li>We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, est...
So… <ul><li>Form a more perfect union </li></ul><ul><li>Establish justice </li></ul><ul><li>Insure domestic tranquility </...
How did governments come about? <ul><li>FORCE THEORY—the strongest rule </li></ul>THEORY 1
How did governments come about? <ul><li>EVOLUTIONARY THEORY—governments build from simpler  groups (family…clan…tribe, etc...
How did governments come about? <ul><li>DIVINE RIGHT THEORY—God created the state; God ordained those with royal standing ...
How did governments come about? <ul><li>SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY—in the state of nature, life was “nasty, brutish, and short...
Three ways to classify governments <ul><li>DEMOCRACY —supreme political authority  rests with the people </li></ul>METHOD ...
Three ways to classify governments <ul><li>DICTATORSHIP— those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the peop...
Three ways to classify governments <ul><li>UNITARY— all powers by the government belong to one central government </li></u...
Three ways to classify governments <ul><li>PRESIDENTIAL GOVERNMENT— executive and legislative branches of the government a...
Declaration of Independence
JOHN ADAMS ROGER SHERMAN ROBERT LIVINGSTON THOMAS JEFFERSON BENJAMIN FRANKLIN Committee of Five
When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to  dissolve the political bands  which have connec...
When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connecte...
<ul><li>We hold these truths to be self-evident, that  all men are created equal , that  they are endowed by their Creator...
<ul><li>We hold these truths to be self-evident, that  all men are created equal , that  they are endowed by their Creator...
<ul><li>That to secure these rights ,  Governments are instituted  among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent ...
<ul><li>That  whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends , it is the  Right of the People to alter ...
Articles of Confederation  <ul><li>Features/Powers  </li></ul><ul><li>“ a league of friendship” </li></ul><ul><li>Each  st...
Constitutional Convention
When? May 25—September 17, 1787
Where? Independence Hall; Philadelphia, PA
Virginia Plan Presented by  Edmund Randolph  May 29; conceived by  James Madison , “the Father of the Constitution”
Virginia Plan LEGISLATIVE EXECUTIVE JUDICIAL COUNCIL OF REVISION Supreme Tribunals Elected by the people Proportional repr...
New Jersey Plan Presented by  William Paterson  on June 13
New Jersey Plan LEGISLATIVE EXECUTIVE JUDICIAL Supreme Tribunals Equal representation; vote as a state Elected by state le...
The Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise) Presented by  Roger Sherman  on July 5
The Great Compromise Equal representation LEGISLATIVE EXECUTIVE JUDICIAL Supreme Court Elected by the people Proportional ...
EDUCATION JOHN LOCKE TWO TREATISES OF GOVERNMENT
<ul><li>JOHN LOCKE </li></ul><ul><li>TWO TREATISES OF GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL CONTRACT : GOVERNMENT HAS THE RE...
EDUCATION JOHN LOCKE TWO TREATISES OF GOVERNMENT BARON DE MONTESQUIEU THE SPIRIT OF LAWS
<ul><li>BARON DE MONTESQUIEU </li></ul><ul><li>THE SPIRIT OF LAWS, 1748 </li></ul><ul><li>SEPARATION OF POWERS </li></ul><...
 
PAST DOCUMENTS
PAST DOCUMENTS JOHN LOCKE TWO TREATISES MONTESQUIEU SPIRIT OF LAWS MAGNA CARTA KING JOHN; 1215; ENGLAND
<ul><li>MAGNA CARTA </li></ul><ul><li>ENGLAND, 1215 </li></ul><ul><li>KING IS BOUND BY LAW </li></ul><ul><li>DEMANDS FORCE...
PAST DOCUMENTS JOHN LOCKE TWO TREATISES MONTESQUIEU SPIRIT OF LAWS MAGNA CARTA KING JOHN; 1215; ENGLAND ENGLISH BILL OF RI...
<ul><li>ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTED TO WILLIAM & MARY, 1688 </li></ul><ul><li>TRIAL BY JURY </li></...
PAST DOCUMENTS JOHN LOCKE TWO TREATISES MONTESQUIEU SPIRIT OF LAWS MAGNA CARTA KING JOHN; 1215; ENGLAND ENGLISH BILL OF RI...
<ul><li>VIRGINIA DECLARATION OF RIGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>GEORGE MASON, 1776 </li></ul><ul><li>RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS </li></ul...
