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Twi bulletin series_manual

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The original, open-source, non-copyrighted version of the most successful industrial training program of all time. No kidding.

The original, open-source, non-copyrighted version of the most successful industrial training program of all time. No kidding.

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    Twi bulletin series_manual Twi bulletin series_manual Document Transcript

    • PROVIDED BY PURDUE UNIVERSITY TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE 765-494-9876 Divider Page from Original Bound TWI Materials Text Within Industry Bulletins Training Within Industry was organized in August 1940. Its immediate purpose, as far as could be seen then, was to provide a clearing-house service in industrial training techniques, and to make training consultation available to contractors which requested this service. This objective, of course, expanded as conditions of war production changed. During the first year of existence a number of bulletins on the need for training in expanding plants and on generally accepted training techniques were written for defense contractors. Later a few bulletins were added to the series-in order to provide materials needed in the T. W. I. programs. This section includes, in their latest editions, all of the Training Within Industry bulletins. Many of them, since they were prepared for use on problems of conversion and expansion, were allowed to go out of print when war production struck its full stride and so have not been distributed during the past two to three years. They are included in this complete set in order to give a picture of industrial conditions and problems a t the time they were written.
    • Retyped versions of all these bulletins are available on a CD contained in : Training Within Industry by Donald A. Dinero Productivity Press, 2005
    • TRAINING WITHIN INDUSTRY MATERIALS Section I-The Training Within Industry Bulletins Developing All-Round Skil!ed Craftsmen through Apprenticeship Expanding the Managerid Orgnnizntion Hon7 to Get s P l a r t Training Plan into Action How to Get Continuing Results from Plant Training Programs How to Improve Job hfetilods How to In~proveJob Relations How to Instruct a Man on the Job How to Meet Specific Needs How to Prepare Instructors to Give Intensive Job Instruction How to Select New Supervizors How Training Can Be Done-R~cthods, Aids Improving Supervisors' Ihom-ledge of the Work Incrcasing War Production through E m p l o ~ m e n t Women of Introducing the New Employee to the Job Keeping Supervisors Informed about Their Responsibilities Management and Skilled Supervision Safety on the Job for the New Employee Strengtllening the Mailagerial Organization Supplementary Instructicn for Upgrading The Training Within Industly Program Training Aids Training Production W ~ r l i e r s Training Workers to hlect Defense Needs Tying-in Pre-employment Training With On-The-Job Training Upgrading Section 11-Job Instruction Sessions Outline and Reference Material Section 111-Job Methods Sessions Outline and Reference Material Section IV-Job Relations Sessions Outline and Reference Material Section V-Union Job Relations Sessions Outline and Reference Material Section VI-Program Development Institute 111
    • iseued October Rsrised June m a n of Training W Manpower Colllmiesion a r 'Phis b u l l e t i n embodies tbs p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s of apprenticeebip taken Prom tbe best practice8 found In leading i n d u s t r i e s and w i l l s e n e as a basis for a p p r e n t i c e training i n p r a c t i c a y dl eituationrr ~tnu, prepared with the assistance of the staff of t h e Apprentice-Training S e n i c e , Wr M n o e a a p wr CI.aan4saim. The f i e l d and headquarters staff of Training Within Industry assists the Apprentice-Training Service by promoting the use of apprenticeship and advancing worker programs, (In the other hand, many Apprentice-Training representatives are serving as h.aining Within Industry panel members, . , The t r a i n i n g of production workers in operations requiring a single s k i l l i s not a s u b s t i t u b f o r apprenticeship, Both programs have a d i s t i n c t place in eroergency w a r production and should be c a r r i e d on slmltaneously, Trade apprenticeship should be regarded not only as a long-term program from which industry must procure most of its future s l d l l e d craftsmen but a l s o as a source fhm which set-up men, lead men, as w e l l aa some f u t u r e s q e r v i s o r y sad technical personnel may be dram, Apprentices trained under t h e standards of the Federal Carmnittee earn t h e i r rages from the beginning, and they c a r r y t h e i r weight in output, C. R, Dooley, mqctor Training Within Industrg APPRENTICESHIP POLICIES F R WAR!l!LBdE O Apprenticeship is a war a c t i v i t y and mwt continue to e q a n d to meet w r needs, Planning f o r a long war i s necessary f o r victory, and apprenticea ship i s a long-range program, Its features are r e a l l y expanded by tb w a r program, f o r a certain n d r of all-round skilled workers w i l l always be needed to supervise the large number of workers knowing only one skill o r a s m a l l group of skills, and to perform t h a t small proportion of highly s k i l l e d work which mass production cannot eliminate. S k i l l e d men are needed t o produce d e l i c a t e and complicated mechanism a f o r a n t i - a i r c r a f t guns, airplanes, and other vital wr weapons, Since a l a r g e number of p m s e n t s k i l l e d uorkers f a l l i n t o the older age groups, apprentices must be trained both t o mplace these older workers and to meet the war demand f o r additional highly trained journeymen, Even while i n training, apprentices frequently are assigned t o the inportant function of breaking i n new workers on single machines, The Federal Camdttee on Apprenticeship recanmends t h a t apprenticeship programs be continued and maintained with new vigor, and t h a t solutions be fourd f o r war t i m e apprentice t r a i n i n g problems which will serve the pressing
    • needs of uar production f o r all-round ekilled workem and also 8ths beat interests of the nation's young people. For tbe warts duration t Federd b Comnittee b made the f o l h d n g reconmfmdation concerning the training and u t i l i s a t i o n of apprentices: Establish apprenticeship programs on the basis of re&ar peacei , are u time standards, but including such mmtirae standneceesarg to develop trained workers essential to the conduct of the war. Amend existing apprenticeship programs to pmvide f o r the training of apprentices as rapidly acs they can a c q w e reasonable proficiency in each trade process. Improve Job supervision and related classmcm instruction of apprentices so t h a t the period of learning time may be shortened. Advancements should be measured by objective t e s t a established o r given by joint apprenticeship conwnittees. Where it ia imperative in the i n t e r e s t s of w a r p r ~ d u c t i o n o t secure all-round skilled workers i n the ndnbm of time, apprent i c e s should be selected fram groups l e a s t vulnerable t o military m service. Preferred groups i n this category include married u n from 20 t o 30 years of age ~ 5 t one or more children; men clrrssih fied as ineligible f o r military service f o r physical reasons; military personnel mleased from active service; and, f o r same trades, women. Where the need is f o r all-round skilled men i n the future, the Committee recommends t h a t apprentices be selected from t h e 16 and 1 7 year age group but without the expectation t h a t they w i l l . be deferred i f the time cuues when they are needed i n the military service. Because i n some w a r production plan* and industries, there are acute shortages of s k i l l e d workers to serve as supervisors, foremen, lead men, and job instructors, the Committee recome& t h a t advanced apprentices be moved i n t o a r ~ yjob claasification which d 1 persnit u t i l i z a t i o n of t h e i r highest s k i l l s ; and that they l should be paid the wage r a t e applicable t o the job to which they are promoted. -re advanced apprentice8 e x i s t in any plant i n excess of the number of jobs available f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n of their highest s k i l l s , the Camittee recommeads t h a t employers and employees voluntarily s e t up machinery f o r the m c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of euch advanced apprentices and f o r t h e i r transfer to other plants where there is a c r i t i c a l need f o r such s k i l l e d workers. The needs of each industry and of each plant should be carefLzUy and the apprentice training program should be rorked out in t h e manner best suited to f j 1 those needs. 1
    • 'Phe obJective of appmnticeehip is the developtent of all-mud skilled This i s accomplished by a program of production work assignments craftamn. in which each apprentice follows a pre-detelmined work t r a i n i n g schedule r h i c h is accompanied by s u p p l e m n t q instruction. The =Jar p a r t of apprentice t r a i n i n g i done on the job, a t productive work, a A mll-balanced program p m d d e s not only f o r e f f i c i e n t training i n trade skills, but alltime enough f o r the apprentice t o mature as a respomible worker. On t h e other hand, t h e program should enable each apprentice t o progress according t o his individual learning a b i l i t y . Some apprentices are thus complete t h e i r training in a somewhat s h o r t e r time than able to s n c c e s s ~ y t h e established period. Definition of nApprenticen and h!inimum Standards of AppmnticeshQ The Federal C m t t e m on Apprentieeahip has issued t h e following b r i e f descriptions: 1, Definition of nApprenticeu: The term nappxxmticen s h a l l mean a person a t l e a s t 16 years of age rrho i s covered by 4 written agreement registered u i t h a S t a t e Apprenticeship Council o r the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship, providing f o r not l e a s than 4,000 hours of reasonably continuous employment f o r such person, and f o r his p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an approved schedule of work experience through employment, which is supplemented by U4 hours per year of r e l a t e d classroun instruction. 2. Basic Standardsx An apprenticeable occupation i s considered one which mquires 4,000 o r -re hours t o learn. A schedule of t h e work processes t o be learned on the job. A progreesively increasing scale of wages f o r the apprentice should average approximately 50 per cent of t h e journeyman's r a t e over the period of apprenticeship. Provision f o r related cl.assroom instruction ( 4 hours l4 per year of such i n s t r u c t i o n i s nonnally considered necessary). The t e r n and conditions of the employment and training of each apprentice to be s t a t e d in written agreement and registered with t h e S t a t e Apprenticeship Canncil,
    • f, Revim of l o c a l apprenticeship programs by a S t a t e Apprenticeship Council. g, Apprenticeship should be j o i n t l y established by the employer and t h e employees. h. Adequate supervision and t h e keeping of records should be required f o r all Apprenticeship programs. The functions of t h e staff of the Apprentice-Training Service are: 1. t o p r m o t e sound labor standards of apprenticeship in i n d u s t r y by j o i n t cooperation between management and labor 2. t o provide technical a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e establishment o r i r ~ p r o k ment of apprenticeship systems 3. to a s s i s t i n the development of programs f o r t r a i n e e s a t l e s s 4. t o provide advice and a s s i s t a n c e on labor problems a f f e c t i n g training than the apprenticeship l e v e l The a c t u a l t r a i n i n g of apprentices i s provided by i n d u s t r y under planned programs meeting t h e standards recommended by t h e Federal C o m m i t t e e . The Apprentice-Training Service, with the cooperation of S t a t e Apprenticeship Councils, promotes and assists i n d u s t r y i n developing such t r a i n i n g prograus. S e t t a up an Apprenticeship Program i n an I n d w t r i a l Plant The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e apprentice program should be =signed to one person q u a l i f i e d t o handle it. Most companies f i n d that the plan is productive of b e s t results when r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r it is placed upon a s i n g l e supervisor f i t t e d f o r t h i s work by both personal q u a l i t i e s and experience, This i s a full-time job in l a r g e p l a n t s and a part-time job, but a major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n smaller plants. Experience with w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d apprenticeship plans indicatas t h a t , i n s e t t i n g up a program, action should be taken on the items indicated i n the sections which folluw. W e r i e n c e I n plants having bargaining agreements ~ 5 t h organized labor s h m t h a t j o i n t committees of management and labor can m o s t e f f e c t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h p o l i c i e s and procedures f o r t h e t r a i n i n g of apprentices covering a l l following points: 1 Determine t h e s k i l l e d occupations in which apprentices are t o . be t r a i n e d , 2 . Determine the number of apprenti'ces t o be t r a i n e d ,
    • 3. Establish the term of apprenticeship. 4 Provide f o r instruction and coaching on t h e job, including the . selection eurl s c h e d u l h g - of work expfience. 5. Arrange f o r classroan instruction i n related trade subjects. 6. m t a b l i s h a wage scale f o r apprentices i n relaMon to the going r a t e s f o r s k i l l e d workers in the trades in which appmqtices are t o be trained. The m a l e should be 80 established cw to provide periodic increases as apprentices progress, roduce while learning, and t h e i r wages should comes eve1 of t h e i r skills. 7. Provide f o r periodic t e a b of the progress of apprentices. Selecting Candidates f o r Apprenticeship The ultimate success of an apprenticeship plan depends more upon t h e a b i l i t y and character of the young men selected than upon any other single l factor in t h e program. !hfollowing are fundamental conuiderations i n selecting those t o be trained: e 1 ~ i v special attention t o the character (including indications of . perseverance), mechanical aptitude, and intelligence of candidates. Consider not only subjects (uuch as ari6hmetic elrd blueprint madlng) M c h ham been covered i n school, but also whether school progress was a t a normal r a t e o r better. 2. Take f u l l advantage of a l l information available i n plant personnel recorda f o r those already employed who desire to be all-round skilled workers. I I 3. Comult w i t h school authorities f o r additional evidence of aptitude and s u i t a b i l i t y of apprentice candidates, 4. Establish a definite probationary period t o serve as a double check on the s u i t a b i l i t y of those selected. 5, Usually there are candidates who have sosae trade experience who can be given credit on the term of apprenticeahfp and who w i l l complete the program i n l e a s than the F l period, This is parul t i c u l a r l y helpful i n launching a new program and w i l l make available some trained m a a t an e a r l i e r date. Carrging on the Program Ehperience w i t h w e l l established programs indicates t h a t continuous attention is needed on tb two basic features of apprentice training, i.e., shop experience and related Instruction.
