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Environmental health

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Environmental health

Environmental health

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  • 1. Environmental Health By Dr Zahid Khan Senior Lecturer King Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 1
  • 2. Environmental Health • Planet supplies us with: food, water, air, and everything that sustains our life. • Historically environmental health focused on preventing infectious diseases spread by water, waste, food, rodents, and insects. • Expansion of the modern day definition. • Encompassing all the interactions of humans with their environment and the health consequences of these interactions. 2
  • 3. Water Pollution Causes: • Rapid growth of human population • Industrial outputs Contaminants: • toxic chemicals • human and animal excrements • heavy metals • pesticides • silt • fertilizers Sources of pollution: • Point sources • Non-point sources 3
  • 4. Groundwater • Groundwater resources are valuable: – – – – Purity Dependability Costs of Transportation Treatment costs • Groundwater pollution: – Waste storage, treatment or disposal facilities – Septic systems – Pipes, materials transport and transfer operation 4
  • 5. Water Contaminants • 1. Biological • Bacteria : Typhoid fever, Cholera, Shigella (dysentery), Salmonella and E. coli • Viruses: Hepatitis A, poliomyelitis and Rotavirus. – Resistant to disinfection by chlorination • Protozoans: Giardia Lambia, Cryptosporidium, amoebic dysentery. – Resistant to disinfection by chlorination • 2. Chemical • • • Industrial solvents, pesticides Lead Nitrates 5
  • 6. Waste Disposal • Humans generate large amounts of waste. • Sewage • Septic system • Heavy metal like lead, mercury etc • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) • Solid waste • Garbage like newspapers, plastic bags etc. • Sanitary landfill 6
  • 7. Waste Disposal • What You Can Do to Reduce Garbage • Products with least amount of packaging • Products made of recycled paper or recyclable products • Avoid using foam or paper cups • Store food in glass jars and reusable plastic containers • Recycle newspapers, glass, cans, paper, and any other recyclables • Do not throw electronic items • Start a compost pile • Stop junk mail 7
  • 8. Why does sewage need to be treated? • To improve the quality of wastewater so it can be discharged in waterways without seriously disrupting the aquatic environment or causing human health problems. 8
  • 9. Recreational Waters 9 In the year 2000, there were 1,266 beach closings, in Southern California, 92% due to elevated bacteria of undetermined causes. The remaining 8% was due to rain advisories and known sewage discharge.
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  • 11. Global Air Pollution Issues • • • Major causes: Introduction of atmospheric pollutants in unusual amounts Changing the concentrations of natural atmospheric components • Significant impacts: 1. Ozone depletion 2. Global warming 11
  • 12. Air Pollution in Los Angeles • We have some of the worst air in the nation, and the highest number of emergency visits caused by smog and air pollution • Air pollution contributes to heart disease, lung disease, asthma and lung cancer 12
  • 13. Air Pollutants with Greatest Impact on Health Outdoor • • • • • • • Ozone Carbon monoxide Airborne particles Nitrogen oxides Lead Sulfur oxides Diesel emissions Indoor • • • • Smoking Mold Dust mites Radon gas 13
  • 14. What You Can Do To Prevent Air Pollution • • • • • • • • • • Cut back on driving Keep your car tuned up Buy energy-efficient appliances Replace incandescent bulbs Homes well insulated Plant trees and shrubs Proper disposal of ozone-depleting appliances Keep house well ventilated Don’t smoke Clean and inspect chimneys, furnaces and other appliances 14
  • 15. Solid Wastes Classification • Municipal • Hazardous Disposal methods • Unacceptable • Acceptable • Alternatives
  • 16. FOOD SANITATION According to Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the following factors contribute to mainly to foodborne illness: • • • • • 63% Inadequate Cooling and Cold Holding Temperatures 29% Preparing Food Ahead of Planned Service 27% Inadequate Hot Holding Temperatures 26% Poor Personal Hygiene/Infected Persons 25% Inadequate Reheating
  • 17. Food Inspection • • • • Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Overall the food distribution in the U.S. is safe and efficient. 17
  • 18. Population Growth • World’s population currently estimated at 6.5 billion. • 150 people every minute. • Increasing by 76 million per year • To exceed 9.1 billion by 2050 • How Many People Can the World Hold? • • • • Food Available land and water Energy Minimum acceptable standard of living 18
  • 19. Factors That Contribute to Population Growth • • • • High fertility rates Lack of family planning resources Lower death rates Population 19
  • 20. Any Questions !! •Thank You 20