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Unit03: Process and Business Models

Unit03: Process and Business Models






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    Unit03: Process and Business Models Unit03: Process and Business Models Presentation Transcript

    • Unit 3 Process Models for Web Application Development  RUP  Agile methods Business Models for Electronic Commercedsbw 2011/2012 q1 1
    • Process Models A web/software development process model has four roles:  Provide guidance about the order of a teams activities.  Specify artifacts that should be developed.  Direct the tasks of individual developers and the team as a whole.  Offer criteria for monitoring and measuring the projects products and activities. The process model should define the workflows, activities, artifacts, and roles in the development process A workflow is set of activities—requirements, analysis, design, implementation, testing, and deployment—that ultimately produce tangible and observable results: artifacts An artifact is any persistent piece of information that is produced during the process: models, source code, documents, etc. Artifacts often undergo significant change during the process, resulting in series of versions that should be controlled and traceable.dsbw 2011/2012 q1 2
    • The Rational Unified Process (RUP)‫‏‬ Goal: to support the development of a high-quality product within a fixed period of time and at a fixed price.  Use case driven Key aspects:  Architecture-centric  Iterative and incrementaldsbw 2011/2012 q1 3
    • RUP: Overview Analyze business and perceived problems Analyze Develop Develop the Deploy vision project Iterate understood system document plan problem [Pass acceptance critera] Develop domain model Maintain <<defines>> system Manage artifact versionsdsbw 2011/2012 q1 4
    • RUP: Iterate UP Phases Incept ion Elaborat ion Const ruct ion Transit ion Product ion Workflows Requirements Analy sis DesignImplementation Test Support Iterations #1 #2 #n-1 #ndsbw 2011/2012 q1 5
    • RUP Models: Dependencies and traceabilities Project Management Model Requirements Engineering Model Test Model Domain Model Analysis Design Implementation Model Model Model Deployment Modeldsbw 2011/2012 q1 6
    • Artifacts in the Requirements Engineering Model  Vision Document (revised)‫‏‬  Functional requirements  Non-functional requirements:  Business requirements: standards, legislations, regulations  Architectural requirements: acceptable response times, acceptable Web browser versions, etc. New! User experience (UX) document:  Defines the targeted look-and-feel for the application, the emotion that the application is trying to establish with the user  The user experience (UX) team is responsible for both developing and implementing this document . dsbw 2011/2012 q1 7
    • Artifacts in the Analysis Model Use Case Model  Use Case diagrams Conceptual Model  Domain class diagrams  Textual integrity constraints System Behavior Model  System’s sequence diagrams  System’s operation contracts State Model  State diagramsdsbw 2011/2012 q1 8
    • Artifacts in the Design Model Physical Architecture  Description of architectural tiers, processes, protocols, etc. Logical Architecture:  Web Presentation Layer:  External Design (UX Model)‫‏‬  Internal Design  Class Diagrams using the Web Application Extension for UML  Sequence Diagrams  Domain Layer  Data Access Layer  Database Designdsbw 2011/2012 q1 9
    • The Process Model should be tailored considering … The development team: Large vs. small teams   Heterogeneous vs homogeneous teams  Skill level The nature of the application  Human-critical applications: medical devices, spacecraft systems, thermonuclear controls, etc.  Web applications: they are not human-critical. Still, other factors should be considered:  Evolving technologies  Greater emphasis on nonfunctional requirements: security, availability, accessibility, etc. Priorities:  Fast vs. complete  Fast vs. correctdsbw 2011/2012 q1 10
    • Another way of building software is possible … Most process models are too “heavy”  Too many things are done with no direct relation with programming software. Traditional process models are too rigid  The do not fit well when requirements are incomplete and unstable.  They are not appropriate when frequent releases and short development iterations are required. Customers should participate more actively  Lesser focus on the process and more on people Alternative: Agile methodsdsbw 2011/2012 q1 11
    • Agile Methods Examples:  Agile Modeling  Agile Unified Process (AUP)  Agile Data Method  DSDM  Essential Unified Process (EssUP)  Extreme Programming (XP)  Feature Driven Development (FDD)  Open Unified Process (OpenUP)  Scrum  Lean software development All of them are adhered to the Agile Alliance (www.agilealliance.org) and its Manifestodsbw 2011/2012 q1 12