    • 1 Shop bperierrcre: It is e s s e n t i a l t h a t . organired instruction be given t o each apprentice when he s t a r t s to work the mmber of on each new job. In some l a r g e r plant8 -re apprentices j w t i f i e s , a section of the regular shop is equipped and used especially for apprentices, he Apprentice Shop is not a practice department. A l l work is productim and standapds are uniform w i t h other sections of the plant, The arrangement is desirable aimply becaase a great deal of individual fnartruction and attention can be given when tbe appmntices are grouped, Thia contributes t o thorough w t e ~ of the trade and t o shortened lesnring time, It a l s o enables the apprentice t o & a good job alongside the journeylssn wbd he goea i n t o the regular department. The Apprentice Shop is often used during eecond and t h i r d shifts as a convenient unit f o r training production specialista on particular machines. In smaller plants the apprentice Is shop experience is gained entirely on regular job8 in the shop. In e i t h e r caae care should be wed i n choosing the kiad of production work, bearing in mind ita teaching and experience value, The thoroughness and speed with which the apprentice learns his trade w i l l largely depend upon the instruction a b i l i t y and continuone coaching of the forenen and journeylaen immediately over him. In cooperation w i t h foremen the apprentice supervisor, o r the person in the 8 d plant who i s responsible for apprenticeship as p a r t of his duties, should have authority to move apprentices fiom job to job i n accordance with the planned training schedule, Apprentices should be given appropriate increases i n t h e i r pay when justified by increased s k i l l and knowledge, but according t o the pre-deterrained schedule. 2, R l t d Instruction: Public vocational schools m u a l l y provide eae related instruction on technical subjects, although same companies establish t h e i r m plans. Thlr supplemental instruction should coincide w i t h current production experience. (b.dinarily, up to ten per cent of the working hours should be devoted t o such related ~ t r u c t i o n , Catlmamiw Apprenticeship Program Occasionally smaller p l a n t s or a c t i v i t i e s which cannot provide the breadth of on-the-job experience required for apprentice training w i l l c a b i n s with bther plants and a c t i v i t i e s i n the community, By routing apprentices from jobs providing training i n one a e t of skills in one company, t o those which furnish experience i n another s e t of skills i n another company, the f b l l range o f training can be covered cooperatively,
    • SAMPLE PFtoWU M3R TOOL AND DIE-WKINO APPRENTICBS Sequence of W r beigro~sntsand Proportion of Time Spent i n ok Production Shop Work and Related Instruction Ikchanics available for regular work assignments. $ Junior *Beginners are selected by interview and t e a t both f h m present employees and h.om recent school graduates who apply Increme in hourly rate of pay.
    • In order to met need8 for highly skill& man *em there l a not enough t h t o develop all-round craftsman, the Apprentice-Trafning S e M c e has s e t up ilx Advancing Worker program. This provides f o r t r a h b g through a progm~aives e r i e s of J o b w i t h 8applemntaz-y h t r u c t i o n *re needed, Well-rounded s k i l l is attained in apeciflc work of a type which is ordinarily part of a c r a f t o r trade, The Apprentice-'Praining Service operates throughout the W t e d S t a t e s largely through i t s regional offices, In addition, other public agencies and groups cooperate i n the training of apprentices, S t a t e and federal employ~rent bureaus a s s i s t i n s e t t i n g IQ the d e f i n i t e selection ~waaureswhich a m necessary, and mcational education fbds and f a c i l i t i e s supply much of the r e l a t e d instruction.
    • Labor Division "Training w i t h i n I n d u s t r y v EXPAN D I N G THE IUNAGER IAL ORGAN I ZATI ON -panding t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n in t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s i s a simple problem. However, when expansion i s r e q u i r e d t o t h e p o i n t , where as one company executive e x p r e s s e s it, " t h e s u p e r v i s o r y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s t r e t c h e d beyond t h e e l a s t i c l i m i t " , t h e problem becomes c r u c i a l . F u r t h e r expansion and use of inexperienced m e n may mean f a i l u r e of c e r t a i n o p e r a t i o n , o r a e p a r t it may mean t h e t i e - u p of the whole p l m t , high s c r a p l o s s e s and aents. s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s in meeting p r o d u c t i o n and q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s . T53 f c l l o w i n g plans have been found s u c c e s s f u l i n many companies, and k~ ,L~a"UFx?y may 'se adapted k most any o r g m i z a t i o n . There w e m y ccmyaiiies t o x h i c n t h e s e %illn o t '2e new. 3%2R!- R J Dooley, D i r e c t o r Training w i t h i n Industry C. FM31 T ?G FOR EXPANSION ! The f o l l o w i n g f o u r s t e p s a r e ones normally encountered when expanding an o r g a n i z a t i o n . The p l a n s thereunder a r e b a s i c enough t o be adapted t o various s i t u a t i o n s . 1. Give each p r e s e n t supervisor more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , ":hen production volume i n c r e a s e s , of c o u r s e , t h e f i r s t obvious method o f h a n d l i n g it i s t o g i v e each p r e s e n t superv i s o r more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i.e., n o r e men, more equipment, Occasionally more f l o o r space, and o f t e n more a u t h o r i t y . s e c t i o n s o r departments a r e combined and placed under one s u p e r v i s o r where p r e v i o u s l y t h e r e were 4 x 4 0 o r nore supervisors. 2. S e l e c t men from p r e s e n t s u p e r v i s o r y f o r c e t o f i l l p o s i t i o n s of new o r g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Usually, t h e r e i s a l i m i t e d numbor of qua1 i f i e d superv i s o r s from which men n a y be s e l e c t e d , competent t o t a k e f u l l charge of new d e p a r t m n t s , new p l a n t s o r to a s s u . ? newly crcated functions. Immediate a t t e n t i o n to replacement and t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of u n d e r s t u d i e s i s e s s e n t i a l . I f a c t , many e x e c u t i v e s f i n d n it p r a c t i c e 1 t o draw an o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r t , and t o p l a c e under each s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n t h e names o f s e v e r a l men who c o u l d f i l l such p o s i t i o n , i n t h e o r d e r of t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y n and conpetence. Q one o r two s u c c e s s i v e c h a r t s , p l a n s a r e dravrn shovring how- t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n would be expanded a n d men s h i f t e d under a n t i c i p a t e d ccntingenc i es. Thus t h e department head, General Super i n t e n d e n t o r k-orks Manager, may spec i f i c a l l y
    • p l a n h i s u n d e r s t u d i e s and moves, m d a v o i d P B g e t t i n gin a pinch" when f a c e d w i t h a l a r g e o r d e r o r an important expansion. Where t h e r e i s a P e r s o n n e l o r I n d u s t r i a l Relat i o n s Department, t h i s department can be p a r t i c u l a r l y helpf u l by d e v e l o p i n g such c o n f i d e n t i a l c h a r t s m d p l a n s and s u b m i t t i n g t h a n t o l i n e e x e c u t i v e s f o r s u g g e s t i o n s and approval . T h i s p r o c e d u r e a l s o makes it p o s s i b l e t o g i v e t h e m x i anurn amount of o r g a n i z e d t r a i n i n g t o u n d e r s t u d i e s and men who a r e t o be s h i f t e d o r promoted. The p e r s o n n e l o f f i c e r , i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h o p e r a t i n g e x e c u t i v e s can t h e n p r e p a r e j o b r o t a t i o n , p r o g r e s s i o n and o b s e r v a t i o n t r a i n i n g , and i n s t i t u t e o r g a n i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n in t h e fundamentals of s u p e r v i s i o n and technical information. 3. S e l e c t and t r a i n beginning s u p e r v i s o r s . - When it becomes n e c e s s a r y , new s u p e r v i s o r s must be s e l e c t e d and appointed. Each company management shows t h e b e s t source i n each i n s t a n c e , whether from t h e r a n k s of w o r k e r s , e n g i n e e r s , technicians, o r others. Experience p r o v e s c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e , p e r s o n a l i t y , v i t a l i t y and o t h e r l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i e s should outweigh t e c h n i c a l o r t r a d e a b i l i t y when such s e l e c t i o n s a r e made. Of c o u r s e , t h e r e a r e s o w f u n c t i o n s where t e c h n i c a l knowledge i s e s s e n t i a l , and in such c a s e s it must b e recognized. lowing approach The f 01 t u r e s of a s u c c e s s f u l p l a n p r o p e r l y chosen a p p o i n t e e s e n t s u p e r v i s o r s in 8 o r 10 (a) r e p r e s e n t s the p r i n c i p a l f eanow b e i n g w i d e l y used, by which a r e developed i n t o q u i t e competweeks. Assign t h e new a p p o i n t e e t o e l e m e n t a r y s u p e r v i s o r y work 2 t o 3 weeks. - It h a s been found t h a t s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g f o r a new s u p e r v i s o r i n t h e p r i n c i p l e s of s u p e r v i s i o n , l a b o r p o l i c i e s and s i m i l a r f i e l d s , i s more e f f e c t i v e AFTER he h a s had a t a s t e o f s u p e r v i s o r y responsibility. For t h e f i r s t two or t h r e e weeks, t h e r e f o r e , he should be given s u p e r v i s i o n of a normal e x p e r i e n c e d group of workmen where t h e r e a r e no e x c e p t i o n a l problems of p r o d u c t i o n , d i s c i p l i n e o r worker t r a i n i n g . During t h i s f i r s t assign.ment, he should be nade r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r o u t i n e d u t i e s , such a s - shop o r d e r s , time t i c k e t s , m a t e r i a l o r d e r i n g , work assignment, r o u t i n e p r o d u c t i o n , quali t y and schedule c o n t r o l . He s h o u l d be c l o s e l y guided and coached i n t h e s e m a t t e r s by an e x p t r i e n c e d superv i s o r . He should NOT be thrown i n t o problems or c o n t r o v e r s i e s on wage payment, g r i e v a n c e s , d i s c i p l i n e , employee
    • selection, transfer o r dismissala rnainbnmcs, c o s t a n a l y s e s and l i k e q u e s t i o n s . (b) Give t h e new s u p e r v i s o r i n t e n s i v e i n s t r u--o n cti 2 weeks. - 1 to Take t h e b e g i n n i n g s u p e r v i s o r (in groups of 3 o r 4, up t o 1 2 ) o f f t h e j o b 4 hours a day f o r I5 t o 1 8 c o n s e c u t i v e days o r f u l l time f o r 6 t o 1 0 days. Give him c o n c e n t r a t e d i n s t r u c t i o ~ l i n t h e p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s of h i s new s u p e r v i s o r y job, This w i l l p r e p a r e him t o d e a l more c o n f i d e n t l y w i t h d i f f i Otherwise it may be c u l t s i t m t i o n s a s they arise. months b e f o r e he e n c o u n t e r s them and l e a r n s how t o d e a l w i t h them through c o s t l y t r i a l and e r r o r . D i s c u s s i o n of t y p i c a l o p e r a t i n g c a s e s , problems and q u e s t i o n s should be l i f t e d d i r e c t l y o u t o f j o b s i t u a t i o n s . An e x p e r i e n c e d t r a i n i n g s p e c i a l i s t , u s i n g s u i t a b l e t r a i n i n g q u a r t e r s , can t h u s h e l p b e g i n n i n g s u p e r v i s o r s t o a c q u i r e much of t h e knowl e d g e and judgment which would o t h e r w i s e r e q u i r e months o r y e a r s t o gain. This i n t e n s i v e i n s t r u c t i o n should be scheduled about a s f o l l o w s : Supervisory j o b p l a n n i n g Theory and p r a c t i c e o f ins t r u c t i n g workers Personnel r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s Labor p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s - 6 hours - 48 h o u r s - 6 hours - 6 hours This p l a n p a r t i c u l a r l y r e q u i r e s t h e c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n of management, t r a i n i n g s p e c i a l i s t and foreman a1 ike. While it is d i f f i c u l t t o t a k e t h e new mazl o f f t h e j o b , companies f i n d t h a t t h e l o n g term advantage outweighs t h e A o r t term inconvenience. A f t e r such i n s t r u c t i o n , men a r e a b l e t o a c c e p t f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y sooner and m k e fewer m i s t a k e s in t h e m e a n t h e . ( c ) Assign t h e new s u p e r v i s o r to more d i f f i c u l t and r e s p o n s i b l e work 4 t o 6 weeks. - The new s u p e r v i s o r now h a s begun t o have a b a s i s f o r j u d p e n t and should be placed i n a p o s i t i o n where he i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a normal working group i n c l u d i n g some i n e x p e r i e n c e d workers. He should have c o n t a c t w i t h t h e f u l l range of s u p e r v i s o r y problems, and under e x p e r i e n c e d coaching, should be given r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r them j u s t a s r a p i d l y a s he i s a b l e t o h a n d l e them properly.