PAST DOCUMENTS JOHN LOCKE TWO TREATISES MONTESQUIEU SPIRIT OF LAWS MAGNA CARTA KING JOHN; 1215; ENGLAND ENGLISH BILL OF RI...
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
 
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION US 1 ST  FAILED ATTEMPT KING GEORGE III’s RULE
 
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION US 1 ST  FAILED ATTEMPT KING GEORGE III’s RULE  COLONIAL GOVERNMENTS/STATE CONSTITUTIONS
Ratification <ul><li>Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>9 out of 13 states needed to ratify </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Arguments: The Anti-Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Leading Anti-Federalists: Edmund Randolph, Patrick Henry, George...
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Final prep II

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  • Force theory—the strongest ruled: O’Doyle Rules Evolutionary theory—Family—clan—tribe—agriculture/nomadic— state Divine right theory—God created the state; God gave those of royal standing the “Divine Right” to rule Social Contract theory—four primary philosophers: John Locke, James Harrington, Thomas Hobbes, and Jean Jacques Rousseau: because life in the state of nature was “nasty, brutish, and short,” humans agreed to a social contract  
  • Force theory—the strongest ruled: O’Doyle Rules Evolutionary theory—Family—clan—tribe—agriculture/nomadic— state Divine right theory—God created the state; God gave those of royal standing the “Divine Right” to rule Social Contract theory—four primary philosophers: John Locke, James Harrington, Thomas Hobbes, and Jean Jacques Rousseau: because life in the state of nature was “nasty, brutish, and short,” humans agreed to a social contract  
  • Force theory—the strongest ruled: O’Doyle Rules Evolutionary theory—Family—clan—tribe—agriculture/nomadic— state Divine right theory—God created the state; God gave those of royal standing the “Divine Right” to rule Social Contract theory—four primary philosophers: John Locke, James Harrington, Thomas Hobbes, and Jean Jacques Rousseau: because life in the state of nature was “nasty, brutish, and short,” humans agreed to a social contract  
  • Force theory—the strongest ruled: O’Doyle Rules Evolutionary theory—Family—clan—tribe—agriculture/nomadic— state Divine right theory—God created the state; God gave those of royal standing the “Divine Right” to rule Social Contract theory—four primary philosophers: John Locke, James Harrington, Thomas Hobbes, and Jean Jacques Rousseau: because life in the state of nature was “nasty, brutish, and short,” humans agreed to a social contract  
  • Democracy —supreme political authority rests with the people Direct —will of the people is directly turned into public policy Indirect —representative democracy Dictatorship —those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people Autocracy —single person holds unlimited power Monarchy —hereditarily entitled Dictatorship —entitled by force Oligarchy —power is held by a small, usually self-appointed group
  • Democracy —supreme political authority rests with the people Direct —will of the people is directly turned into public policy Indirect —representative democracy Dictatorship —those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people Autocracy —single person holds unlimited power Monarchy —hereditarily entitled Dictatorship —entitled by force Oligarchy —power is held by a small, usually self-appointed group
  • METHOD 2: Geographic distribution of power Unitary government —all powers by the government belong to a single, central agency Federal government —powers are divided between a central government and a local government (division of powers) Confederate government —an alliance of independent states
  • METHOD 3: Relationship between Legislative and Executive Branches Presidential government —executive and legislative branches of the government are   Parliamentary government —the executive branch comes from the legislative branch
  • Powers; representation; slavery Preserve order but protect liberty
  • Presented by Edmond Randolph
  • Powers; representation; slavery Preserve order but protect liberty
  • Presented by Edmond Randolph
  • Powers; representation; slavery Preserve order but protect liberty
  • Presented by Edmond Randolph
  • Final prep II

    1. 1. II
    2. 2. What is a state? The state —a body of , living in a organized and with the to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority PEOPLE POWER POLITICALLY DEFINED TERRITORY
    3. 3. What are the necessary qualities of a state? <ul><li>POPULATION </li></ul><ul><li>TERRITORY </li></ul><ul><li>SOVEREIGNTY— the possession of supreme and absolute power within its boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>GOVERNMENT </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is government? <ul><li>the institution through which a society </li></ul>makes and enforces its public policies