    • Manifesto for Agile Software Development We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working Software over comprehensive documentation Customer Collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to Change over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.dsbw 2011/2012 q1 13
    • The Twelve Principles of Agile Development1) Customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of valuable software2) Welcome changing requirements, even late in development3) Deliver working software frequently (2 weeks – 2 months)‫‏‬4) Business people and developers must work together daily5) Build projects around motivated individuals6) Face-to-face conversation7) Working software is the primary measure of progress8) Agile processes promote sustainable development9) Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design10) Simplicity11) Self-organizing teams.12) Regular adaptation to changing circumstancesdsbw 2011/2012 q1 14
    • eXtreme Programming (XP)‫‏‬ The four variables to be controlled  Cost, Time, Quality, and Scope The five values to be promoted:  Communication, Simplicity, Feedback, Courage and Respect The five principles that should guide us:  Rapid feedback, Assuming simplicity, Incremental changes, Embracing change, Quality work The twelve practices:  Planning game, small releases, simple designs, automated testing, continuous integration, refactoring, pair programming, collective ownership, 40-hour week, on-site customer, coding standard, metaphordsbw 2011/2012 q1 15
    • The XP Process [changed/new requirement] [next iteration] [project end] Release Iteration Publication Planning [all acceptance tests successful] [otherwise]dsbw 2011/2012 q1 16
    • XP Iterationdsbw 2011/2012 q1 17
    • Scrum Sprint: 2 – 4 weeks SCRUM PROCESSdsbw 2011/2012 q1 18
    • Scrum Roles Pigs  Product Owner: The person responsible for maintaining the Product Backlog by representing the interests of the stakeholders.  Scrum Master: The person responsible for the Scrum process, making sure it is used correctly and maximizes its benefits.  Scrum Team: A cross-functional group of people (5 – 9) responsible for managing itself to develop the product. Chickens  Stakeholders (customers, vendors): They are only directly involved in the process during the sprint reviews.  Managers: People who will set up the environment for the product development organizations.dsbw 2011/2012 q1 19
    • Scrum Artifacts Product Backlog  A list of product requirements – functional and non-functional - prioritized by organizational value  Each Product Backlog will decompose into several Sprint Backlogs Sprint Backlog  A prioritized list of tasks to be completed during the sprint.  Tasks should last between 4 and 16 hours of work Sprint Burnout chart  publicly displayed chart showing remaining work in the sprint backlog  Updated every daydsbw 2011/2012 q1 20
    • Scrum Ceremonies Spring Planning Meeting  At the beginning of the sprint cycle, the Team selects items from the product backlog they can commit to completing  Sprint backlog is generated Daily Scrum  15 minutes, stand up, at the same location and same time  All are welcome, but only pigs speak to answer the three questions:  What have you done since yesterday?  What are you planning to do today?  Is anything in your way?  Helps avoid other unnecessary meetingsdsbw 2011/2012 q1 21
    • Scrum Ceremonies (cont.) At the end of a sprint cycle, two meetings are held: The Sprint Review Meeting and The Sprint Retrospective Sprint Review Meeting (The Demo)  Team presents to management, customers, users and the Product Owner the product increment that has been built during the Sprint  All product backlog items selected for Sprint are included in the demo  Afterward, product backlog might be re-arranged, or decision made to release early (or fail fast) Sprint Retrospective:  Team, Scrum Master, and (optionally) Product Owner reflect on the past sprint:  What went well?  What can be improved?dsbw 2011/2012 q1 22
    • Agile vs. Heavyweight: A comparison Agile Methods Heavyweight MethodsApproach Adaptive PredictiveSuccess Business Value Conformation to planMeasurementProject Size Small LargeManagement Style Decentralized AutocraticPerspective to Change Change Adaptability Change SustainabilityCulture Leadership-Collaboration Command-ControlDocumentation Low HeavyEmphasis People-Oriented Process-OrientedCycles Numerous LimitedDomain Unpredictable/Exploratory PredictableTeam Size Small/Creative LargeUpfront Planning Minimal ComprehensiveReturn on Investment Early in the project End of the projectdsbw 2011/2012 q1 23