    • -4- In some s i t u a t i o n s , i t m y be found a t this s t a g e t h a t i t w i l l expedite production i f t h e new supervisor i s given t h e s p e c i a l assignment of ins t r u c t i n g new workers. It i s sometimes advantageous t o use him on such work f o r s e v e r a l weeks or s e v e r a l months. Put t h e new supervisor "on h i s ownm, A t t h i s s t a g e , t h e new supervisor may be given normal l i n e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y under normal supervisory guidance and share i n whatever s t a f f meetings, superv i s o r y conference, or o t h e r organized a i d s a r e available . Fu-kara needs f o r supervisors should be a n t i c i p a t e d and a pool o f q u a l i f i e d nen developed. Many men a r e broadening t h e i r outlook and scope of knowhedge through out-of-hour study i n u n i v e r s i t y extension, correspondence schools, company c l a s s e s , and through individual study of company products and producing methods. Often among such men t h e r e a r e e x c e l l e n t candidates f o r beginning supervisory jobs. f t has been found advantageous t o make arrangements t o - use an o u t s i d e s e r v i c e s t a t e u n i v e r s i t y o r s t a t e rlocational education department f o r a course i n nForemanship" adapted b ; ~ h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs. t Vnder such o u t s i d e auspices, enr o l l e e s do n o t expect immediate recognition by t h e company and y e t t h e company has a pool of i n t e r e s t e d and p a r t i a l l y t r a i n e d p o t e n t i a l supervisors from which t o draw. - men pre-supervisory t r a i n i n g i s s e t up and o f f e r e d by a conpemy and open to voluntary enrollment, men who t a k e the t r a i n i n g w i l l expect recognition. This i s t r u e i n s p i t e of t h e f a c t t h a t no job o f f e r s a r e made o r implied, y e t t h e i r disappointment i s a s e r i o u s morale f a c t o r when they a r e n o t s e l e c t e d f o r supervisory positions. Washington, D. C. November 1940
    • TRAINING KLTHIN INDUSTBY BULLETIN SERIES W a r Yanpomr Commission Bursair of Training HOV TO G T A P A T TRAWIXG P A INTO ACTICN E LN LN More t r a i n h g plans f a i l because they a r e poorly presented and inadequately sold t o management than f o r any other reason, Each instance of this kind l a rolalfortunate. Even more unfortunate a r e the good plans thit operate hf, a l l f o r t h e lack of proper marmgement support. T h i s b u l l e t i n deals specFfically n t h the problem of getting a t r a i n i n g plan i n t o action so it produces r e s u l t s . - m e n the training man does ~~thing FOR the l i n e organization, the problem of s e l l i n g is usually not too d i f f i c u l t . In such cases m g e r p s n t often nee& only t o give approval. A n example i s approving a progrm of c l a s s i n a t w t i o n in any technical subject, l i k e arithmetic or blueprint reading o r e l e c t r i c i t y , or approving t h e use of engineering school extension f a c i l i t i e s . Those a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a training man does =UGH t h e line organization nt not only must be approved by management but must be done & m g 8 1 ~ ~ because they a r e a p a r t of t h e maaagement process, C R e DooIB~, Director Training Within Industry Service STEPS I CiETTJNG A PIAN INTO ACTICRi 3 i The steps required t o launch a training plan w i l l vary according to the plan, The following outline covers t h e four basic s t e p s which the traini4g lpan commonly follows in order t o g e t a plan i n t o action: 1 Get top management support , 2. S e l l and inform middle management 3. Select and train t h e i n s t r u c t o r s o r conference leaders 4. Schedule sessions - his material w i l l be useful t o t r a i n i n g men in l a r g e o r small companies whether they have f u l l o r pafl-time r e s p o n s i b i l i t y whether o r not they are c a l l e d training men in f a c t t o anyone responsible f o r training in a staff capacity, who wants t o get r e s u l t s through the l i n e organization. - - GETTING TOP M N G M N SUPPORT AAE ET Top management is the operating o f f i c i a l who has the f i n a l authority t o say ayean or %on on any question t h a t requires management approval. What preparation should be made p r i o r t o t h e i n t e r v i m T h i s i s often the key t o the success of t h e whole program, Be c l e a r in your own mind j u s t what i s t o be accanplished. I n p r a c t i c a l l y every case there a r e j u s t two end objectives: t o secure acceptance of the training plan, and t o secure aareement t o sponsor it.
    • Before arranging t o p r e s e n t a p l a n t o management, t h e t r a i n i n g man must plans how he will c a r r y o u t t h e follaPring s t e p s : 1. QutlFne a p l a n and t h e mechanics of t h e necessary procedures f o r keeping t h e p l a n in a c + ' ,ion. 2. - E s t a b l i s h t h e d u t i e s of a l l persons with staff r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r keeping t h e plan in c o n t i n u h g operation. - 6 3. E s t a b l i s h t h e d u t i e s of those w i t h l i n e o r o p e r a t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r keeping t h e p l a n in continuing operation. 4. Outline a p l a n t o e v a l u a t e t h e r e s u l t s in terms of measurable data: production i n c r e a s e s r e d u c t i o n in "break-2nn time savings in s c r a p savings in manpower 5. savings in machine use fewer a c c i d e n t s l e s s fatigue reduction of grievances Get management agreement t o review t h e s e r e s u l t s a t r e g u l a r periods a s a b a s i s of giving encouragement and backing. 6 . E s t a b l i s h procedure f o r g e t t i n g r e p o r t s of r e s u l t s and production b e n e f i t s routed t o t h e t o p executive. Supporting m a t e r i a l and e x h i b i t s must be ready. The value of such m a t e r i a l s v a r i e s according t o t h e man using them and a l s o accordhg t o t h e execut i v e t o be sold. Some supporting m a t e r i a l s which might be used a r e : r e s u l t s r e p o r t s from o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s c h a r t s of production problems and t h e i r s o l u t i o n through t r a i n i n g samples of t h e iaaterials t o be used in t h e t r a i n i n g plan H a w should t h e interview be conducted? Each i n t e r v i e w d i f f e r s according t o t h e personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i c g . The following p o i n t s cover many of t h e important de+,ails: S t a t e purpose of t h e m e e t i s : Some executives w a n t t o g e t t h e recommendation o r proposition s t a t e d in a point-blank manner a t t h e beginning. Others want backgromd before hearing your plan o r conclusions. Build t h e advantages t o him and t o t h e organization: S e l l him on t the training n BUM you have t o discuss n o t nTraining.n Avoid arguments use t h e n y e s b u t n approach. - - t - G t a decision: e - a. ell him how it works o u t l i n e t h e mechanics you recommend, i e , your recormendation f o r l e a d e r s , s e s s i o n s , and t h e l i k o . .. b. Secure h i s d e f i n i t e accsptance - ask him t o approve o r designate t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who w i l l a s s i s t in t h e p1.a.n. I i I L I i
    • C. E s t a b l i s h his r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g e t t i n g t h e plan off t o a good start. Get him t o agree to: p e r s o n a l l y sponsor the plan, apprcve t h e d e t a i l s , and c a l l and chairman t h e meeting a t which it w i l l be launched ( s e t d e f i n i t e d a t e i f p o s s i b l e ) . d. E S - ~ b l i s h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g e t t i n g CONTINUING results. h B m r e of t o o ready acceptance - of t o o ready a Many a t r a i n k g has been swept off hLs f e e t by a t o p executive who agreed t o evargthing promptly, or s a i d o r implied, "You j u s t go r i g h t ahead and do it," Then back in h i s rn o f f i c e t h e t r a i n i n g man r e a l i z e d t h a t , i n s t e a d of g e t t i n g t h e bosh t o t a k e t h e a lead, he w s t o t a k e t h e lead. - Perhaps t h e executive w i l l n o t give final. agreement until t h e matter i s discussed w i t h t h e executive staff. If t h i s i s t h e case, arrange f o r such a meeting immediately. Cover t h e complete s t o r y w i t h - t h e executive group. AAE ET SELLING AND INFORMING MU)DLE M N G M N A meeting w i t h executives is conducted t o g e t group approval of t h e t r a i n i g plan, t o convince them of i t s value, and t o secure t h e m a x h u m p o s s i b l e undern standing and cooperation of a l l Inanagement. It i s necessary f o r a s p e c i f j.c date and time t o be s e t and a s a t i s f a c t o r y meeting room arranged. The meeting n u s t be c a l l e d by t h e TOP EXECUTNE over HIS SIGNATURE, Wt should be covered i n such a meeting? The introduction should be made by the sponsoring executive. The p l a n i s presented by t h e t r a i n i n g man, t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s d i r e c t o r , t h e works manager, o r by t h e person who c a r r i e s t h e most weight and who can be persuaded t o do the job. This p r e s e n t a t i o n should cover (1) w h a t t h e t r a i n i n g w i l l do in terms of production benefits, ( 2 ) what it is, and ( 3 ) w h a t must be done by management t o make t h e p l a n f u n c t i o n as a continuing production t o o l e SELECTING AND TRAINING LEADERS W o should s e l e c t t h e prospective i n s t r u c t o r s o r l e a d e r s ? h The use of s p e c i a l l e a d e r s o r i n s t r u c t o r s i s n o t a required part of every program, of course. The i n i t i a l l i s t should be p u t togethar by t h e t r a i n i n g man. Depending on t h e s i z e of t h e plant, he should g e t t h e counsel of o t h e r s regarding the a b i l i t y of each proposed leader. The f i n a l a c t of s e l e c t i n g and n o t i f i c a t i o n should be done by each prospective l e a d e r ' s own boss. Who make the b e s t leaders? Personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e among t h e most important considerations: l, Operating men o f t e n make e x c e l l e n t leaders. However, some operating people a r e t o o busy and a r e victims of too many pressures. 2. nAcceptabil.ityn of t h e l e a d e r s can be a c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r . 3 . The all-round a b i l i t y of a prospect i s t h e most important consideraThe job must be done by those who " c a n ' t be spared." The program f a i l s i f done by those ppwho haven't much t o do anyhow." tion.
    • 4. Competent s t a f f people o f t e n can give time more r e a d i l y and can do t h e b e s t l e a d e r s h i p job. D l e a d e r s need any s p e c i a l p r e p a r a t i o n ? o Even Ff t h e meetings are n o t more t h a n staff meetings with t h e i r rn people l e a d e r s need some help. If t h e y a r e t o hold s p e c i a l meetings o r if t h e y a r e t o bcome t r a i n e r s f o r any of t h e T.W.I. programs, t h e y need even more a t t e n t i o n . The t r a i n i n g man must arrange f o r t h e s p e c i a l coaching t o be given t o t h e l e a d e r s . This coaching may vary from a s h o r t one-hour explanation of t h e companyls p l a n f o r handling r e t u r n i n g veterans, t o a f i v e o r six-day I n s t i t u t e on how t o s u c c e s s f u l l y conduct one of t h e 10-hour T.PT.1. programs. P r i o r t o t h e beginning of t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n t o handle a new program, t h e prospective l e a d e r s should be c a l l e d t o g e t h e r and a l l p o i n t s connected w i t h "who does what, and whenn c l e a r e d up. A t t h i s meeting, t h e t r a i n i n g man can n s i z e up" t h e group and perhaps pick o u t t h o s e who wonlt make t h e grade. It w i l l save time and embarrassment t o him and t h e prospective l e a d e r s if this can be t a c t f u l l y handled ahead of t h e . GSTT I N G SESSIONS PROPERLY SCHEDULED When should s e s s i o n s be scheduled? BEFOIE t h e prospective l e a d e r o r t r a i n e r a t t e n d s t h e s p e c i a l l e a d e r s ' conference, a l l arrangements f o r s e s s i o n s he w i l l p u t on YUST be completed. The l e a d e r l o s e s his enthusiasm if he has t o wait a week or two before he p u t s on his first session. A s a result, he has f o r g o t t e n many of t h e f i n e points; h i s mind becomes occupied w i t h o t h e r t h i n g s , and he does a mediocre job. What must be considered in scheduling s e s s i o n s ? 1. N u m b e r of supervisors o r o t h e r s t o be t r a i n e d . 2. T b t a b l e f o r coverage, s t a r t i n g d a t e s , and s t a r t i n g groups. 3. Determination a s t o whether t r a i n i n g i s t o be during working hours management should be urged t o compensate supero r o u t of hours v i s o r s f o r any out-of-hours time s p e n t on b a s i c t r a i n i n g . - 4. S e l e c t i o n of meeting rooms and checking of equipment. 5. N o t i f i c a t i o n of persons who a r e t o meet in each group (such n o t i f i c a t i o n should come from each person1s boss). - Any t r a i n i n g program t h a t involves supervisory p r a c t i c e throughout t h e ~ l a n it b a b i g job. One of t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s with t h e t r a i n i n g function in most companies i s that t r a i n i n g men and management a l i k e t a k e a s u p e r f i c i a l view. ~ r i f l u e n c i n gt h e m y men conduct t h e i r d a i l y jobs is, in a c t u a l f a c t , one of t h e most d i f f i c u l t undertakings in t h e whole f i e l d of i n d u s t r i a l management. Any t r a i n i n g man who wants t o measure up t o t h e s i z e of t h e job t h a t he holds should start by recognizing with g r e a t confidence y e t humility t h a t t h e job i s b i g and i s d i f f i c u l t , and t h a t he can only hope t o g e t it done through the line organizat i o n . A n n e x p e r t on t r a i n i n g " cannot do it a l l himself.
