Facts about the islamic republic of iranPresentation Transcript
Facts About the Islamic Republic of IRAN Dr. Farhad Zargari Social Security Organization, Tehran, December 2005 [email_address]
Iran has a long and rich history. It is honored to be one of the five ancient human civilizations. Some of the world's most ancient settlements have been excavated in the Caspian region and on the Iranian plateau in where village life began in 4000 B.C. The Aryans came about 2000 B.C. and split into two main groups, the Medes and the Persians. The Medes dominated and ruled until the Persian king Cyrus the Great overthrew the Medes and became ruler of the Achaemenid (Persian) Empire, which reached from the Indus to the Nile at its zenith in 525 B.C.
Persia fell to Alexander in 331 – 330 B.C. and a succession of other rulers: the Seleucids, the Greek-speaking Parthians, the Sasanians, and the Arab Muslims (in 641). By the mid-800s Persia had become an international scientific and cultural center. In the 12th century it was invaded by the Mongols . The Safavid dynasty (1501 – 1722), under whom the dominant religion became Shiite Islam, followed, and was then replaced by the Qajar dynasty (1794 – 1925).
During the Qajar dynasty, the Russians and the British fought for economic control of the area, and during World War I, Iran's neutrality did not stop it from becoming a battlefield for Russian and British troops. A coup in 1921 brought Reza Kahn to power. In 1925, he became shah and changed his name to Reza Shah Pahlavi.
Iran ’ s pro-Axis allegiance in World War II led to Anglo-Russian occupation of the country in 1941 and deposition of the Reza Shah in favor of his son, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. Pahlavi's extreme Westernization programs alienated intellectuals and the clergy, and his authoritarian rule led to massive demonstrations during the 1970s, to which the shah responded with brutality and imposition of martial law in 1978. The shah and his family fled Iran on Jan. 16, 1979, and the exiled leader, Imam Khomeini , returned to Iran to establish an Islamic Republic.
Area: 1,648,000 km ² ( 636,290 sq mi ) - Iran is the 19 th largest country in the world
Land Area: 1,636,000 km ²
Water Area: 12,000 km ²
Capital City: Tehran (12 millions) - 14 th most populous city in the world
Major Cities: Mashhad, Isfahan, Tabriz, Shiraz
Location: Geopolitical Region of Middle East
Land Boundaries: 5,440 km
Border Countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km
Coastline: 2,440 km
Highest Point: Damavand Peak - 5,671 m ( 18,603 ft)
Annual Rainfall: Ranges from less than 50 mm in the deserts to more than 1600 mm on the Caspian Plain. The average annual rainfall is 252 mm and approximately 90% of the country is arid or semiarid. Overall, about two-thirds of the country receives less than 250 mm of rainfall per year.
Population: 68 millions -Iran is the 18 th most populous country of the world.
Age Structure: - 0-14 years: 27.1% . - 15-64 years: 68% . - 65 years and over: 4.9%
Sex Ratio Male /Female : At birth: 1.05 Under 15 years: 1.06 male (s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male (s)/female 65 years and over: 0.97 male (s)/female total population: 1.04 male (s)/female
Density per sq mi: 107
Urbanization: 65% of population live in urban areas – In this regard Iran ranks 87 th among 209
Ethnic Groups: Fars 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmen 2%, others 1%
Official Language: Farsi (Persian)
Literacy: Total : 79.4% Male: 85.6% Female: 73%
Net Primary School Enrolment / Attendance (1996-2003) : 93%
% of Population Urbanized, (2003): 67
Health Investment: GDP/ Health 6%
Infant Mortality Rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births
Average Life Expectancy at Birth: Total: 70.3 – (Men: 68.6, Women: 72)
Total Fertility Rate: 1.82 Children born/woman
Population Growth Rate: 0.86% – Ranking 137 th among 234 countries and independent islands worldwide.
Birth Rate: 16.83 births/1,000 population – Ranking 131 st among 225 countries and independent islands worldwide.
