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    Properties of matter ppt Properties of matter ppt Presentation Transcript

    • Properties of MatterCh. 2
    • Quick Review Matter is anything that: a) has mass, and b) takes up space Mass = a measure of the amount of ―stuff‖ (or material) the object contains (don’t confuse this with weight, a measure of gravity) Volume = a measure of the space occupied by the object
    • States of Matter1) Solid- matter that can not flow (definite shape) and has definite volume.2) Liquid- definite volume but takes the shape of its container (flows).3) Gas- a substance without definite volume or shape and can flow.  Vapor- a substance that is currently a gas, but normally is a liquid or solid at room temperature. (Which is correct: ―water gas‖, or ―water vapor‖?)4) Plasma- Ionized gas that contains positive ions and electrons
    • Drawing the States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas
    • States of Matter Result of a Definite Definite Temperature Will it Compress? Volume? Shape? Increase? SmallSolid YES YES Expansion NO SmallLiquid YES NO Expansion NO LargeGas NO Expansion NO YES
    • The 6 Phase Changes1. Melting: Solid to Liquid2. Freezing: Liquid to Solid3. Evaporation: Liquid to Gas4. Condensation: Gas to Liquid5. Sublimation: Solid to Gas6. Deposition: Gas to Solid
    • Describing MatterProperties used to describe matter can beclassified as: 1) Extensive – depends on the amount of matter in the sample - Mass, volume, calories are examples 2) Intensive – depends on the type of matter, not the amount present - Hardness, Boiling Point
    • Is Density Intensive orExtensive?
    • PropertiesWords that describe matter (adjectives)Physical Properties- a property that can be observed and measured without changing the material’s composition.Examples- color, hardness, m.p., b.p.
    • PropertiesChemical Properties- a property that can only be observed by changing the composition of the material.Examples- ability to burn, decompose, ferment, react with, etc.
    • Physical ChangePhysical change will change the visible appearance, without changing the composition of the material.Can be reversible, or irreversible Boil, melt, cut, bend, split, crack Is boiled water still water? ***ALL 6 PHASE CHANGES ARE PHYSICAL CHANGES!***
    • Chemical ChangeChemical Change - a change where a new form of matter is made. Rust, burn, decompose, ferment
    • Signs of a Chemical Change1. Gas production2. Precipitate formation3. Energy production (light, sound)4. Change in Temperature5. Change in color6. Change in chemical or physical property
    • Chemical vs. Physical ChangeAsk yourself: Is anything new being made?
    • 3 Types of Matter1. Elements2. Compounds3. Mixtures a. Heterogeneous b. Homogeneous (Solutions)
    • Pure Substances Pure substances can be either  Elements  Compounds
    • 1. ElementsSimplest kind of matterCannot be broken down any simpler and still have properties of that element!All one kind of atom. Atoms– the smallest particle or unit of an element that has the properties of that element.
    • 2. CompoundsSubstances that can be broken down only by chemical methods When broken down, the pieces have completely different properties than the original compound. Made of two or more atoms, chemically combined (not just a physical blend!)
    • 3. Mixtures Mixtures are a physical blend of at least two substances; have variable composition. Every part keeps it’s own properties. They can be either:
    • 3. Mixtures (cont.) 1) Heterogeneous – the mixture is not uniform in composition Ex. Chocolate chip cookie, gravel, soil.
    • 3. Mixtures (cont.) 2) Homogeneous - same composition throughout; called ―solutions‖ • Kool-aid, air, salt water
    • More on Homogenous (solutions) Mixed molecule by molecule, thus too small to see the different parts Can occur between any state of matter: gas in gas; liquid in gas; gas in liquid; solid in liquid; solid in solid (alloys), etc. Most common solutions consist of 1 or more substances dissolved (the dissolved ―stuff‖ is called the solute) in a liquid (called the solvent) If the solvent is water—aqueous solution A true solution will never separate or settle out on its own.
    • Ways of Separating Mixtures Differences in physical properties can be used to separate mixtures.1) Filtration - separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogeneous mixture (by size)2) Distillation – separates a solution by boiling pointsThere are other ways as well: magnets, evporationchromotography
    • Law of Conservation ofMass/Matter
    • During any chemical reaction, the mass of the products (right side of arrow) is always equal to the mass of the reactants (left side of arrow).All the mass can be accounted for: Burning of wood results in products that appear to have less mass as ashes; where is the rest?
    • Example ProblemWhen methane gas burns, and reacts andcombines with oxygen to produce carbondioxide and water vapor. If 4 grams ofmethane reacts with 16 grams of oxygen toproduce 11 grams of carbon dioxide, howmuch water vapor is produced?