    5. 5. Why did governments come about? <ul><ul><li>We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. So… <ul><li>Form a more perfect union </li></ul><ul><li>Establish justice </li></ul><ul><li>Insure domestic tranquility </li></ul><ul><li>Provide for the common defense </li></ul><ul><li>Promote the general welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Secure the blessings of liberty </li></ul>
    7. 7. How did governments come about? <ul><li>FORCE THEORY—the strongest rule </li></ul>THEORY 1
    8. 8. How did governments come about? <ul><li>EVOLUTIONARY THEORY—governments build from simpler groups (family…clan…tribe, etc) </li></ul>THEORY 2
    9. 9. How did governments come about? <ul><li>DIVINE RIGHT THEORY—God created the state; God ordained those with royal standing the “divine right” to rule </li></ul>THEORY 3
    10. 10. How did governments come about? <ul><li>SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY—in the state of nature, life was “nasty, brutish, and short.” Humans agreed to a mutual agreement between the rulers and the ruled for the benefit of all. </li></ul>THEORY 4
    11. 11. Three ways to classify governments <ul><li>DEMOCRACY —supreme political authority rests with the people </li></ul>METHOD 1: By who can participate DIRECT— the will of the people is directly turned into public policy INDIRECT— the will of the people is represented by appointed leaders Also known as REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY Impractical Poor decisions ELITIST THEORY OF DEMOCRACY
    12. 12. Three ways to classify governments <ul><li>DICTATORSHIP— those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people </li></ul>METHOD 1: By who can participate AUTOCRACY—a single person holds unlimited power MONARCHY—heredity determines ruler MILITARY—force determines ruler OLIGARCHY—power is held by a small, usually self-appointed group
    13. 13. Three ways to classify governments <ul><li>UNITARY— all powers by the government belong to one central government </li></ul><ul><li>FEDERAL GOVERNMENT— powers are divided between a central government and a local government (division of power) </li></ul><ul><li>CONFEDERATE GOVERNMENT —an alliance of independent states </li></ul>METHOD 2: Geographic distribution of power
    14. 14. Three ways to classify governments <ul><li>PRESIDENTIAL GOVERNMENT— executive and legislative branches of the government are elected by the voters </li></ul><ul><li>PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT— the executive branch is elected by the legislative branch </li></ul>METHOD 3: Relationship between the legislative and executive branches
    15. 15. Declaration of Independence
    16. 16. JOHN ADAMS ROGER SHERMAN ROBERT LIVINGSTON THOMAS JEFFERSON BENJAMIN FRANKLIN Committee of Five
    17. 17. When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth…
    18. 18. When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation .
    19. 19. <ul><li>We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal , that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights , that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. </li></ul>UNALIENABLE—CANNOT BE TAKEN AWAY
    20. 20. <ul><li>We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal , that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights , that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness . </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>That to secure these rights , Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends , it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it , and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness . </li></ul>
    23. 23. Articles of Confederation <ul><li>Features/Powers </li></ul><ul><li>“ a league of friendship” </li></ul><ul><li>Each state maintained its sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative: Unicameral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9/13 to pass any measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state had one vote </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Executive: In name only—powerless </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial: Did not exist </li></ul><ul><li>Unanimous consent of all 13 to amend </li></ul>
    24. 24. Constitutional Convention
    25. 25. When? May 25—September 17, 1787
    26. 26. Where? Independence Hall; Philadelphia, PA
    27. 27. Virginia Plan Presented by Edmund Randolph May 29; conceived by James Madison , “the Father of the Constitution”
    28. 28. Virginia Plan LEGISLATIVE EXECUTIVE JUDICIAL COUNCIL OF REVISION Supreme Tribunals Elected by the people Proportional representation based on population/tax Elected by state legislatures Elects Establishes Inferior Courts HOUSE SENATE VETO
    29. 29. New Jersey Plan Presented by William Paterson on June 13