Death Rate: 5.55 deaths/1,000 population – Ranking 181 st among 225 countries and independent islands worldwide.
Number of Hospitals & Day Clinics (public & private): 800 with 104,000 beds
Number of Public Health &Treatment Clinics: 4900
Number of Rural Health Houses: 16,800
Access to Primary Health Care (PHC): 100 %-Urban / 95%-Rural
Health Care Insurance Coverage: 94% of Population
HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate: < 0.1%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 31,000(2002) - On the AIDS prevalence rate Iran is the 122 nd among 131 countries with less than 0.1 percent of the population afflicted.
Access to essential drugs: In Iran 80% of population have access to.
Population Aged 60 and More (2003) : 6.4%
Total Number of Nurses and Midwives (2004) : 155542
Total Number of Dentists (2004) : 12378
Total Number of Pharmacists (2004) : 8108
Total Number of Physicians (2004) : 68079
Under-5 mortality rank to the top: 79
Under-5 mortality rate,1960: 281
Under-5 mortality rate,2003: 39
Infant mortality rate (under 1),1960: 164
Infant mortality rate (under 1),2003 : 33
% of Total Population Using Improved Drinking Water Sources, (2002): 93
% of Total Population Using Adequate Sanitation Facilities, (2002): 84
Average Annual Growth Rate of Urban Population,1970-1990: (%)4.9
Average annual growth rate of urban population,1990-2003: (%)2.8
Percent of one-year-olds fully immunized against DPT3, Measles, Hepatitis B, Tuberculosis, and Polio (2003): 99
Religions: Muslim 98%, Zoroastrian , Jewish, Christian, and Others 2%
Islam entered the country in the 7th cent. A.D. and is now the official religion; about 90% of Iranians are Muslims of the Shiite sect. The remainder, mostly Kurds and Arabs, are Sunnis. Colonies of Zoroastrians remain at Yazd, Kerman, and other towns. In addition to Armenian and Assyrian Christian sects, there are Jews, Protestants, and Roman Catholics .
Government Type: Islamic Republic
National Day: April 1
Branches of Government: According to the Constitution: Executive branch, Legislative branch, Judicial branch
Administrative Divisions: 30 Provinces, On the number of Administrative divisions Iran is the 24 th among 234 countries and independent islands.
Year women received right to stand for election: 1963
Year first woman elected or appointed to parliament: 1963
Women in government at ministerial level (as % of total), 2000 : 9.4
Seats in parliament held by women (as % of total): 3.4
Currency: Rial (1USD=9023 R)
GDP (market exchange rate): $ 177.8 billion (2004)
GDP (purchasing power parity -PPP): $681 billion (2004)
GDP Per Capita (market exchange rate): USD 2,554
GDP Per Capita (PPP) : USD 7,588 (2004)
GDP Real Growth Rate: 6.4%
GDP - Composition by Sector: agriculture: 11.2% industry: 40.9% services: 48.7%
Labor Force: 23 Millions, making Iran 22 nd country among 215
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45%
Unemployment Rate: 11.2% - Iran ranks 89 th among 197 countries with regard to the number of unemployed population.
Iran is the second largest economy in the Middle East
Of the variety of natural resources found in Iran, petroleum (discovered in 1908 in Khuzestan province) and natural gas are by far the most important. The chief oil fields are found in the central and southwestern parts of the Zagros Mts. and in the offshore waters of the Persian Gulf. Oil also is found in the Northern Iran. Domestic oil and gas, along with hydroelectric power facilities, provide the country with power.
The petroleum industry is Iran's economic mainstay; oil accounts for 80% of export revenues, and Iran is a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Pipelines move oil from the fields to the refineries and to such exporting ports as Abadan, Bandar-e Mahshahr, and Khark Island. In the late 1990s, Iran's state-owned oil and gas industry entered into major exploration and production agreements with foreign consortiums.
Major industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing, metal fabrication, vehicle production, armaments
Industrial Production Growth Rate: 3.5% (excluding oil)
Female economic activity growth in Iran is one of the fastest rising rates e.g. 34%, giving the country 6 th position among 162 countries.