    • TRAINING WITHIN INDUSTRY BULLETIN S E m S Bureau of Training War Manpower Commission Washington, D. C. December, 1944 HOW TO G T CONTINUING RESULTS F O PLANT TRAINING PIDGRAE E RM i ! plans f o r using t h e knowledge and s k i l l acquired t-bough t r a i n i n g must be approved a t t h e same time as p l a n s f o r t r a i n i n g a r e adopted. There a r e f o u r fundamental t h i n g s that t h e LINE o r g a n i z a t i o n must do t o a s s u r e that r e s u l t s a r e obtained: - Assign r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Get adequate coverage. Provide f o r coaching. Report; r e s u l t s and give c r e d i t . "Continuing r e s u l t s l f a r e obtained in v a r i o u s ways. A company may t a k e v a r i o u s means t o s e e t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e workers who have beeninstructed e i t h e r in group s e s s i o n s o r through personal i n s t r u c t i o n - use w h a t t h e y have learned. ~ a t u r a l l y h e only persons who can insist on use and t b u i l d r e a l v a l u e s a r e those in t h e LINE organization. - --- -- However, a STAFF person u s u a l l y has an important place in helping t h e p l a n t t o g e t r e s u l t s . Such a staff person g e t s h i s management t o remind t h e l i n e organization from time t o t h e that continuing r e s u l t s a r e expected. The s t a f f person should never do t h i s reminding. He a l s o provides t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e l i n e organization on e x a c t l y HOW t o use t h e t r a i n i n g that has been received. - The way of providing t h i s continuing a t t e n t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e v a r i e s from p l a n t t o p l a n t . One manager, f o r example, may keep company a c t i v i t i e s going mainly by means of r e p o r t s and w i l l want t o emphasize r e p o r t s on r e s u l t s on each accordt r a i n i n g . Another manager does t h i s by means of p e r i o d i c meetings i n g t o his h a b i t in handling o t h e r production matters. - C. R. Dooley, D i r e c t o r Training Within I n d u s t r y Service FOR GETTING CONTINUING RESULTS There a r e f o u r f u n d d e n t a l p o i n t s t h a t must be c a r r i e d o u t in order t o g e t contin'uing r e s u l t s from any t r a i n i n g : 1. Assign R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Getting Continuing Results. The sponsoring executive must make it c l e a r t o t h e members of t h e executive and supervisory s t a f f t h a t t h e y a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e s u l t s . Many t o p executives c a l l a meeting of a l l t h o s e in t h e middle management group f o r t h i s purpose. I
    • g e t t h e t o p executive t o t a k e a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n on t h i s fundamental, the t r a i n i n g d i r e c t o r can g e t a d e c i s i o n by d i s c u s s i n g t h e p r e s e n t procedure f o r informing t h e executive and supervisory o r g a n i z a t i o n of any new r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o r a new policy. TO 2. Get Adequate Coverage. In any t r a i n i n g program, adequate coverage means t r a i n i n g f o r every person who needs t h e s p e c i f i c knowledge o r s k i l l and f o r t h e i r s u p e r i o r s t o t h e e x t e n t needed by them in order t h a t they support t h e program. In a d d i t i o n t o g e t t i n g adequate coverage i n t h e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s , r e f r e s h e r o r ttbrush up', s e s s i o n s a r e often used t o advantage. - e t t i n g adequate coverage i s o f t e n necessary before it becomes p o s s i b l e t o do much in t h e way of a s s u r i n g continuing r e s u l t s . It should be made c l e a r that t h e more every supervisor and e v e r y e x e c u t i v e knows a b o u t t h e p a r t i c u l a r t r a i n i n g program, t h e b e t t e r he can supervise i t s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r continuing results. any programs f a i l t o g e t r e s u l t s because t h e coverage was n o t adequate, and t h e r e was n o t s u f f i c i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n f a r enough up t h e l i n e . Top executives take i n t e r e s t i n scrap, a c c l d e n t r a t e s , e t c . should. t h e y have l e s s information about t h e s t e p s taken t o overcoffie t h e s e problems? - 3. Provide f o r Coaching . - Supervisors g e n e r a l l y provide a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e i r subordinates on a l l day-to-day operating matters. S i m i l a r a s s i s t a n c e should be provided on t h o s e phases of t h e operating job t h a t have been emphasized and "sharpened up* through s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g . Coaching, t h e r e f o r e , should be given t o supervisors and workers by t h e i r awn bosses. This i s t h e procedure t o be recommended and "sold" whenever p o s s i b l e because it g e t s t h e best r e s u l t s . Coaching includes n o t o n l y t h e refinement of t h e content m a t e r i a l , but t h e development of d e s i r e and intere s t in t h e v a l u e of the t r a i n i n g t o t h e i h d i v i d u a l . Every supervisor ( t h e same a s every worker) r e f l e c t s t h e thinking of h i s boss. I f h i s boss shows i n t e r e s t , he shows i n t e r e s t . I f h i s boss considers a matter important, he l i k e l y c o n s i d e r s it h i p o r t a n t . coach= b y h e boss demons t r a t e s t h a t t h e company r e a l l y "means business." -- The t r a i n i n g d i r e c t o r u s u a l l y a s s i s t s t h e l i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n by providing one t h a t w i l l c l a r s y any misunderstandings a d re-emphasize a l l b a s i c p o i n t s but line e x e c u t i v e s themselves should do the coaching. D e t a i l s on coaching a r e given in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n of this bulletin, a simple, s p e c i f i c coaching procedure 4. - Report Results t o Management and Give C r e d i t . Appropriate executives should be informed as t o r e s u l t s of any t r a i n i n g in order t o give s u i t a b l e support. Busy executives need t o know what i s going on so they can a p p r a i s e r e s u l t s . Experience has shown t h a t wherever continuing r e s u l t s a r e obtained t h e r e i s a flow of d e f i n i t e information t o executives about these r e s u l t s ,
    • How t h i s information i s t o be conveyed, how often, and in what form i s a matter f o r each c o n p m y f s decision. Naturally, t h e purpose of any r e p o r t o r periodic review i s t o show t h e r e l a t i v e improvement accomplished by t h e use of t h e p a r t i c u l a r t r a i n i n g program. Pihela d i s c u s s i n g with a p l a n t executive r e s u l t s t o be expected, it must be fernernbered that mimy influences in a p l a n t may coritribcte t o c e r t a i n r e s u l t s . ~~&iXing programs help g e t b e t t e r results, of course, b u t should never be presented a s t h e only mevls f o r conplete s o l u t i o n of a l l production problems. mompt and proper r e c o g n i t i o n by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e executive i s necessary t o obtain continuing i n t e r e s t and, hence, continuing results. Again, how o f t e n and by what means c r e d i t i s t o be given a r e d e c i s i o n s The giving of c r e d i t i s perhaps t h e most powerful f o r c e that can operate t o s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm, and continued a c t i o n . each company must make. Pi#)VISION FOR COACHING Coaching i s t h e t h i r d of t h e fundamentals f o r g e t t i n g continuing r e s u l t s nentioned on t h e previous page. There a r e two o b j e c t i v e s i n any coachjng pwcedure : To give t h e supervisor a renewed understanding of haw t o improve his use of w h a t he has l e a r n e d in t h e t r a i n i n g program, and t o s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t and d e s i r e t o use t h e t r a i n i n g based on t h e r e s u l t s t o him personally. Whether t h i s understanding i s g o t t e n over t o each person i n d i v i d u a l l y or i s given t o s e v e r a l in a small group i s a matter t o be decided in each instance. The one e s s e n t i a l i s t o g e t a thorough understanding of the program and i t s value. How t o Coach e t t i n g a n e g l i g e n t worker o r s u p e r v i s o r t o promise t o "do b e t t e r n o r "showing him hmtt i s n o t coaching. The o b j e c t i v e of any coaching i s t o have each person understand and use w h a t he has learned. A s an example, it has been found t h a t , in i n c r e a s i n g t h e s k i l l s of i n s t r u c t i o n , of improving methods, and of leading, t h e following f i v e coaching steps a r e adequate and e f f e c t i v e . I t i s n o t expected t h a t a l l f i v e items w i l l be used i n t h e order l i s t e d o r t h a t a l l f i v e w i l l be covered a t any one contact. Naturally, t h e coach must be thoroughly grounded in t h e p a r t i c u l a r program before he can use t h e coaching technique. Give reasons and advantages why t h e program should be used. (hod t a n g i b l e reasons f o r using t h e program under discussi.on, based on s p e c i f i c departmental experience if possible, shonld be presented - t y p i c a l reasons such a s :
    • Less t o o l breakage Fewer accidents Less scrap Shortened break-in time 2. Better use of manpower Savings in materials Better use of space More production per machine-hour Fewer misf i t s Fewer gripes Fewer grievances Lessturnover 1 I G t understanding of the principles. e It i s e s s e n t i a l Lo review t h e basic principles or chief points of t h e i prograza, Every point should be c l a r i f i e d . A good way t o determine whether the i program i s understood i s t o ask questions about various points. The application of the various p o i n t s t o some cuprent problem or s i t u a t i o n makes them p r a c t i c a l i a d vital. Always use plenty of "reasons why." I 8 3. Select a problem and work on it together. L This i s t h e most helpful coaching device t h a t can be provided. The per- : . son may need help i n identifying a problem. Whatever t h e problem t h a t is identi. f i e d , nothing shows so c l e a r l y the usefulness of t h e t r a i n i n g program as working I I it out together. Working it out together should mean t h a t t h e coach o f f e r s guidance and a s s i s t a n c e but does NOT do much of t h e work h i m e l f . The coach sees t h a t t h e METHOD i s used; t h e s u p m l s o r makes the application, [ - L . Ask him t o work out another problem alone. h o t h e r problem should be i d e n t i f i e d and t h e person being coached i s asked t o go ahead and work it out alone. T h i s w i l l increase his confidence in h i s own a b i l i t y . It a l s o provides a l o g i c a l reason f o r agreeing t o check with each other a t a later date. 5 . I t: PI i I a2 i YO Give him c r e d i t f o r good r e s u l t s and good e f f o r t . I Appropriate c r e d i t should be given according t o p l a n t custom. Often a determined e f f o r t t o apply a program in the face of many d i f f i c u l t i e s i s as worthy of c r e d i t as a c t u a l r e s u l t s . The giving of c r e d i t should not, of course, be overdone. The thought should be l e f t t h a t these occzsional checks a r e never t o be concluded. The supervisor being coached should understand that he i s expected t o use what he has learned in t h e program, t h a t he w i l l be checked as t o h i s use of it, and t h a t he can receive some t i p s on HOW t o use it, month a f t e r month, presumably a s long as t h e supervisory r e l a t i o n s h i p i s maintained. t w du to Jol bet - "I whs cax the mez i m is abo Go a w men job
    • T W K I N G PlTITHXN INDUSTRY BUIJBTIB # 4 4 Washington, D. C. Bureau of T r a i n i n g WlAR MILWPrn'ER COMBQISSIO?J December, 1942 H TO IMPROVE JOB METHODS m You know m a t e r i a l 6 a r e growing s c a r c e r . @chines a r e d i f f i c u l t t o g e t o r r e p l a c e . And manpower i s g e t t i n g t o be a c r i t i c a l i s s u e . A b i g p a r t of t h e answer i s t o d e v e l o p b e t t e r ways o f doing t h e m r k you supervise w i t h t h e manpower, ma c h i n e s , and m a t e r i a l a NOF AVP.ILABLE. Perhaps you worked o u t a b e t t e r way to do one o f t h e jobs you s u p e r v i s e today. I f so, you made a n important c o n t r i b u t i o n t o v i c t o r y . But a r e you working o u t b i t t e r methods e v s r y day? - - Here i s a P l a n t h a t w i l l h e l p you develop t h o s e BETTER JOB METHODS NOIT. I t d l 1 h e l p you t o produce g r e a t e r q u a n t i t i e s , o f q u a l i t y products, i n l e s s time. The p r i n c i p l e s a r e n o t new. The P l a n was worked o u t i n i t s p r e s e n t p r a c t i c a l and u s a b l e f o m by i n d u s t r i a l men who a r e f a c i n g t h e same problems a s yourself. Use t h i s p l a n every day. Use it on EVERY job you s u p e r v i s e . The more you u s e it, t h e more o p p o r t u n i t i e s you w i l l f i n d t o p u t it t o work. Today, t h e need i s t o improve JOB METHODS t o h e l p do t h e b i g g e s t prod u c t i o n job i n h i s t o r y ! The need i s f o r you t o make XORE improvements and t o make them NOW! - - 0. B Dooley, Mreutor . Training Withln Inhetry S e n i c e Job Irmprovement h a s always been a part o f your job. You a r e l o o k i n g f o r improvements e v e r y day. This i a , and always h a s been, Continued improvement of b a s i c i d e a e h a s made our country a p a r t of your job. what it i s . Think o f t h e automobiles of 1 5 y e a r s ago. Campare them w i t h t h e c a r s of today. Remember t h e radio o f a few y e a r s ago? And t h e a i r p l a n e s ? And i n f a c t , thousands of modern p i e c e s o f f i g h t i n g equipthe r i f l e s and gun8 ment t h a t were unknown a few y e a r s ago? A l l t h i s p r o g r e s s i s t h e r e s u l t o f improvemnt. Some o f it i s improvement i n design t o be sure. But much o f i t i s improvement i n t h e METHODS of production. You may n o t be a b l e t o do much about basin "sign, b u t you CAN do something about t h e production methods. - - - G a f t e r the o " -11 things ." Look f o r t h e hundreds .of s m a l l t h i n g s you can improve. Don't t r y t o p l a n a whole new department l a y o u t o r go a f t e r pl big new i n s t a l l a t i o n of new equipThere i s n l t time fbr t h e s e major i t e m s . Look f o r improvements on e x i s t i n g rnent. jobs, with your p r e s e n t equipment. - 1'-2t;AL P1 of 4 h.1 r- '-
    • The "WAY" you mike improvements i s o f f i r s t importance. Go back i n your memory a s a workman. Reneaber t h e time yo-l! "put up" w i t h a job becauss it WRS awkward and causod you needless- t r o u b l e and worry? Remember the " b e t t e r wayn you f i n a l l y worked o u t which woulO have made i t s a f e r and e a s i e r t o do? Remember how you wanted t o t e l l your boss about y o u r i d e a b u t he wasn't t h e kinC o f a f e l l o w who was easy t o t a l k t o , and you n s v o r mentioned it t o him? - 8 r perhaps, you remember t h e time when t h e b o s s "sprungfi h i s new method on you ~ q jrou had a p r e t t y tough time "swallowine;" it. d You w i l l NEVEE f o r g e t t h e t h o when t h e boss "had a n i d e a w and asked you f o r YGC'P, o p i n i o n about it, and how you nade s e v e r a l good improvements i n h i s p l a n and how pleased you were. Then go h ~ c k over your e x p e r i e n c e a s a s u p e r v i s o r . t o t h e boss?" I t was r a t h e r p o o r l y ' Iiemember t h s time you p u t a new l a e a worked o u t and he found a "bug" i n your p l a n r i g h t o f f ? And you d i d n ' t propose $ any more. J I IlenernSer t h e time you r e a l l y had a good plan, b u t you n e g l e c t e d t o g e t some of your f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s and e n g i n e e r s " i n on i t w and t h e plan f e l l f l a t ? Then, o f course, you w i l l NEVER f o r g e t t h e " b e t t e r wayw you worked o u t , t h a t You s t i l l can f e e l t h e s a t i s f a o t i o n t h a t i t gave you. - - w a s p u t i n t o e f f e c t and t h a t d i d work. How t o I m ~ r o v eJob Methods. - - BETTER JOB YETHODS a r e needed NOW d e s p e r a t e l y so b u t t h e r e i s a RIGHT WAY t o make them. Here i s t h e p l a n . I t h a s worked i n thousands o f c a s e s , and o i n p r a c t i c a l l y every kind o f i n d u s t r y . There a r e FOUR STEPS t o follow. N one No one s t e p i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e othep. s t e p can be omitted. STEP I. BREAK DOWN -- t h e job. - 1. L t s t a l l d e t a i l s of t h e job e x a c t l y a s done by t h e P r e s e n t Method. 2. Be sure d e t z i l s include a l l : I t e r i a l Handling & Machine Work Hand Work - t a k e any job - t a k e t h e f i r s t one you see i n your department. - just "start right inn j o t down on a s h e e t of paper e v e r y d e t a i l a s i t happens. D t h i s r i g h t a t t h e job. o Don't t r y t o do i t back a t your desk. Y o u t l l overlook something i f you do. d o n ' t be s e c r e t i v e o r mysterious about it. T e l l your workers what you are doing. R e f r a n k and open about t h e 1 i s t i n g : o f d e t a i l a. I I
    • STEP TI. 1. QUESTICX e v e r y d e t a i l . Use t h e s e Qpea of questions: WHY i s i t n e c e s s a r y ? WHAT i s i t s purpose? WHERE should i t b e done? n%XN should i t b e done? KHO i s b e s t q u a l i f i e d t o do i t 7 HOW i s " t h e b e s t wayw t o do i t ? 2. Also q u e s t i o n t h e : M a t e r i a l s , kh~chiffes, Equipment, Tools, Produot Design, L ~ y o u t ,Work P l a c e , S a f e t y , Housekeeping. - j u s t s t a r t down your s h e e t of d e t a i l s . q u e s t i o n i n g each one. Start you won't g e t f a r , u s u a l l y , u n t i l some improvements w i l l occur t o you. p r h a p s a "BETTER WAY" w i l l " f l a e h " i n t o your mind. I!old t h i s "new idea" t e m p o r a r i l y and q u e s t i o n EVERY DETAIL cn your l i s t b e f o r e you s t a r t t o "dope o u t n t h e b e t t e r way. If you s t o p t o work y o u r " f l a s h , " a p you m y h e l p o n l y - - a r t o f t h e job, and o v e r l o o k a b r o a d e r o r more u s e f u l improvement. - - - STEP 111. DEVELOP t h e new method. -1. ELIMIXATE unnecessary d e t a i l s . 2. CCMEiNE d e t a i l s when p r a c t i c a l . 3. RLAHHh?IGE d e t a i l s f o r b e t t e r sequence. 4. SILPI,IFY a l l n e c e s s a r- d e t a i l s . y / (a) (b) (cj (d) (e) -- Make t h e work e a s i e r and s a f e r . P r e - p o s i t i o n m a t e r i a l s , t o o l s and equipment a t t h e b e s t p l a c e s i n t h e p r o p e r work a r e a . Use g r a v i t y - f e e d hoppers and d r o p - d e l i v e r y c h u t e s when p r a c t i c a l . L e t b o t h hands do u s e f u l work. Use j i g s acd f i x t u r e s i n s t e a d o f hands, f o r h o l d i n g work. OUT your i d e a WITH o t h e r s . 5. !K!i?K 6. N r i t e up your proposed new method.
