Unit03: Process and Business Models

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Unit03: Process and Business Models

  1. 1. Unit 3 Process Models for Web Application Development  RUP  Agile methods Business Models for Electronic Commercedsbw 2011/2012 q1 1
  2. 2. Process Models A web/software development process model has four roles:  Provide guidance about the order of a teams activities.  Specify artifacts that should be developed.  Direct the tasks of individual developers and the team as a whole.  Offer criteria for monitoring and measuring the projects products and activities. The process model should define the workflows, activities, artifacts, and roles in the development process A workflow is set of activities—requirements, analysis, design, implementation, testing, and deployment—that ultimately produce tangible and observable results: artifacts An artifact is any persistent piece of information that is produced during the process: models, source code, documents, etc. Artifacts often undergo significant change during the process, resulting in series of versions that should be controlled and traceable.dsbw 2011/2012 q1 2
  3. 3. The Rational Unified Process (RUP)‫‏‬ Goal: to support the development of a high-quality product within a fixed period of time and at a fixed price.  Use case driven Key aspects:  Architecture-centric  Iterative and incrementaldsbw 2011/2012 q1 3
  4. 4. RUP: Overview Analyze business and perceived problems Analyze Develop Develop the Deploy vision project Iterate understood system document plan problem [Pass acceptance critera] Develop domain model Maintain <<defines>> system Manage artifact versionsdsbw 2011/2012 q1 4
  5. 5. RUP: Iterate UP Phases Incept ion Elaborat ion Const ruct ion Transit ion Product ion Workflows Requirements Analy sis DesignImplementation Test Support Iterations #1 #2 #n-1 #ndsbw 2011/2012 q1 5
  6. 6. RUP Models: Dependencies and traceabilities Project Management Model Requirements Engineering Model Test Model Domain Model Analysis Design Implementation Model Model Model Deployment Modeldsbw 2011/2012 q1 6
  7. 7. Artifacts in the Requirements Engineering Model  Vision Document (revised)‫‏‬  Functional requirements  Non-functional requirements:  Business requirements: standards, legislations, regulations  Architectural requirements: acceptable response times, acceptable Web browser versions, etc. New! User experience (UX) document:  Defines the targeted look-and-feel for the application, the emotion that the application is trying to establish with the user  The user experience (UX) team is responsible for both developing and implementing this document . dsbw 2011/2012 q1 7
  8. 8. Artifacts in the Analysis Model Use Case Model  Use Case diagrams Conceptual Model  Domain class diagrams  Textual integrity constraints System Behavior Model  System’s sequence diagrams  System’s operation contracts State Model  State diagramsdsbw 2011/2012 q1 8
  9. 9. Artifacts in the Design Model Physical Architecture  Description of architectural tiers, processes, protocols, etc. Logical Architecture:  Web Presentation Layer:  External Design (UX Model)‫‏‬  Internal Design  Class Diagrams using the Web Application Extension for UML  Sequence Diagrams  Domain Layer  Data Access Layer  Database Designdsbw 2011/2012 q1 9
  10. 10. The Process Model should be tailored considering … The development team: Large vs. small teams   Heterogeneous vs homogeneous teams  Skill level The nature of the application  Human-critical applications: medical devices, spacecraft systems, thermonuclear controls, etc.  Web applications: they are not human-critical. Still, other factors should be considered:  Evolving technologies  Greater emphasis on nonfunctional requirements: security, availability, accessibility, etc. Priorities:  Fast vs. complete  Fast vs. correctdsbw 2011/2012 q1 10
  11. 11. Another way of building software is possible … Most process models are too “heavy”  Too many things are done with no direct relation with programming software. Traditional process models are too rigid  The do not fit well when requirements are incomplete and unstable.  They are not appropriate when frequent releases and short development iterations are required. Customers should participate more actively  Lesser focus on the process and more on people Alternative: Agile methodsdsbw 2011/2012 q1 11
  12. 12. Agile Methods Examples:  Agile Modeling  Agile Unified Process (AUP)  Agile Data Method  DSDM  Essential Unified Process (EssUP)  Extreme Programming (XP)  Feature Driven Development (FDD)  Open Unified Process (OpenUP)  Scrum  Lean software development All of them are adhered to the Agile Alliance (www.agilealliance.org) and its Manifestodsbw 2011/2012 q1 12