On the size of exported products, Iran is the 40 th country between 226 countries and independent islands.
On the amount of GDP, Iran is the 20 th country in the world.
Iran has the 18 th highest growth in GDP in the world.
Annual car production is close to 400,000 making Iran the 19 th country among 70.
About 10% of the land in Iran is arable; agriculture contributes just over 20% to the gross national product and employs a third of the labor force. The main food-producing areas are in the Caspian region and in the valleys of the northwest. Wheat, the most important crop, is grown mainly in the west and northwest; rice is the major crop in the Caspian region. Barley, corn, cotton, sugar beets, tea, hemp, tobacco, fruits (including citrus), nuts, and dates are also grown, and livestock is raised.
The principal obstacles to agricultural production are primitive farming methods, overworked and under fertilized soil, poor seed, and scarcity of water. About one third of the cultivated land is irrigated; the construction of multipurpose dams and reservoirs along the rivers in the Zagros and Alburz mts. has increased the amount of water available for irrigation. Agricultural programs of modernization, mechanization, and crop and livestock improvement, and programs for the redistribution of land are increasing agricultural production.
The northern slopes of the Alburz Mts. are heavily wooded, and forestry products are economically important; the cutting of trees is rigidly controlled by the government, which also has a reforestation program. In the rivers entering the Caspian Sea are salmon, carp, trout, and pike; sturgeon are abundant in the Caspian Sea.
Iran's first genetically modified (GM) rice has been approved by national authorities and is being grown commercially for human consumption. Researchers at the Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII) modified rice to resist attack by insects by inserting a bacterial gene that produces a toxin.
Dams have always played an important role in harnessing Iran's precious water reserves and the long-term objective of Iran's water resources development plan is based on the control and regulation of water resources through dams. In 1994, 27 storage dams were in operation with a total regulation capacity of 39.2 km ³ . At the same time, 24 storage dams were under construction with a design regulation capacity of 11.5 km ³ . In 1993, the annual electricity production from dams was 25 116
GWH, which is 33 % of the total energy production of the country. Dams also play an important role in flood control through routing of floods. Several reservoirs behind the dams seem to offer good sailing and water-skiing facilities, but have not been used for recreation so far.
Agricultural growth: In agricultural growth Iran ranks 13 th country among 155.
Communications & Media
Communications & Media
Telephones - main lines in use: 14,571,100 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 4.200,000 (2003)
Internet users: >5.8 millions – In this regard Iran is the 17 th country among 167 countries
Radio Broadcast Stations: AM 72, FM 5, SW 5 (1998)
TV Channels: 12(7 Farsi, 5 Foreign Languages)
Communications & Media
Annual Cinema attendance in 2003 was 26,000,000 ranking Iran the 20 th country among 79.
Number of Cinemas: 287
Number of PCs: 4,500,000 - 18 th country among 165.
Number of Mobile cellular phones: 4,000,000 – 36 th country among 180.
Number of TV sets: 5,100,000 – 33 rd country among 215
Communications & Media
" For Iranians living outside of Iran, the internet has become a lifeline, a way not only to stay in touch with friends and family back home, but also to stay connected to Iranian culture no matter where they are." There may be 46,000 bloggers inside Iran, and as many as 75,000 active Farsi blogs worldwide.
Railways: 7,203 km
Highways: 167,157 km
Waterways: 850 km (on Karun River and Lake Urmia) (2004)
Number of Airports: 305 - In this regard Iran ranks 26 th among 255 countries worldwide
Iran in biodiversity richness is the 27 th country among 68 countries.
On the Endangered species protection Iran is the 71 st country among 142 countries.
Iran is the 3 rd country in the world in Carbon Dioxide emission from fossil fuels.
Iran with more than 2 millions of refugees from Afghanistan, Iraq and other countries stands at the top of the world countries.
FIFA World Ranking: 614 points ranking Iran 33 rd among 204
All time summer Olympic medals: 40 medals ranking Iran 39 th among 136