Absolutism and French Revolution


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Overview of what led to the French Revolution and the twists and turns of the revolution through Napol

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Absolutism and French Revolution

  1. 1. Absolutism and theFrench Revolution Liberty Leading the People
  2. 2. Birth of Absolutism in Europe• religious wars: 1560s-90s, 1618-1648• decline in church power• desire for stability and prosperity
  3. 3. Divine Right• (sort of) Euro version of the mandate from Heaven• bypass the power of the church• absolutism
  4. 4. Epitome of Absolutism: Louis XIV (1638-1715)• becomes king at age....4!!!• Cardinal Mazarin and the Fronde• Louis assumes the position at age 23• “the sun king”• “L’état, c’est moi”
  5. 5. Louis XIV• relished his power• big time hunter• enjoyed fine clothes• patron of the arts• mercantilism• tried to expand• centralized power
  6. 6. Palace of Versailles
  7. 7. Ancién Regime = Old Regime• “great chain of being”• feudalism + estate system • 1) Catholic Clergy (100,000 = <1% of pop) • 2) Nobles (400,000 = approx. 2% of pop) • 3) bourgeoisie + peasants (24.5 million = 97% of pop)
  8. 8. Cause #1: MASSIVE Debt Thanks Louuuieeee’s!!• Louis XIV (1643-1715): Versailles + Euro Wars• Louis XV (1715-74) lost Seven Years War• Louis XVI: supported American Rev. + “Madame Deficit”
  9. 9. Cause #1: MASSIVE Debt cont’d• lack of tax revenue• massive inflation consumer good increase 65%• rent increases
  10. 10. Cause #2: Food Shortages• population increases• food shortages (1780s)
  11. 11. Cause #3: Enlightenment Ideas• American Revolution• Voltaire--freedom of speech• Montesquieu--equal branches of gov• Rousseau--natural rights; social contract
  12. 12. Cause #4: Royalty• No love for the royalty • King Louis XVI • Marie Antoinette
  13. 13. Attempts to quell dissent• King has a meeting of the Estates General• tax reform• Tennis Court Oath
  14. 14. The Revolution Begins!• Third Estate forms the National Assembly • starts as a political movement• new constitution: liberty, equality, fraternity• the King’s reaction...• rumors...
  15. 15. The Lower Classes take over the revolution!• storming of the Bastille (July 14)• the Great Fear!• pitchforks to Versailles!• noble’s response
  16. 16. National Assembly’s Response• abolish taxes on peasants• move to end feudalism• constitution: citizens instead of subjects• Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen• real changes
  17. 17. The Revolution Eats Its Young 50,000!• bon voyage Louis• Robespierre and the CPS• targets of the “republic of virtue”• war against...everyone! “I 1793 die innocent!”
  18. 18. What did the revolution accomplish?• Napoleon (1799-1814): legal codes, education, religion, BUT censorship, foreign wars and dictatorship• Louis XVIII!!! (1814-1824): brother of Louis XVI• monarchies up to 1870; Republic formed again