Unit 2 Notes 2
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  • 1. 1. According to Pericles, what made Athens great?2. Why do you think Pericles would call Athens the “school of Greece”?3. How did he help Athens dominate the Delian League?4. How did Pericles make Athens more democratic?5. How did culture in Athens blossom under Pericles?
  • 2.  When was it? ◦ The period of roughly 480 BC-404 BC What was it? ◦ A time when Athens produced some of the most enduring cultural artifacts of the Western tradition Why did it occur? ◦ End of the Persian Wars ◦ Delian League established
  • 3.  Public buildings and spaces were the pride of Athens Acropolis “high city”- temples to the gods
  • 4. The Acropolis, today
  • 5.  Most famous temple on the acropolis Huge statue of Athena in it
  • 6. Philosophy
  • 7.  “Lovers of wisdom” ◦ Philos- lover ◦ Sophist-wise Believed the human mind could understand everything Socrates, Plato, Aristotl e, Pythagoras
  • 8.  Socrates ◦ Socratic Method- Asked students to use their reason and see things for themselves ◦ Put to death for “threatening ” leaders ◦ Drank poison to carry out jury’s sentence
  • 9.  One of Socrates’ students Wrote “The Republic” ◦ Society should be arranges like this: ◦ Top: Philosopher-Kings, who rule with reason ◦ Warriors- to defend ◦ The Rest- Driven by desire Started a school called the Academy
  • 10.  Student of Plato Taught the Golden Mean- people should do nothing in excess Used scientific approach to solve problems
  • 11. ReligionTemple of Apollo at Delphi
  • 12.  Extremely important to the Greeks- this is shown in the temples Gods and goddesses had power over an area of life Example: ◦ Ares: god of war ◦ Apollo: god of sun, poetry, and music
  • 13.  Oracle- “to speak” Oracles were thought to be portals through which the gods spoke directly to people
  • 14. Architecture Acropolis
  • 15. •Cornice is the set of crowning moldings that cap an entablature in Classical architecture.cornice •The Doric order is characterized by the series of triglyphs and metopes on the entablature. •Each metope was occupied by a panel of triglyph relief sculpture. metope •Architrave:The word is derived from the Greek word for main beam. architrave •Capital: The topmost element of the column, helps to transfer loads from beams to columns. capital •Shaft: The long round section of aflute shaft column between the base and the capital.
  • 16. Doric Ionic Corinthian Column Colum Column nAmphitheaters Arches Aqueducts Theaters
  • 17.  The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital), is plain.
  • 18. Doric Columns on Thomas Jefferson’s house
  • 19.  The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant. The capital is decorated with a scroll-like design
  • 20.  The Corinthian style is seldom used in the Greek world, but often seen on Roman temples. The capital is very elaborate and decorated with leaves
  • 21. US Supreme CourtUS Capitol Building
  • 22.  Amphi- means "around" in Greek. The amphitheatre was the place where people went to see fights. Usually outdoor arenas where people watched sporting events and plays.
  • 23. Beaver Stadium, PSU
  • 24. Dodoni Ancient Greek Theater, The Arch of Constantine; Northwest Greece background right, the Colosseum.
  • 25. Sports
  • 26.  Main goal- to honor the gods and goddesses Most famous games- Olympics ◦ Honored Zeus, ruler of the gods, at Olympia