    30. 30. New Jersey Plan LEGISLATIVE EXECUTIVE JUDICIAL Supreme Tribunals Equal representation; vote as a state Elected by state legislatures Elects Establishes Inferior Courts HOUSE <ul><li>Revision of the Articles </li></ul><ul><li>Empowers government to regulate commerce and collect revenue </li></ul>Multiple people
    31. 31. The Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise) Presented by Roger Sherman on July 5
    32. 32. The Great Compromise Equal representation LEGISLATIVE EXECUTIVE JUDICIAL Supreme Court Elected by the people Proportional representation based on population (65) Elected by state legislatures Establishes Inferior Courts HOUSE SENATE Appoints Elected by Electoral College <ul><li>“ A bundle of compromises” </li></ul><ul><li>Representation in Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Three-fifths compromise </li></ul><ul><li>4-year term for President </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial appointment, Senate approval of justices </li></ul>JUDICIAL REVIEW
    33. 33. EDUCATION JOHN LOCKE TWO TREATISES OF GOVERNMENT
    34. 34. <ul><li>JOHN LOCKE </li></ul><ul><li>TWO TREATISES OF GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL CONTRACT : GOVERNMENT HAS THE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT PEOPLE’S RIGHTS </li></ul>
    35. 35. EDUCATION JOHN LOCKE TWO TREATISES OF GOVERNMENT BARON DE MONTESQUIEU THE SPIRIT OF LAWS
    36. 36. <ul><li>BARON DE MONTESQUIEU </li></ul><ul><li>THE SPIRIT OF LAWS, 1748 </li></ul><ul><li>SEPARATION OF POWERS </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE ARE GOVERNMENT’S REAL SOURCE OF POWER </li></ul>
    37. 38. PAST DOCUMENTS
    38. 39. PAST DOCUMENTS JOHN LOCKE TWO TREATISES MONTESQUIEU SPIRIT OF LAWS MAGNA CARTA KING JOHN; 1215; ENGLAND
    39. 40. <ul><li>MAGNA CARTA </li></ul><ul><li>ENGLAND, 1215 </li></ul><ul><li>KING IS BOUND BY LAW </li></ul><ul><li>DEMANDS FORCED ON KING JOHN BY HIS SUBJECTS </li></ul><ul><li>PROTECTS CERTAIN RIGHTS OF KING’S SUBJECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRIAL BY JURY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DUE PROCESS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRIVATE PROPERTY </li></ul></ul>
    40. 41. PAST DOCUMENTS JOHN LOCKE TWO TREATISES MONTESQUIEU SPIRIT OF LAWS MAGNA CARTA KING JOHN; 1215; ENGLAND ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS WILLIAM AND MARY
    41. 42. <ul><li>ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTED TO WILLIAM & MARY, 1688 </li></ul><ul><li>TRIAL BY JURY </li></ul><ul><li>DUE PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>NO CRUEL PUNISHMENT </li></ul><ul><li>NO EXCESSIVE BAIL/FINES </li></ul><ul><li>RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS </li></ul><ul><li>RIGHT TO PETITION </li></ul>
    42. 43. PAST DOCUMENTS JOHN LOCKE TWO TREATISES MONTESQUIEU SPIRIT OF LAWS MAGNA CARTA KING JOHN; 1215; ENGLAND ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS VIRGINIA BILL OF RIGHTS GEORGE MASON WILLIAM AND MARY
    43. 44. <ul><li>VIRGINIA DECLARATION OF RIGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>GEORGE MASON, 1776 </li></ul><ul><li>RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS </li></ul><ul><li>NO UNREASONABLE SEARCHES & SEIZURES </li></ul><ul><li>FREEDOM OF SPEECH </li></ul><ul><li>FREEDOM OF THE PRESS </li></ul><ul><li>FREEDOM OF RELIGION </li></ul>
    44. 45. PAST DOCUMENTS JOHN LOCKE TWO TREATISES MONTESQUIEU SPIRIT OF LAWS MAGNA CARTA KING JOHN; 1215; ENGLAND ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS VIRGINIA BILL OF RIGHTS WILLIAM AND MARY GEORGE MASON ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION US FAILED 1 ST ATTEMPT
    45. 46. ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
    46. 48. ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION US 1 ST FAILED ATTEMPT KING GEORGE III’s RULE
    47. 50. ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION US 1 ST FAILED ATTEMPT KING GEORGE III’s RULE COLONIAL GOVERNMENTS/STATE CONSTITUTIONS
    48. 51. Ratification <ul><li>Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>9 out of 13 states needed to ratify </li></ul><ul><li>Two groups emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Federalists —for the ratification of the US Constitution; Anti-Federalists —opposed to its ratification </li></ul>
    49. 52. <ul><li>Arguments: The Anti-Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Leading Anti-Federalists: Edmund Randolph, Patrick Henry, George Mason; leading state politicians </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>States would lose sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Too much Presidential power—monarchy, aristocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Republic: untested; US is too big </li></ul><ul><li>No Bill of Rights </li></ul>

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