Questionnaire Development

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Questionnaire Development

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Questionnaire Development

  1. 1. By Dr Zahid Khan Senior Lecturer King Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  2. 2. content  Definition of a Questionnaire  Characteristics of the good questionnaire  Types  Functions  Questionnaire as an instrument  Reliability  Validity  Constructing a questionnaire
  3. 3. Definition  Questionnaire is a set of questions asked to the target respondents. Both open and close-ended questions can be used in the design of the questionnaire to collect data. In questionnaire design the different types of data which can be used are; nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales.
  4. 4. What are the different scales?  NOMINAL: Label objects (e.g. yes/no, gender)  ORDINAL: Indicate only relative size differences between objects (e.g. purchase frequency)  INTERVAL: Use descriptors that are equal distances apart (e.g. measuring temperature)  RATIO: Have a true zero point (e.g. rupees spent)
  5. 5. Characteristics of a good questionnaire 1. Should be concerned with specific and relevant topic 2. Should be short 3. Directions and wording should be simple and clear 4. Questions should be objective 5. Early questions should be simple in design, friendly and easy to respond; on the other hand; they should convey the theme of the study to the respondent. 6. The questionnaires should begin with an effort to awaken the respondents’ interest. Important target questions should be asked in the middle of the opinion survey. 7. Embarrassing questions, presuming questions and hypothetical questions should be avoided
  6. 6. Continued 8. Should be presented in a good order 9. Should be attractive, neatly printed and clearly arranged. 10. All the questions related to personal information (name, income, phone, address etc.) of the respondents should be either optional or asked in the last section of the questionnaires. 11. Open ended questions should be placed in the later part of the questionnaire and deliberately kept to the minimum.
  7. 7. What are open and close-ended questions?  For open ended questions the researcher does not provide any options to answer. Questions are open to any descriptive response. Example: Q. what do you do to keep yourself healthy? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________  Close ended questions have definite options and they are easy to respond Example: (Tick the appropriate options below) Q. what do you do to keep yourself healthy? a) by running/jogging more than 3 times weekly b) by brisk walking daily c) By biking daily
  8. 8. Types of questionnaire  1. 2.  1. 2. Based upon the type of respond required, Fixed- response questionnaire. Open- end questionnaire. Based upon the method of administering, Mail questionnaire Face-to-face administered questionnaire
  9. 9. Functions of questionnaire  DESCRITION: The questionnaire provides description about age, sex, marital status, occupation, income, religious affiliation, etc.  MEASUREMENT: Measurement of individual and/or group variables like personal habits, reading, watching TV, working hours per week, attitude and so on.
  10. 10. Questionnaire as instruments  Most survey research relies on the use of questionnaire to measure variables  Demographic  The variables accuracy and precision of questionnaire requires expertise and care in their construction
  11. 11. Demographic variables  Demographic variables are used to describe the characteristics of the people who are surveyed.  Measures such as race, ethnicity, age and socio economic status.  The accuracy and precision of questionnaire as survey research instrument depends upon the expertise and care that go into their construction
  12. 12. Preferences and attitudes  Individuals preferences for certain things and attitudes.  For example use of certain perfume, Attitude toward smoking in Public places, eating of certain type of food.
  13. 13. Self report scales  Used to measure peoples judgments or attitude about items presented on the scale e.g. Games, cold drinks like Pepsi, political leaders  To determine differences among people on some dimensions presented on the scale e.g., reading more or less, amount of stress
  14. 14. Reliability  Reliability refers to the consistency of measurement.  Reliable test should yield similar(consistent) results each time it is taken  Common method: test- retest reliability FACTORS AFFECTING RELIABILITY:  Number of items  Variability  Condition in which the questionnaire is administered
  15. 15. validity  It refers to the truthfulness of a measure  Does it measure what it intends to measure? Assessing validity: Construct validity Extend to which it measure the theoretical construct it is designed to measure.
  16. 16. Constructing a questionnaire Deciding type, writing a draft, pretesting, concluding with specific procedures. STEPS: 1. Decide what information should be sought 2. Decide what type of questionnaire should be used 3. Write a first draft of the questionnaire 4. Reexamine and revise the questionnaire 5. Pretest the questionnaire 6. Edit the questionnaire and specify the procedures for its use.
  17. 17.  ORDER OF THE QUESTIONS:  Begin with simple and general questions  No sensitive and embarrassing questions at beginning  Move from general to specific in logical manner  Sensitive questions at the end  Demographic data should be obtained at the end of self administering questions  Use funnel sequence: Start with broad questions and gradually narrow down to the specific questions related to the topic.
  18. 18. The structure of the questionnaire? Opening • Show Courtesy • Awaken the respondents interest on the topic Early Questions • These should be simple, friendly, close ended, easy to respond questions & should convey the theme of the study Middle Questions • Ask the Target Questions Late Questions • Ask optional questions like name, age etc along with open-ended question here Closing • Build relation, Keep scope for future meetings, show gratitude to the respondent for responding, leave on a positive note
  19. 19. conclusion  Questionnaire are the main and easy way collecting data  But the questionnaire must be highly reliable and valid.  Using standardized questionnaires will give us the appropriate data and will yield a valid study  One must follow all the basic guidelines and methods of constructing a questionnaire and test it before using it.
  20. 20. Any Questions !!!!!! Thank You

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