    • Agile vs. Heavyweight: When they should be used Agile Methods Heavyweight MethodsObjective Rapid Value High AssuranceScope (requirements)‫ ‏‬Subject to change Well Known Largely emergent Largely Stable Unknown, UncertainResources (money, Uncertain budget Sufficient Budgetinfrastructure)‫‏‬ Money tightTime Unclear & Not well Defined Clear & Defined Milestones MilestonesRisks Unknown risks Well understood risks Major Impact New Minor Impact TechnologyArchitecture Design for current needs Design for current and future needsDevelopers Agile, co-located, Process-oriented, Adequately collaborative SkillfulCustomers Collaborative, dedicated, Knowledgeable, representative, co-located, knowledgeable collaborativeRefactoring/Cost of Inexpensive ExpensiveChangedsbw 2011/2012 q1 24
    • From Agile to Heavyweightdsbw 2011/2012 q1 25
    • The Business Process Engineering Hierarchy Information strategy planning (ISP)‫‏‬  strategic goals defined  success factors/business rules identified  business model created  Business area analysis (BAA)‫‏‬  processes/services modeled  interrelationships of processes and data  (Web) Application Engineering  modeling applications/procedures that address (BAA) and constraints of ISPdsbw 2011/2012 q1 26
    • Business Models Business Model  A set of planned activities (sometimes referred to as business processes) designed to result in a profit in a marketplace. E-commerce Business Model  A business model focused to use the characteristics and opportunities of Internet and the Web in a strategic waydsbw 2011/2012 q1 27
    • E-commerce Business Model Categories Business-to-Consumer (B2C)‫‏‬ Business-to-Business (B2B)‫‏‬ Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)‫‏‬ Peer-to-Peer (P2P)‫‏‬ Mobile commerce (M-commerce)‫‏‬dsbw 2011/2012 q1 28
    • B2C Models (1/3)‫‏‬ Portal  Offers an integrated package of services and content such as search, news, e-mail, chat, downloads, etc.  Variants:  Horizontal/General: Yahoo.com, MSN.com  Vertical/Specialized (Vortal): Universia.es  Revenue model: Advertising, subscription fees, transaction fees. E-tailer (Electronic retailer)‫‏‬  Online version of retail store.  Variants:  Virtual merchant: Amazon.com  Click-and-mortar: capraboacasa.com  Online mall: fashionmall.com  Manufacturer-direct: dell.com  Revenue model: Sales of goods, transaction fees.dsbw 2011/2012 q1 29
    • B2C Models (2/3)‫‏‬ Content Provider  Information and entertainment providers such as newspapers, sports sites, etc.  Revenue model: Advertising, subscription fees, affiliate referral fees. Transaction broker  Processors of online sales transactions, such as stockbrokers and travel agents.  Revenue model: transaction fees Market creator  Creators of virtual markets that bring buyers and sellers together.  Variant: online auctions (eBay.com)‫‏‬  Revenue model: transaction feesdsbw 2011/2012 q1 30
    • B2C Models (3/3)‫‏‬ Service provider:  Companies that make money by selling a service, rather than a product.  Revenue model: sales of services. Community Provider  Sites where individuals with particular interests, hobbies and common experiences can come together and compare notes.  Revenue model: Advertising, subscription, affiliate referral fees.dsbw 2011/2012 q1 31
    • B2B Models B2B Hub: Brings buyers and sellers together to reduce procurement costs. E-Distributor: Connecting businesses directly with other businesses, reducing sales cycles and mark-up. B2B Service Provider  Traditional: Supports companies through online business services.  Application Service Provider (ASP): Rents Internet-based software applications to businesses. Matchmaker: Helps businesses find what they want and need on the Web Infomediary  Audience Broker: Gathers information about consumers and uses it to help advertisers find the most appropriate audience  Lead Generator: Gathers customer data, and uses it to direct vendors to customers.dsbw 2011/2012 q1 32
    • Emergent Business Models Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)‫‏‬  Electronically-facilitated transactions between consumers through some third party  Existent model: Market Creator (B2C)‫‏‬ Peer-to-Peer (P2P)‫‏‬  Use of P2P networks for business: besides File Sharing, companies are also interested in Distributing Computing, Content Distribution, e-market place, Distributed Search engines, Groupware and Office Automation via P2P network. M-commerce  A new distribution channel: mobile devicesdsbw 2011/2012 q1 33
    • References CONALLEN, J. Building Web Applications with UML Second Edition. Addison-Wesley 2002. KAPPEL, Gerti et al: Web Engineering. Wiley, 2006. Chapter 10 KHAN, Ali. A Tale of two Methodologies: Heavyweight versus Agile. Minor Research Project in IS 615-690, University of Melbourne, 2004. R. G. Pressman, D. Lowe: Web Engineering. A Practitioner’s Approach. McGraw Hill, 2008. Chapters 2-3. Agile Software Process Models: http://www.rspa.com/spi/process-agile.htmldsbw 2011/2012 q1 34