  13. 13. Manifesto for Agile Software Development We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working Software over comprehensive documentation Customer Collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to Change over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.dsbw 2011/2012 q1 13
  14. 14. The Twelve Principles of Agile Development1) Customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of valuable software2) Welcome changing requirements, even late in development3) Deliver working software frequently (2 weeks – 2 months)‫‏‬4) Business people and developers must work together daily5) Build projects around motivated individuals6) Face-to-face conversation7) Working software is the primary measure of progress8) Agile processes promote sustainable development9) Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design10) Simplicity11) Self-organizing teams.12) Regular adaptation to changing circumstancesdsbw 2011/2012 q1 14
  15. 15. eXtreme Programming (XP)‫‏‬ The four variables to be controlled  Cost, Time, Quality, and Scope The five values to be promoted:  Communication, Simplicity, Feedback, Courage and Respect The five principles that should guide us:  Rapid feedback, Assuming simplicity, Incremental changes, Embracing change, Quality work The twelve practices:  Planning game, small releases, simple designs, automated testing, continuous integration, refactoring, pair programming, collective ownership, 40-hour week, on-site customer, coding standard, metaphordsbw 2011/2012 q1 15
  16. 16. The XP Process [changed/new requirement] [next iteration] [project end] Release Iteration Publication Planning [all acceptance tests successful] [otherwise]dsbw 2011/2012 q1 16
  17. 17. XP Iterationdsbw 2011/2012 q1 17
  18. 18. Scrum Sprint: 2 – 4 weeks SCRUM PROCESSdsbw 2011/2012 q1 18
  19. 19. Scrum Roles Pigs  Product Owner: The person responsible for maintaining the Product Backlog by representing the interests of the stakeholders.  Scrum Master: The person responsible for the Scrum process, making sure it is used correctly and maximizes its benefits.  Scrum Team: A cross-functional group of people (5 – 9) responsible for managing itself to develop the product. Chickens  Stakeholders (customers, vendors): They are only directly involved in the process during the sprint reviews.  Managers: People who will set up the environment for the product development organizations.dsbw 2011/2012 q1 19
  20. 20. Scrum Artifacts Product Backlog  A list of product requirements – functional and non-functional - prioritized by organizational value  Each Product Backlog will decompose into several Sprint Backlogs Sprint Backlog  A prioritized list of tasks to be completed during the sprint.  Tasks should last between 4 and 16 hours of work Sprint Burnout chart  publicly displayed chart showing remaining work in the sprint backlog  Updated every daydsbw 2011/2012 q1 20
  21. 21. Scrum Ceremonies Spring Planning Meeting  At the beginning of the sprint cycle, the Team selects items from the product backlog they can commit to completing  Sprint backlog is generated Daily Scrum  15 minutes, stand up, at the same location and same time  All are welcome, but only pigs speak to answer the three questions:  What have you done since yesterday?  What are you planning to do today?  Is anything in your way?  Helps avoid other unnecessary meetingsdsbw 2011/2012 q1 21
  22. 22. Scrum Ceremonies (cont.) At the end of a sprint cycle, two meetings are held: The Sprint Review Meeting and The Sprint Retrospective Sprint Review Meeting (The Demo)  Team presents to management, customers, users and the Product Owner the product increment that has been built during the Sprint  All product backlog items selected for Sprint are included in the demo  Afterward, product backlog might be re-arranged, or decision made to release early (or fail fast) Sprint Retrospective:  Team, Scrum Master, and (optionally) Product Owner reflect on the past sprint:  What went well?  What can be improved?dsbw 2011/2012 q1 22
  23. 23. Agile vs. Heavyweight: A comparison Agile Methods Heavyweight MethodsApproach Adaptive PredictiveSuccess Business Value Conformation to planMeasurementProject Size Small LargeManagement Style Decentralized AutocraticPerspective to Change Change Adaptability Change SustainabilityCulture Leadership-Collaboration Command-ControlDocumentation Low HeavyEmphasis People-Oriented Process-OrientedCycles Numerous LimitedDomain Unpredictable/Exploratory PredictableTeam Size Small/Creative LargeUpfront Planning Minimal ComprehensiveReturn on Investment Early in the project End of the projectdsbw 2011/2012 q1 23
