Environmental health

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Environmental health

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Environmental health

  1. 1. Environmental Health By Dr Zahid Khan Senior Lecturer King Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 1
  2. 2. Environmental Health • Planet supplies us with: food, water, air, and everything that sustains our life. • Historically environmental health focused on preventing infectious diseases spread by water, waste, food, rodents, and insects. • Expansion of the modern day definition. • Encompassing all the interactions of humans with their environment and the health consequences of these interactions. 2
  3. 3. Water Pollution Causes: • Rapid growth of human population • Industrial outputs Contaminants: • toxic chemicals • human and animal excrements • heavy metals • pesticides • silt • fertilizers Sources of pollution: • Point sources • Non-point sources 3
  4. 4. Groundwater • Groundwater resources are valuable: – – – – Purity Dependability Costs of Transportation Treatment costs • Groundwater pollution: – Waste storage, treatment or disposal facilities – Septic systems – Pipes, materials transport and transfer operation 4
  5. 5. Water Contaminants • 1. Biological • Bacteria : Typhoid fever, Cholera, Shigella (dysentery), Salmonella and E. coli • Viruses: Hepatitis A, poliomyelitis and Rotavirus. – Resistant to disinfection by chlorination • Protozoans: Giardia Lambia, Cryptosporidium, amoebic dysentery. – Resistant to disinfection by chlorination • 2. Chemical • • • Industrial solvents, pesticides Lead Nitrates 5
  6. 6. Waste Disposal • Humans generate large amounts of waste. • Sewage • Septic system • Heavy metal like lead, mercury etc • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) • Solid waste • Garbage like newspapers, plastic bags etc. • Sanitary landfill 6
  7. 7. Waste Disposal • What You Can Do to Reduce Garbage • Products with least amount of packaging • Products made of recycled paper or recyclable products • Avoid using foam or paper cups • Store food in glass jars and reusable plastic containers • Recycle newspapers, glass, cans, paper, and any other recyclables • Do not throw electronic items • Start a compost pile • Stop junk mail 7
  8. 8. Why does sewage need to be treated? • To improve the quality of wastewater so it can be discharged in waterways without seriously disrupting the aquatic environment or causing human health problems. 8
  9. 9. Recreational Waters 9 In the year 2000, there were 1,266 beach closings, in Southern California, 92% due to elevated bacteria of undetermined causes. The remaining 8% was due to rain advisories and known sewage discharge.
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  11. 11. Global Air Pollution Issues • • • Major causes: Introduction of atmospheric pollutants in unusual amounts Changing the concentrations of natural atmospheric components • Significant impacts: 1. Ozone depletion 2. Global warming 11
  12. 12. Air Pollution in Los Angeles • We have some of the worst air in the nation, and the highest number of emergency visits caused by smog and air pollution • Air pollution contributes to heart disease, lung disease, asthma and lung cancer 12
  13. 13. Air Pollutants with Greatest Impact on Health Outdoor • • • • • • • Ozone Carbon monoxide Airborne particles Nitrogen oxides Lead Sulfur oxides Diesel emissions Indoor • • • • Smoking Mold Dust mites Radon gas 13
  14. 14. What You Can Do To Prevent Air Pollution • • • • • • • • • • Cut back on driving Keep your car tuned up Buy energy-efficient appliances Replace incandescent bulbs Homes well insulated Plant trees and shrubs Proper disposal of ozone-depleting appliances Keep house well ventilated Don’t smoke Clean and inspect chimneys, furnaces and other appliances 14
  15. 15. Solid Wastes Classification • Municipal • Hazardous Disposal methods • Unacceptable • Acceptable • Alternatives
  16. 16. FOOD SANITATION According to Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the following factors contribute to mainly to foodborne illness: • • • • • 63% Inadequate Cooling and Cold Holding Temperatures 29% Preparing Food Ahead of Planned Service 27% Inadequate Hot Holding Temperatures 26% Poor Personal Hygiene/Infected Persons 25% Inadequate Reheating
  17. 17. Food Inspection • • • • Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Overall the food distribution in the U.S. is safe and efficient. 17
  18. 18. Population Growth • World’s population currently estimated at 6.5 billion. • 150 people every minute. • Increasing by 76 million per year • To exceed 9.1 billion by 2050 • How Many People Can the World Hold? • • • • Food Available land and water Energy Minimum acceptable standard of living 18
  19. 19. Factors That Contribute to Population Growth • • • • High fertility rates Lack of family planning resources Lower death rates Population 19
  20. 20. Any Questions !! •Thank You 20

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