    • - e l i m i n a t i n g unnecessary d e t a i l s prevents m s t e of m t e r i a l s and manpower. - combining and r e a r r a n g i n g overcome "back t r a c k i n g R and double handling. - s i m p l i f y i n g makes t h e j o b e a s i e r and s a f e r t o do. onw your the - be s u r e Don'te tworkl ohuot s teh econcerned " i nand "springidea fromyour to g al t it" on new method start. people. This a p p l i e s t o your boss, your a s s o c i a t e s , a n d p a r t i c u l ~ r l yt o your workers. The b e s t way of a l l i s t o work -out 2 pnrk - your i d e a w i t h them. b4ake them - ~--- " it. - - STEP IV. APPLY t h e new m t h o d . 1. 2 3 . . Sell boss. -your proposal t o t h e Sell -t h e new method t o t h e o p e r a t o r s . % Get f i n a l approval of a l l concerned on Safety, Quality, Q u a n t i t y and Cost. 4. R l t t h e new nethod t o work. Use it u n t i l a b e t t e r way i s developed. 5. Give c r e d i t where c r e d i t i s due. - t h e boss must be "sold" t o g e t h i s approval f o r a t r i a l run. t h e o p e r a t o r may need t o know more about i t t o give t h e new method a f a i r t e s t . t h e new nethod can y i e l d i n c r e a s e d production only a f t e r i t l s a c t u a l l y working. - w i l l be a b e t t e r swaye s-t way, yous w i l l work today. Tomorrow t h e r e remember, today b i only f o r and it out! - tsot e suggestions,e aeven r ei fa l many of them asabotage. ideas." a l i n g an id is l y a fonn of Be open-minded r e "wild l A really good one w i l l come along t h a t can c o n t r i b u t e t o v i c t o r y . Often a new method w i l l "pop" i n t o your mind w i t h o u t working through t h e s e FOUR STEPS. This i s t c be expected a t t h e s t a r t . However, t h e s e " f l a s h e s " w i l l soon be exhausted. Don't expect them t o continue. For c o n s i s t e n t improvement, you must t h i n k your way c a r e f ' u l l y through AU of t h e FOUR STEPS. You w i l l have t o d i g beneath t h e s u r f a c e f o r most of y o u r improvements. hlake t h e l o b e a s i e r and s a f e r . - 3CT t o make people RememSer, your purpose i s t o nake j o b s e a s i e r and s a f e r work h a r d e r o r f a s t e r . T h i s i s NOT a s p e d - u p plan. I t I S to show people how t o work more e f f s c t i v e l y . Keep t h i s b a s i c p~ ?ose c l e a r l y i n mind and you c a n ' t Furthermore, yo:: w i l l f i n d "irnproviug jjoS methods" i s an i n t e r e s t i n g faii. undertaking. tilosf, i n p o r t a n t of a l l i s t h e f . c t t h a t you w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o - VICTORY!
    • I I TRAINING W I T H I N IBlDlJSTRY BDLLETIB Washington, 3. C . W r Manpower Colaairsion a Bureau of T r a i n i n g Jme, 1944 HOW TO W R O V E JOB REZATIONS I n t h e m times, f o r maximum production, m h i n e s and m a t e r i a l s a r e n o t e enough. W need t h e i n d i v i d u a l s k i l l s and t h e maximum cooperation of every man and woman who i s a t work t u r n i n g out what our armed f o r c e s aad c i v i l i a n workers have t o have. You h o w how important it i s nut t o have any l o s t production because of misunderstandings on t h e job, o r because people d o n o t r e a l i z e t h e v i t a l p a r t t h e y have i n t h e war e f f o r t , o r ~ b e o a u s esome one i s slowed down on h i s job by thing8 t h a t happened o f f t h e job. Ibrperienoed supervirors who have demonstrated t h e i r a b i l i t y t o "work w e l l with peopleN have developed a s p e o i a l skill. You can a c q u i r e t h i s r k i l l . By making use of it, you o m be more s u r e of meeting your produotion requirements. This i s t h e time; and t h e p l a c e i s r i g h t where you are1 C R Dooley, Direotor . . Training Within I n d w t r y S e r r i u e Doea anyone i n your department ever / r e f u s e t o do some p a r t i c u l a r job? O r , maybe, even q u i t h i s job? Do you have any people who e r e disoouraged o r who I M I C ~ o t h e r people d i r r a t i r f i e d ? you do Are t h e r e any changes being made i n your p l a n t i n t h e people you work with? - - i n how you work, what Does everyone cams t o work r e g u l a r l y , o r a r e you e v e r held up by absenteei s m ? And do you ever f i n d you a r e by-passed by people who go over your head t o your o ~ o s a ? A 1 1 job r e l a t i o n s problems don't oome up a t onoe, but t h e y do occur, and management does hold s u p r v i s o r s responsible f o r hendling suoh p r o m e m . - The supervisor today needs a high degree of r k i l l t o handle h i s om pro& I s m s . But, u p a r t of t h e s k i l l , f i r s t of a l l , he needs a r t r o n g foundation f o r good r e l a t i m s h ~ ~ h - t h e p e o p l whose work he d i r e a t s . e THE FOUND&TION O F GOOD RBUTIONS - You do not produoe a t a n of s t e e l , b u i l d a s i n g l e jeep it i s t h e people you ruperviae who t u r n out production. The supervisor needs t o remember oonstantl y t h a t r e s u l t s oome through people. -
    • There a r e c e r t a i n basio p r i n c i p l e s *id1 a r e foundations i n e s t a b l i s h i e and maintaining good r e l a t i o n s between you and t h o s e whose work you d i r e o t . &lwayr remember t o r Let eaoh worker know how he i s g e t t i n g along. Qfve o r e d i t when h e . T e l l people i n advmoe about ohanger t h a t rill e f f e o t them. Make best ure of m h personqt a b i l i t y . m There p r i n o i p l e s apply t o a11 workers, and t h e y do n o t represent action6 which are t o bo t a k e n only onoe or a t r a r e i n t e d s . Constantly following them i n day-to-day o p e r a t i o n w i l l pay dividends. Let eaoh - worker know haw h e i r g e t t i n 4 alaol~;. 3 - It i s important t o keep people posted on how t h e y a r e maasusing up against what i s expeoted ef them, The 'ev@rything i s a l l right u n l e s s I tell you sow philosophy doer n o t f i t i n t o modern supervision. The m m who i s doing a l l r i g h t should be t o l d so. And it i s o f t e n more important t o cheok t h e person who i s @ s t beginning t o rkid. If you have t o s a y 'you're been s l i p p i n g f o r q u i t e a w l ~ i h ,you knau what t h e worker w i l l f e e l ~ "why d i d n ' t you t e l l me sooner?" - - G i v e o r e d i t &en due. The worker and t h e department deserve t o ' h o w when t h e i r e f f o r t s have oont r i b u t e d t o an acoauplishwnt. Reoognition of good work o r f a i t h f u l perforaaaoe e x t r a e f f o r t again. youplike t o g e t proper o r e d i t yourmakes it e u i e r t o self - T e l l people in advance about ohanges t h a t w i l l a f f e c t them. It i s n o t always p o s s i b l e f o r you t o l e t a worker " i n w on a l l decisions which a f f e c t him, but h e can and should always be given t h e ohance t o "have h i s s a g e m If you give t h e reason f o r changes before t h e y a r e made, you dl1 avoid many misunderstandings. Make b e s t use of each peraon's a b i l i t y , Everyone l i k e s t o f e e l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n war time, t h a t he i s working a t h i s h i g h e s t l e v e l of s k i l l and a b i l i t y . Take advantage of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n kinds of work, and give each person a s much and a s responsible work a s he oan Piandl e . T I E W I N G PEOPLE AS INDIVIDUALS While t h e s e faundetians apply t o a l l people, you cannot l e t it go a t " t r e a t i n g them a11 a l i k e e n Bo one wants t o be h o l m simply as a ti=-card n m M r o r an "the new manw n e i t h e r you nor those you supervise. W a r e a l l e d i f f e r e n t . What happen6 t o one operator off t h e Jab makes him d i f f e r e n t fraa h i 8 partner on t h e saee job. Eaah of u t r a n t s t o be known f o r h i s uwn personal o h a r a u t o r i t t i c s . There a r e t h i n g s that ou f e e l a r e important t o you a s an OndiribPrl, You must remember o t h e r i v duals f e e l t h e rams way. - ndK -
    • Applying these foundations of good worker-supervioor r e l a t l a n r w i l l n o t p a r a n t e e slnooth operation f o r you, but ail1 prevent mamy r i r m d e r s t m d i n g s . However, t h e r e a r e Other t h i n g s rihioh ou muat oonrlder. Y m need to know each individual e q l o y e e . d rhnt i s irpo m ~ C ~ fm o to b o u n d u your people f o r everyday operation of ybur depaxlanent, and you p a r t l o u l a r l y need t h i s information when you have a d i f f i c u l t situation to handle r a a job rel a t i o n s problem. % Because change8 do ooour, and problems do a r i s e , you need to have sldll i n handling t h e s i t u a t i o n s rrhiah a r e within your r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Often you u e on t h e spot and you f e e l you must do something W e d i a t e l y . Hasty a d i o n nay man t h a t you have a rcore d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n to bandle l a t e r . You always aut stop t o consider just w h a t you a r e t r y i n g t o acoomplish. These s t e p s should $hen be wnsidered a s t h e o u t l i n e f o r a c t i o n * - be don't youu hare oenolwiona. sure whole dory. Wei@ and deoide J q at B e G e t t h e fmts 2, - T.ke a o t i ~ n don't p a s t h e h o k e 3 . 4 1 . the Cheok r e s u l t s - did your a c t i o n h e l p produotiont G e t the f a o t s . Problems may oome up beorusd of something that happens a t t h e ~ n t b u t , you need t o g e t t h e whole baokground. Some of it w i l l be mnde up of f a o t s about $he employee h i s age, length of s e r r l a e , and experienoe on this Job. - You Bpibl need, of oourse, t o take i n t o considerati on both t h e plant r u l e s lrnd j u s t " m e way things &e done here. " fimmiber i n g e t t i n g t h e f a a t s you may t h i n k you know t h e person q u i t e well, but i f you o l a s s i f y him aa a "good f e l l d o r a "ohronic kicker,' you a r e not r e a l l y looking a t an individual person. You must regard hia as a person d o i s d i f f e r e n t from h i s work partner and from every other person i n t h e department, i n every s i n g l e aspect whether by a very r l i g h t or a very g r e a t degree. A s a supervfsor, you must know what t h a t aaan thinks and f e e l r about himi s he a b l e o r self m d t h e people around him. qind out what the man wants r i l l i n g t o express it m d uhat does he think should be done? and why? The e x g e r i e n ~ e dsupervisor knows t h a t he must a l s o oonaider suoh other m o r e a r h e a l t h and working oonditions which may be r f f e o t i n g t h e mm. - - If more than one person i r involved, you must go through t h e aura3 f a a t finding s t e p s f o r eaoh person. Before you amn p l a n diat t o do, p a must be s m e you r e a l l y have t h e whole s t o r y .