  24. 24. Agile vs. Heavyweight: When they should be used Agile Methods Heavyweight MethodsObjective Rapid Value High AssuranceScope (requirements)‫ ‏‬Subject to change Well Known Largely emergent Largely Stable Unknown, UncertainResources (money, Uncertain budget Sufficient Budgetinfrastructure)‫‏‬ Money tightTime Unclear & Not well Defined Clear & Defined Milestones MilestonesRisks Unknown risks Well understood risks Major Impact New Minor Impact TechnologyArchitecture Design for current needs Design for current and future needsDevelopers Agile, co-located, Process-oriented, Adequately collaborative SkillfulCustomers Collaborative, dedicated, Knowledgeable, representative, co-located, knowledgeable collaborativeRefactoring/Cost of Inexpensive ExpensiveChangedsbw 2011/2012 q1 24
  25. 25. From Agile to Heavyweightdsbw 2011/2012 q1 25
  26. 26. The Business Process Engineering Hierarchy Information strategy planning (ISP)‫‏‬  strategic goals defined  success factors/business rules identified  business model created  Business area analysis (BAA)‫‏‬  processes/services modeled  interrelationships of processes and data  (Web) Application Engineering  modeling applications/procedures that address (BAA) and constraints of ISPdsbw 2011/2012 q1 26
  27. 27. Business Models Business Model  A set of planned activities (sometimes referred to as business processes) designed to result in a profit in a marketplace. E-commerce Business Model  A business model focused to use the characteristics and opportunities of Internet and the Web in a strategic waydsbw 2011/2012 q1 27
  28. 28. E-commerce Business Model Categories Business-to-Consumer (B2C)‫‏‬ Business-to-Business (B2B)‫‏‬ Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)‫‏‬ Peer-to-Peer (P2P)‫‏‬ Mobile commerce (M-commerce)‫‏‬dsbw 2011/2012 q1 28
  29. 29. B2C Models (1/3)‫‏‬ Portal  Offers an integrated package of services and content such as search, news, e-mail, chat, downloads, etc.  Variants:  Horizontal/General: Yahoo.com, MSN.com  Vertical/Specialized (Vortal): Universia.es  Revenue model: Advertising, subscription fees, transaction fees. E-tailer (Electronic retailer)‫‏‬  Online version of retail store.  Variants:  Virtual merchant: Amazon.com  Click-and-mortar: capraboacasa.com  Online mall: fashionmall.com  Manufacturer-direct: dell.com  Revenue model: Sales of goods, transaction fees.dsbw 2011/2012 q1 29
  30. 30. B2C Models (2/3)‫‏‬ Content Provider  Information and entertainment providers such as newspapers, sports sites, etc.  Revenue model: Advertising, subscription fees, affiliate referral fees. Transaction broker  Processors of online sales transactions, such as stockbrokers and travel agents.  Revenue model: transaction fees Market creator  Creators of virtual markets that bring buyers and sellers together.  Variant: online auctions (eBay.com)‫‏‬  Revenue model: transaction feesdsbw 2011/2012 q1 30
  31. 31. B2C Models (3/3)‫‏‬ Service provider:  Companies that make money by selling a service, rather than a product.  Revenue model: sales of services. Community Provider  Sites where individuals with particular interests, hobbies and common experiences can come together and compare notes.  Revenue model: Advertising, subscription, affiliate referral fees.dsbw 2011/2012 q1 31
  32. 32. B2B Models B2B Hub: Brings buyers and sellers together to reduce procurement costs. E-Distributor: Connecting businesses directly with other businesses, reducing sales cycles and mark-up. B2B Service Provider  Traditional: Supports companies through online business services.  Application Service Provider (ASP): Rents Internet-based software applications to businesses. Matchmaker: Helps businesses find what they want and need on the Web Infomediary  Audience Broker: Gathers information about consumers and uses it to help advertisers find the most appropriate audience  Lead Generator: Gathers customer data, and uses it to direct vendors to customers.dsbw 2011/2012 q1 32
  33. 33. Emergent Business Models Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)‫‏‬  Electronically-facilitated transactions between consumers through some third party  Existent model: Market Creator (B2C)‫‏‬ Peer-to-Peer (P2P)‫‏‬  Use of P2P networks for business: besides File Sharing, companies are also interested in Distributing Computing, Content Distribution, e-market place, Distributed Search engines, Groupware and Office Automation via P2P network. M-commerce  A new distribution channel: mobile devicesdsbw 2011/2012 q1 33
  34. 34. References CONALLEN, J. Building Web Applications with UML Second Edition. Addison-Wesley 2002. KAPPEL, Gerti et al: Web Engineering. Wiley, 2006. Chapter 10 KHAN, Ali. A Tale of two Methodologies: Heavyweight versus Agile. Minor Research Project in IS 615-690, University of Melbourne, 2004. R. G. Pressman, D. Lowe: Web Engineering. A Practitioner’s Approach. McGraw Hill, 2008. Chapters 2-3. Agile Software Process Models: http://www.rspa.com/spi/process-agile.htmldsbw 2011/2012 q1 34

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