    • 2. Weigh and deoide. U l t h e s e f a c t s must be assembled and oonsidered together. They w i l l suggest various wpossible a c t i o n s w w h i c h you must aheck against your o b j e c t i v e , m d t h e e f f e c t on t h e individual, t h e group, a d production. When a l l t h e their f a c t o r s a r e brought together, f i t t e d i n , and considered i n the l i g h t out." The r e l a t i o n s t o each other, many times t h e r i g h t answer almost wise t h i n g t o do becomes c l e a r e r . I-f Certainly you, t h e man on t h e spot, a r e i n t h e b e s t place t o know t h e r i g h t t h i n g t o do, f o r you have t h e most complete p i c t u r e of t h e assembled f a c t s . If you jump t o oonalusions, you make poor use of your s t r a t e g i o position. When you a c t , without evaluating t h e d o l e s i t u a t i o n you a r e l i k e l y t o have more d i f f i c u l t problem t o handle l a t e r . S. Take action. While jumping t o aololusions i s a poor way t o handle supervisory problem, p u t t i n g off r a t i o n may be .equally unfortunate* A supervisor cannot "pass t h e buokn o r he, himself, w i l l be by-pasaed. However, it i s not "passing t h e buok" t o recognize a f t e r f u l l considerat i o n of t h e problem t h a t t h e r e a r e some s i t u a t i o n s whioh you cannot handle youraelf. You a l s o make a decision and t a k e a c t i o n h e n you s i r e up a s i t u s t i o n a s one on *i& you need help, o r reoognize one which i s n o t r i t h i n your own job t o handle and see t h a t it i s passed on t o t h e person who does have t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and authority. I n any action, timing muat be oonsidered t h e wrong t h i n g to ds. - t h e wrong wtimen can make it You must determine lrhether your aotion worked. If it did not, you must reexamine t h e whole s i t u a t i o n and attempt t o f i n d rhat of importanoe you overlaoked. Checking t h e r e s u l t s of a c t i o n i s neoessary In every s i t u a t i o n because conditions ohange, and u h a t worked wieh ens i n d i v i d u a l rill not n e o e s s a r i l y work rit h another. "Ow SUPERVISION Olle of t h e hardest p a r t s of your job w i l l b e t h a t of giving oonsiderrtion t o t h e importance of people i n a problem s i t u a t i o n uzd M n g what i a important t o eaoh individual person. This i r not simply a m u t b r of dotemining uhat i s right or wrong, or deciding what i r just o r unjust, but 18 a p r a o t i o a l approaoh I t o e f f e o t i v e supervision. It u y be thought t o taka t o o muoh time but day-byday use of t h i s a k i l l i n dealing w i t h people rill rev, you tima i n t h e long run. I 1 I f you know your people w e l l enough t o b u i l d them i n t o r .moth operating, group you w i l l be playlng an important p u t i n war production. t O r i g i n a l l y issued January, 1943
    • TRAINING WITHIN INDUSTRY BULLETIN SERIES Washington, D. C. December 1, 1943. BUREAU OF TRAINING, WAR MANPOWER COMMISSION HOW TO INSTRUCT A MAN ON THE JOB Your supervisors have much instructing of workers to do. This instruction is important to the worker, the supervisor, you, your plant, and to national war production. Perhaps these workers to be instructed have been with you for years or perhaps some have been transferred to your company or many may be green starting their first jobs. - - Here are some ideas that will help your supervisors instruct their workers. They have been worked out by other supervisors who had the same job to do, just as the supervisors in your plant. They are easy to follow. - But the supervisors, foremen, leadmen and gang bosses in your company will use this plan only as much as you demand that they use it. You cannot delegate orders for its use to others; you, the operating heads, are the ones who will make the use of this method accomplish real gains in the war production of your plant. It is YOUR responsibility to see they use it! C. R. Dooley, Director, Training Within Industry. WHAT YOU WANT TO DO Go back in your own memory. Remember how you felt the first day on a new job? the time you were "stumped" by a new "wrinklew on the job? the the time you got hurt? the time when you caused some scrap or re-work? times when the boss corrected you and your work? Perhaps you liked the way he did it - or perhaps you didn't? - - - - Any worker assigned to your supervisors feels the same way. He wants to make a good showing. You realize this. You are interested in four things: 1. Having the new worker come up to the quality and quantity requirements of production as quickly as possible. 2 Avoiding accidents which will injure the worker. . 3 Avoiding damage to machines or equipment. . 4 Spoiling as little work as possible. . Therefore, increasing the skill of supervision is a management responsibility. HOW YOU CAB DO IT Most of us just "jump right in" and start instructing or correcting a workman without much thought or planning. Perhaps your foremen do the same because : 1 (; -.'48131+1
    • - - They know ths job so well they've forgotten the things t a . ht Ustumpn the learner. They know it so well that they don't plan how to put it over. They know it so well that they don't pick out the key points the knacks - the things that cause accidents, scrap, re-work, delays, and damage to tools and equipment. T O instruct a man right takes just a little extra time at the moment, but it saves hours and days of time later on, and prevents a large part of the scrap, spoiled work and accidents. The following plan is simple and easy to follow. Furthermore, it works. - Before - instructing, there are FOUR GET READY POINTS to watch. They can be done in a few minutes. - instructing, there are FOUR BASIC STEPS to follow. They When really are no different than what your foremen may now be doing. But these steps help them do it and thoroughly. At least they have helped thousands of others. HOW TO GET READY TO INSTRUCT Here are the four GET READY points which should be taken care of before instructing: 1 Have a time table. . - how much skill you expect him to have. - by what date When the pressure is heavy for production and men must be trained, common replies are, "IT TAKES TIME,I1 or "A LOT OF MISTAKES ALWAYS HAPPEN," or "LET 'EM LEARN." You can help production by making a Time Table for your workers. To make a TRAINING TIME TABLE, list the jobs under your supervision across the top of a sheet of paper list your workers' names down the left-hand side - check the jobs each worker can do, opposite his name. - Determine your IMMEDIATE TRAINING NEEDS in the light of turnover, performance, present work load, and future work load. Set yourself the dates when you will have trained your workers to fill these needs. Time is short! Make and use a Time Table for yourself and your workers. 2 Break down the job. . - List the impartant steps pick out the key points. (Safety is always a key point.) You know that there are a few "key points" in every operation that cause accidents, scrap, delays,
    • and damage to tools and equipment. If these key things, are done right, the whole operation is right. If any one ' of them is missed the operation is wrong. - - - If you put the job over to the worker with these key points made clear, he will really "get it." He will do the operation right the first time. Me won't be "fighting" the work making mistakes getting hurt. - There is a quick, easy way to get the job clearly outlined in your mind. Fill out a "Breakdown Sheetn (sample enclosed) for any operations before you start to instruct the worker to do it. Do this on the job so that no key points will be overlooked. It only takes three to five minutes. This breakdown is for your own use. It is 'not to be given to the worker. 3. Have everything ready. - the right equipment, materials, and supplies. When you so much as touch a correct example. Don't use make excuses. Don't miss a right, he is more likely to job in front of a worker, set the the wrong tool. Don't fumble. Don't trick. When you have everything do the same. 4 Have the work place properly arranged. . - just as the worker will be expected to keep it. The same thing applies here as above. You must set the correct example. Put his bench, desk, stock pile, or wherever he is to work in proper order before you start to put over the job to him. won't do it if you don't do it. HOW TO INSTRUCT Here is what you should do every time you instruct a man or correct hi s work : STEP I . PREPARE THE WORKER to receive instruction. - Put him at ease. Remember he can't think straight if you make him embarrassed or scared. - State the job and find out what he already knows about it. Don't tell him things he already knows. Start in where his knowledge ends. - Get him interested in learning the job. Relate his job or operation to the final production, so he knows his work is important.
    • - Place in correct position. Don't have him see the job backwards or from any, other angle than that from which he will work. STEP 11. PRESENT THE OPERATION. - Tell him, show him, illustrate, one IMPORTANT STEP at a time. Be patient - and go slowly. Get accuracy now, speed later. - Stress the key points. Make them clear. These will make or break the operation - maybe make or break him. - Instruct clearly, completely, and patiently - but no more than he can master. Put the instruction over in small doses. He (the same as all of us) can't catch but six or eight new ideas at one time and really understand them. STEP 111. TRY OUT PERFORMANCE. - Have him do the job - correct errors. Don't or indicate that he is "thick" or "dumbn. - Have him explain each KEY POINT to you as he - STEP IV. bawl him out does the job again. A lot of us find it easy to observe motions and not really understand what we are doing. YOU want him to UNDERSTAND. Make sure he understands. Continue until YOU know HE knows. He may have to do the job half a dozen times. FOLLOW-UP. - Put him on his own. Designate to whom he goes for help. - - - Make this definite - yourself or someone you choose. The wrong person might give him a "bum steer." He has to get the feel of the job by doing it himself. Check frequently. Perhaps every few minutes at the start, to every few hours or few days later on. Be on the lookout for any incorrect or unnecessary moves. Be careful about your taking over the job too soon, or too often. Don't take it over at all if you can point out the helps he needs. Taper off extra coaching and close follow-up until he is able to work under normal supervision. Use this plan. You will find it amazing that such greatly improved results can come from such a simple plan. Use it every time you need to put over a new operation, check a man's work, or change a work rocedure. IF THE WORKER HASN'T LEARNED, THE INSTRUCTOR HASN'T TAUGHT! - 4 - ENCLOSURE : Blank Breakdown Sheet. U S . h C i E R Y H E H T P P l N T l h r OFFICE 16--3815G-1
    • I TRaINING WITHIN INDUSTRY BULLETIN SE3IES . Washington, D C. June, 1944 Bureau of Trakring War Manpower Commission HOW TO M E SPECIFIC NEEDS 3T You a r e f a c e d with meeting a d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y your management has assigned. Training i s ara every-day p a r t of g e t t i n g o u t t h e work. A traini n g p r o g ~ a mi s simply mana ement s o r anized a t t e n t i o n t o t h e problems r e l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l workers and supervisors. t o introduction, instruc *the Every supervisor has a p a r t if t h e t r a i n i n g program i s w e l l s e t up and coordinated. Your job i s t o help each supervisor t o meet h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . You aan help him by doing some t h i n g s f o r him, but t h e b i g g e s t help i s t o squi each supervfsor with and s k i l l s which w i l l enable him t o-Gas t h e most e f f e c t i v e under h i s supervision. -- - -- The business of your p l a n t i s d i f f e r e n t . Even though t h e f i n i s h e d pro+ uct i s t h e same a s in some o t h e r p l a n t , t h e r e a r e many i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s t h a t s o n t r o l t h e effectiveness from a production p o i n t of view. These must be d e a l t with in your s p e c i f i c plans. Here a r e some ideas and methods of a t t a c k t h a t have proven u s e f u l in many companies. They can be adapted t o your program i f yon cle.arly understand t h e s p e c i f i c needs of your own p l a n t which c m be met through training. C. R Dooley, Director . T r a i n i n g Within Industry Service - WHAT T R A m IS NEEDED IW YOUR PIAlE? Ia your p l a n t t h e same as it was in 19401 Or d i d you have a p l a n t in 19407 If you a r e in an o r g a n i z a t i o n which has been in e x i s t e n c e f o r some y e a r s , and you e t i l l work i n t h e same b u i l d i n g t h a t you d i d b e f o r e t h e w a r , a r e you making t h e same product? And do you h a t e t h e same o p e r a t o r s , craftsmen, and supervisors as you had two years ago? O r , were you a t r a i n i n g d i r e c t o r in t h e o l d days? N mu= c o n t r a c t o r i t h e country oan say "yerp" t o all t h e s e questions. o n W a l l have new jobs, new equipment. new people. We have a traj&ng E. e I I - Identify- Training Needs Each p l a n t has t r a i n i n g problems of i t s me The product it m~mufact u r e s , t h e m a t e r i a l s and machinery used, t h e men and women who t u r n out t h e work a l l t h e s e combine t o make t h e s i t u a t i o n in your p l a n t d i f f e r e n t . The t r a i n i n g d i r e c t o r of t h e p l a n t i s t h e one m a . n a g e m e ~ o 1 d . sresponsible f o r looking c l o s e l y a t j u s t what h i s own p l a n t needs. - - In order t o m e t t h e needs of o i f i c needs t h e ones which need =ing on t h e content, who w i l l when, how, m d h e r e it should be - your p l a n t , you must f i r s t s p o t t h e spey o u a t t e n t i o n now. T r a i n h g i s planned by be t r a i n e d , who will do t h e t r a i n i n g and c a r r i e d out. 3 u t t h e r e i s no t r a i n i n g done
    • unless t h e t r a i n i n g p l a n i s s o l d t o management and g e t s support n o t only from t h e t o p but down through t h e l i n e organization. And, of course, a l l training must be checked f o r r e s u l t s . N s i n g l e t r a i n i n g plan s t a n d s alone. You cannot s t a r t t o train supervio s o r s one day, and s e t up t o produce s k i l l e d mechanics on t h e n e x t , and arrange f o r a l o c a l v c c a t i o n a l sahool t o give r e l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n without considering their effect on each other. And you cannot ignore t h e drain you put an superisi ion i f you involve c e r t a j n s u p e r v i s o r s in t o o many p a r t s of a program a t once. Your program m u s t be coordinated t o use t h e t a l e n t in t h e p l a n t in ways which w i l l h e l p t h e l i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o g e t out production. WHAT ARE "TRAIETING EJEEDSn? - The t r a i n i n g d i r e c t o r has t o p l a n h i s own program but he aan check t h e common needs found in most p l a n t s . He t h e n has a s t a r t on plan=g t h e way he ~d11 e t h i s m p l a n t ' s needs. You g e t your b e s t t i p s in terms of t h i n g s t h a t m w e i n t e r f e r i n g with product i o n turnover, a c c i d e n t s , r e j e c t e d work, t o o l breakizge, sorap, e r r o r s in following i n s t r u c t i o n s , poor interdepartmental r e l a t i o n s . The s e ~ u s be h p r o v e d through organized t r a i n i n g . t - - Induct i o n of New Workers Getting on Lo " t h e way f a c t o r s i n g e t t i n g t h e new n o t , every person whom t h e gives him some i n f o r n a t i o n work. of doing things" i s one of t h e most important worker off t o a good start.- 'Whether you p l a n it o r new employee meets when he f i r s t aomes t o your p l a n t o r impression of t h e place where he is s t a r t i n g t o ou want him t o know? Are t h e r e r u l e s ou w i l l expeot him t o l i v e up t o ? 0 course, t h e r e a r e . And do you suppose e wants t o a l s o know such t h i n g s as j u s t how he i s supposed t o conduat h i m s e l f f O r d e n and where and how he g e t s h i s pay? What he should wear on t h e job? VVhether t h e r e a r e any p r i v i l e g e s o r p e n a l t i e s about h i s new job? Are t h e r e t h i n g s t % Would you l i k e him t o g e t t h i s information t h a t he wants or,needs from someone who w i l l give it t o him s t r a i g h t o r do you want t o l e a v e it f o r chanoe remarks, perhaps from some worker (who, though o l d e r in s e r v i c e , may n o t be t o o s u r e about t h e answers?) - A induction p l a n i s j u s t t h e simple g i v i n g of a t t e n t i o n t o t h e n e a e s s i t y n of providing a d e f i n i t e l y coordinated way f o r t h e new man or woman t o l e a r n what he needs t o know, when he needs t o know it. Information about t h e p l a n t i s n o t a l l t h a t t h e new worker needs. He must l e a r n t o do a job which w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e whole rar production of t h e p l a n t . Perhaps your p l a n t used t o have men who c a r r i e d on a s e r i e s of operations* When t h e new women come in, you may need t o t r a i n each of them t o do a s i n g l e job. - You have t o h o w what s p e c i f i o jobs a r e being f i l l e d by n m people and t o knuw what it t a k e s t o do t h a t job. Then too, t h e s e days, rany of your experienced people are being t r a n s f e r r e d t o jobs new t o them. These a r e t r a i n i n g needs easy t o i d e n t i f y and t o plan t o meet. haw
    • f s emry person in your p l a b t working f u l l t h e a t h i s h i g h e s t s k i l l ? & doe8 someone spend v a l u a b l e time on jobs v h i a h oould j u s t as w e l l be performed by a l e a s - s k i l l e d person? Both good business and good r e l a t i o n s r e q u i r e t h a t we use people a t t h e i r highast skills. But using h i g h e s t s k i l l s i s n o t enough. Sometimes m, have t o nproduoe skills." Plerasing production records oan be aohievgd by engineering jobs so t h a t r e l a t i v e l y new people can be i n s t r u c t e d q u i c k l y t o perform i n d i v i d u a l operations. But t h e s t i l l needs s k i L l r d o r a f t s & t . 1t m i l d be s h o r t s t g h t e d if UIB failed t o b u i l x - y x - r o ~ d s k i l l e d workers through w e l l planned upgrading axd apprentioe p r o g r a m , Muoh p l a n t t h e oan be saved i f t h e p u b l i c t r a i n i n g courses f o r preproduotion and eupplementary inertruotion a r e u t i l i m d . For example, on some jobs a b i l i t y t o read b l n e p r h t a i s neaessary and how t o r e a d a b l u e p r i n t can be learned in a school b f o r e coming t o work. - Many publio training agenoies a r e r e a l l y doing roduotion t r a i n i n g where h i t h e y s e t up shops which g i v e t h e person new t o indus r y w i t y w i t h thnhines and operations. In order f o r a vorker t o be upgraded t o a more d i f f i c u l t job he may need some t r a i n i n g whiah he oan g e t off t h e job. D you know t h e f a c i l i t i e s o whioh a r e a v a i l a b l e i n your commtxt2ityt D t h e t r a i n i n g agenoies lolow what you o need? And a r e your workers f u l l y bformed o f how t h e y uan t a k e a z t ' a g e o f t h e s e opportunities 7 Improving a Supervisor*a Knowledge of Work and of R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s Superviaors w e n o t u s u a l l y thousht of a s s k i l l e d workers, but t o do t h e l r jobs t h e y o e d a i n l y need skills. S k i l l s a r e n o t enough. Some t h i n g s t h e y j u s t have t o lolarr. ?hey must h o w t h e i r own work w h a t goes on in t h e i r wbatTtakes t o turn o u t production j u s t what men and women in departmerrts t h e i r departrments m u s . b n l e t o do. And t h e y must h o w j u s t what i s expeoted of them as management's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . They have t o know what t h e y are responsible f o r , and only t h e i r own p l a n t o p e r a t i n g executives can t e l l themh. - - - 4 big t r a i n i n g f i e l d h e r e i e o f i e n ignored by assuming that "the superv i a o r s h o w , or e l s e t h e y wouldn't be supervisors." It i s ing d i r e a t o r , t o provide a f o r them t o aoquire &a+ s Training Supervisors t o Conduot Meetings D your supervisors ever have t o g e t any information a c r o s s t o a group o of people? Or do they e w r t r y t o g e t a department t o accept some ohangel do you w e supervisors t o h e l p on part8 of v a r i o u s kinds of programs? Or S k i l l e d "oonferenoe lemders" a r e r a r e . They grow through experience. But s a w simple teohniques a r e easy t o aoquire, and t h e y a r e of value in aqy plant. Supervisors g a i n oonfidenoe through u s i n g them. If t h e people t o whom you assign t r a i n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y cannot "gut it aaross," your t r a i n i n g program may f a i l . Improving I n s t r u e t i o n on t h e Job Training Within Indtlstryts program f o r Job I n s t r u c t i o n i s used Pn many w a r production p l a n t s . But i s your p l a n t g e t t i n g f u l l value o u t of t h i s simple but e f f e c t i v e way t o break in a new man on a new job?
    • horeasina: t h e Supervtsorts S k i l l of ImDroving Methods Job Methods Training may be new i n your p l a n t . Would it; help t o see t h a t people g e t Job Methods Training? And t h a t t h e y use it? ~tw i l l h e l p m a t e of machine time, m a t e r i a l s and workers t e f f o r t s . - Coaohing in Ereryday R e l a t i o n s on t h e Job Job R e l a t i o n s Training w i l l h e l p your s u p e r v i s a s s t o acquire s k i l l Ja: work* with i n d i v i d u a l s and groupem Constant use of b a s i c f'wdaslmtals o f good r e l a t i o n s rill a l s o prevent numy problems. I S e l e a t i n g Hew Supervisors Do you ever ham t o a p p o i n t new supervisors 5n your p l a n t ? Almost every day, it seems. Yestarday t h e y were operators today t h e y w e in charge of u n i t s . Even if t h e p l a n t has provided a way t o t r a i n t h o s e b e g h i n g supervisors i n t h e i s t h a t enough? Are you s u r e that you s k i l l 8 and knowledges t h a t t h e y need a r e t r a h i a g t h e right people? - - - Thhere i s a simple means t h a t t h e t r a i c i n g d i r e c t o r can use t o spot among the, rank-ruulbf i l e rorkera t h o s e who a r e t h e beet b e t s f o r t h e f u l f i l l i n g of supervisory r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Sponsoring and using such a p l a n i s a d e f i n i t e p a s t of a oomprehens i r e t r a i n i n g program. * When you have i d e n t i f i e d t h e t r a i n i n g needed in your p l a n t , and planned ways - 01 $ ~ • ‹ K L J t o ~ I ~ meet those needs you s t i l l must o r armize your plan i n t o an owr;.all ~ X - O ~ C V U E ~ There may be a nran who i s t h e v e r y in t h e p l a n t t o g e t s person o f f t o t h e r i g h t start, who i s s p l e n d i d in working with the publio 8choois hi p l a n n k g r e l a t e d i n s t r u o t i o n , who r e a l l y b o w s j u s t wFclt i s eqeo-ted Are you going + - ,*e him f o r a l l 0% a ~uperv-isor in t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p l a n t , those gobe f You probably cazfnot, Tou may have Lundfeds of new employees coming h t o your p l a n t every week. There i s much about your own establishment t o l e a r n . Are you going t o g i v e it d l t o them a t onoe? Frobably not. You may need production operators, and job h t r u e t o r s and set-up men, m d supervisors. Where do you g e t started? b g a n i e i n g a p l m t t r a i n i n g program i s simply planning WHO does W , and What happen8 next depends on t h e understanding and back* the program g e t s from t h e e n t i r e executive and s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f . VHEN snd 'RBERE. RESPONSIBILI'IY FOR RESULTS THROUGH TIUIBING The LINE o r g m i t a t i o n has t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r making continuing use of t h e Icnowledge u i sk54ls aoquired through t r a i n i n g as a r e g u l a r p a r t of t h e operating . r $3be w A STlbFP g o u p p doe8 ~ O r i g i n a l l y issued A p r i l , 1945 r - ( o r o f t e n one staff person) provides plans and t e o h n i c a l 9 l t h i n g s FQR but u s u a l l y works THROUGH t h e line o r g a n i t a t i o n . ~ i !
    • OFFICE O PRODUCTION M N G D N F AAEET Labor Division UTraining within I n d u s t r y n Bulletin #2-B HOYF T PREPARE INSTRUCTORS T GIVE INTENSIVE JOB INSTRUCTION O O Many companies have found i t p o s s i b l e t o organize e f f e c t i v e l y t h e t r a i n i n g of new employees snd experienced production workers i n new s k i l l s s o t h a t t h e l e a r n i n g time is s p e n t on t h e job on production work under actu a l shop conditions. On-the-job i n s t r u c t i o n is given by foremen, l e a d men, o r , where l a r g e numbers of men need t o be t r a i n e d a t one time, by s p e c i a l instl-lctors . Some companies have s e t up t r a i n i n g s e c t i o n s s e p a r a t e from t h e regul a r production shop, u s i n g t h e o u t p u t of such s e c t i o n s i n t h e r e g u l a r manuf a c t u r i n g process. n e t h e r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n i s given i n production shops o r in s e p a r a t e t r a i n i n g s e c t i o n s , i t i s necessary t o e q u i p those s e l e c t e d t o do t h e i n s t r u c t i n g with a n organized knowledge of production o p e r a t i o n s and t h e a b i l i t y t o impart i t t o o t h e r s . I n t h i s b u l l e t i n a r e recommended t h e e s s e n t i a l s f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of i n s t r u c t o r s . I t recognizes t h a t m o d i f i c a t i o n s must be made t o meet varyi n g needs i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . C. R. Dooley, D i r e c t o r Training w i t h i n I n d u s t r y MAKING INSTKJCTORS . n I n s t r u c t o r l l i s used here t o mean foreman, l e a d man o r workman who has a major o r full-time r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r breaking i n production workers t o new jobs. I n d i v i d u a l p l a n t requirements i n r e s p e c t t o t h e number of i n s t r u c t o r s , t i n e a v a i l a b l e f o r t r a i n i n g and degree of t e a c h i n g s k i l l necessary on s p e c i f i c jobs, w i l l n a t u r a l l y vary. Job t r a i n i n g covers a wide range, from an hour o r two required t o "break i n " an employee on a simple, r e p e t i t i v e job t o months f o r more d i f f i c u l t and complicated s k i l l s . There a r e f o u r phases o r s t e p s u s u a l l y followed in developing i n s t r u c t o r s : 1. S e l e c t i o n of t h o s e t o be t r a i n e d . 2. Arrangements f o r t h e i r t r a i n i n g . 3. Content of t h e t r a i n i n g program. 4. Supervision and follon-through.
    • 1, SElLECTION OF EWLOPEES FOR TRAINING AS INSTRUCTORS This i e t h e most important s t e p i n t h e process s i n c e t h e u l t i m a t e succese in t r a i n i n g production workers depends upon t h e a b i l i t y and s k i l l of the job i n e t r u c t o r s . The following a r e important considerations in t h e e e l e c t i o n o f employees f o r t r a i n i n g a s i n s t r u c t o r s : Personal a p t i t u d e should be given equal weight with job s k i l l , It is common knowledge t h a t good mechanics do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y make good t e a c h e r s . A genuine l i k i n g f o r working w i t h people and an a b i l i t y t o express themselves c l e a r l y , patience and a b i l i t y t o g e t along w i t h d i f f e r e n t kinds of people are important. Recognized skill in t h e job t o be taught, The degree of i n s t r u c t i n g s k i l l required on any given job i s g Q ~ e 1 n e d o a l a r g e e x t e n t bg t h e s i m p l i c i t y o r complext i t y of the job. A r i l l i n g p e s s t o a c c e p t t h i s kind of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . S~me companiee have used g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , teaching a p t i t u d e and p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s as a i d s i n t h e s e l e c t i o n of candidates f o r training, 2. ARRANGE3dENTS PDR TRAINING INSTRUCTORS There a r e two source8 through which t r a i n e d i n s t r u c t o r s may be developed. Under company auspices. If t h e r e i s n o t a l r e a d y a supervisor of t r a i n i n g w i t h i n t h e company, one o r more s u p e r v i s o r s should be s e l e c t e d and t r a i n e d t o t a k e u p a t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A n outstanding foreman, engineer o r junior executive might prove t o be a good man f o r this work a f t e r he has had some p r a c t i c e . V i s i t s t o p l a n t s where such i n s t r u c t i o n i s being c a r r i e d on and help by a t r a i n i n g s p e c i a l i s t from another company would be u s e f u l in launching a program. Some S t a t e U n i v e r s i t i e s and S t a t e Vocational Education Departments a r e mnned t o give a s e i s t a n c e i n t r a i n i n g a s u p e r v i s o r t o carry on t h i s kind of work. Usually i t i s d e s i r a b l e to, r e l e a s e from o t h e r d u t i e s those sel e c t e d t o devote f u l l time t o t h e t r a i n i n g of i n s t r u c t o r s , a l though i n some companies t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s taken over i n a d d i t i o n t o o t h e r d u t i e s . Elements of time, convenience, and number of i n s t r u c t o r s t o be t r a i n e d w i l l be c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r s .
    • By outs,ide agencies. Some S t a t e Departments of Vocational Training o f f e r courses i n how t o i n s t r u c t on the job and are t o conduct claeses f o r job i n s t r u c t o r s w i t h i n a e p e c i f i c p l a n t , o r to hold c l a s s e s f o r men from s e v e r a l p l a n t s a t s p e c i a l l y agreed upon c e n t r a l locations. It has been found t h a t t h e training of job i n s t r u c t o r e can b e s t be done in g r o u p of 8 t o 10. S u i t a b l e q u a r t e r s , a n y from the job ahom bs arranged. Most companies have found it desiia3Pe t o r e l e a s e men from all job r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s during the t r a i n i n g , permitting them t o give f t i m e d i n t e n s i v e a t t e n t i o n to learning how t o instruct. 3. CONTENT O TRAINING PROGRAM F The scope of the t r a i n i n g given and length of the t r a i n i n g period w i l l vary. For example, the machine o p e r a t o r who w i l l break in new worke- on h i s kind of machine mag require only 12 t o 16 hours of trainFng on how to i n s t r u c t . The t r a i n i n g in t h i s i n s t a n c e would embrace the f'undamentals of analyzing t h e one job he is t o teach and supervised p r a c t i c e in how to quickly cover t h e key points of each operation with a new worker. O t h e o t h e r hand, the f u l l time i n s t r u c t o r , who is responsible f o r the n i n s t r u c t i o n of a number of new workers on s e v e r a l jobs r e q u i r e s a g r e a t e r Jegree of teaching s k i l l which may t a k e 30 t o 48 clock hours f o r him t o acquire. A t y p i c a l program of i n s t r u c t o r t r a i n i n g , containing t h e major . p r i n c i p l e s , i s o u t l i n e d below. It w i l l not always be possible o r even desirable t o apply t h i s e n t i r e p a t t e r n t o a l l s i t u a t i o n s . A. JOB ANALYSIS FUR INSTRUCTION PUFPOSES The purpose here is t o develop: A b i l i t y on the p a r t of t h e prospective I n s t r u c t o r t o The experienced man often overlooks d e t a i l s of t h e job, which, because of h i s i n t i m a t e knowledge, have become "second naturen t o him. He must look c a r e f u l l y a t every d e t a i l of a job from t h e beginner's viewp o i n t before attempting t o teach it. make an a n a l y s i s of the job t o be taught. A b i l i t y t o recognize and p u l l o u t the key operating points o r " t r i c k s of the t r a d e n which a r e most v i t a l t o t h e s u c c e s s f u l performance of each operation. I I 1 I
    • Judgment a s ' o t h e degree of d e t a i l t o which it is t necessary t o go in b r e w d o m a job, depending on t h e complexity of the operation t o be taught and t h e h ~ w l e d g ethe l e a r n e r brings t o t h e job. These o b j e c t i v e s can b e s t be reached by r e q u i r i n g each member of t h e t r a i n i n g group to analyze one job he w i l l teach, under the guidance of the leader. This i s done both in t h e conference group and i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h each t r a i n e e who makes an a n a l y s i s of a : G ' , w i t h which he is f a m i l i a r o u t i n the shop. A general discusi s then held with t h e group t o s i o n and comparison of an+-ses bring about a common understtinding of t h e technique. Most of such analyses include all o r p a r t of t h e following: Notes of t h e s t e p s o r operations necessarg to do the job; S p e c i a l words used i n talking about t h e work, t h e product, t h e t o o l s , o r doing t h e job; S p e c i a l precautions t o i n s u r e required quality: ("getting it done r i g h t t h e f i r s t timeu) Botes on waste prevention, e i t h e r of t o o l s o r m a t e r i a l s ; Safety and h e a l t h precautions necessary f o r t h e l e a r n e r t o know in doing the job; Notes on t h e troublesome p o i n t s where t h e l e a r n e r must e x e r c i s e h i s own judgment; Supplementary information such a s how t h e product is used, and how his p a r t t i e s i n t o o t h e r operations. B. PLANNING TRE INSTRUCTION Esch p m s p e ~ t i r ei n s t r u c t o r i s required t o make notes of a eimple plan f o r p u t t i n g over i n s t r u c t i o n which he is going to give. One o r more of t h e s e u n i t s i s t r i e d o u t i n a p r a c t i c e teaching s i t u a t i o n (see below) and each demonstration is followed by review and discussion. Using t h e job a n a l y s i s a s a base, d e c i s i o n nnret be reached regarding: W a fundamentals must be driven home. ht In w h a t o r d e r t h e operations can b e s t be taught. W a arust be done t o build up s a t i s f a c t o r y output ht after operations h v e been learned. What f a c t s mwt be given to t h e l e a r n e r about t h e job and when.
    • C. TEACHING THE JOB The new i n s t r u c t o r m u s t be helped t o understand t h e teaching process. The conference l e a d e r puts on sample demonstrations, involving r e a l teaching s i t u a t i o n s t o make c l e a r each of t h e three following major requirements. The group analyzes and d i s c u s s e s what t h e l e a d e r h a s done. (1) The s t e p s through which t h e i n s t r u c t o r l e a d s a l e a r n e r . I n t h e process of teaching any p a r t of a job, t h e new worker is only conscious of acquiring new knowledge and s k i l l and is n o t aware of t h e f o u r s t e p s through which t h e i n s t r u c t o r c a r r i e s him:F i r s t , t h e l e a r n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n and i n t e r e s t is secured; Second, t h e l e a r n e r is shorn how t o do t h a t p a r t of the job; Third, t h e i n s t r u c t o r l e t s t h e l e a r n e r try t o do it, corr e c t i n g mistakes before they become f i x e d in i n e f f e c t i v e work h a b i t s ; Fourth, t h e l e a r n e r i s put on h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s but is c l o s e l y watched by t h e i n s t r u c t o r u n t i l h e has gained s k i l l and speed and confidence. (2) Hw t h e i n s t r u c t o r p u t s a c r o s s t o t h e l e a r n e r t h e i d e a s o he must know t o perform each operation. o (3) H w t h e i n s t r u c t o r checks t o s e e t h a t t h e l e a r n e r understands clearly. D. THE BEGINNER'S LEARNING DIFFICULTIES It i s necessary f o r t h e i n s t r u c t o r t o i d e n t i f y s o w of the learning d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n jobs, how they may be c l a s s i f i e d , and t h e i r e f f e c t on t h e new worker i n making it hard o r easy f o r him to become p r o f i c i e n t . There are a t l e a s t s i x kinds of t h e s e l e a r n i n g difficulties:
    • Confwlon over complex d e t a i l s . Understanding %be main idea. "Unlearningn old babits. Catching t h e nImackn. Getting the n f e e l n . Developing upeed, ease and confidence. Ekoepective i n s t r u c t o r s a r e placed in t h e position of "greenF The conference l e a d e r give8 s e v e r a l teaching demonstrations, using simple u n i t s of i n s t r u c t i o n of r e a l i n t e r e s t and new t o t h e learner. Group discussion follows each demonstration to help the new i n e t r u c t o r to g e t t h e "green" employee's p o i n t of view. leuners. Em PRACTICE TEACHING . Each new i n s t r u c t o r must be given t h e opportunity t o gain confidence t h a t he can apply out in t h e shop what he is learning. Nothing i s more h e l p f u l tban p r a c t i c e under constructive coaching. Let him demonstrate how well he can apply t h e p r i n c i p l e s of job ins t r u c t i o n in a p r a c t i c a l teaching s i t u a t i o n , Throughout t h e e n t i r e period of t r a i n i n g and as often a s poss i b l e , each prospective i n s t r u c t o r i s required t o teach a worker new to the company and t o t h e job, one o r more complete operations under t h e observation of t h e group and t h e leader. The o p e r ~ t i o n s t o be taught a r e selected by t h e prospective i n s t r u c t o r and a r e a c t u a l jobs which are a part of his o m shop work. They a r e of such a natum t h a t t h e complete operation can be covered with t h e l e a r n e r in 20 to 25 minutes. H w to use a f i l e c o r r e c t l y , how t o read a o micrometer, how t o perform a simple assembly operation, a r e examples of the type of i n s t r u c t i o n u n i t s used. The l e a r n e r s a r e usually s u f f i c i e n t l y "greent1 t o make it possible f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n leasomething new to be genuine. Hter each demonstration, through group discussion, t h e work of each prospective i n s t r u c t o r i s constructively c r i t i c i z e d and evaluated .
    • 4. SUPERVISION AND FOLLOb' THROUGH ON THE JOB It i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o t u r n out a corps of t r a i n e d i n s t r u c t o r s , The t r a i n i n g of i n d i v i d u a l workers begins only a t t h i s point and t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l s t e p s t h a t may be taken t o i n s u r e t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s e f f e c t i v e . ness in g e t t i n g workers i n t o production quickly. (a) Provision should be made f o r a proper wage d i f f e r e n t i a l between t h e rate f o r i n s t r u c t o r s and t h e t o p mite of the work c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r which they a r e training workers. This policy provides an i n c e n t i v e t o experienced men t o a t t a i n competence i n i n s t r u c t i n g new workers, (b) Special i n s t r u c t o r s , s k i l l e d men t r a i n e d a s i n s t r u c t o r s o r t r a i n e d l e a d m e n can s a f e l y handle f i v e t o t e n men on production work, A check s h e e t o r record of t h e workers performance, the speed with which t h e worker builds up s k i l l , h i s method of doing t h e o p e r a t i o n s , r e j e c t s and spoilage and i n j u r i e s a r e p o i n t s t o be c l o s e l y checked on t h e job by t h e supervisor of t r a i n i n g a s w e l l as by production supervisors. I n most companies, s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t o r s r e p o r t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y t o t h e foreman r e s p o n s i b l e f o r production and a r e a p a r t of t h e r e g u l a r product i o n f o r c e , b u t a r e under t h e t e c h n i c a l d i r e c t i o n of t h e s t a f f t r a i n i n g supervi-sor. (c) Frequent v i s i t s t o t h e shop where the new i n s t r u c t o r i s working should be made by t h e t r a i n i n g supervisor. (d) After i n s t r u c t o r s have been on t h e job f o r a month o r two, they should be brought back f o r a half day conference i n which instruction techniques are reviewed i n t h e light of a c t u a l teaching experience, P e r i o d i c conferences of t h i s type w i l l h e l p t h e i n s t r u c t o r t o improve h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . (e) Periodic r e p o r t s regarding t h e success of new workers t h u s t r a i n e d should be made t o upper management, Having authorized t h e progran, executives n a t u r a l l y a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n i t s progress and success. Unless the program results i n a saving of a t l e a s t one half t h e o r just time usually taken by t h e old haphazard watching, nshoming ' e m howv methods of breaking i n new workers t h e i n s t r u c t o r t r a i n i n g program has not been w e l l planned o r c a r r i s d out. - . Washington, D. C December 1, 1940
    • TRAINING WITHIN INDUSTRY BULLETIN SERIES Bureau of Training O r i g i n a l l y Issued June 1943 Revised November 1943 War Manpower Commission HOW TO SELECT NEW SUPERVISORS - A &STEP PORM RGA Every p l a n t i s always on t h e lookout f o r more supervisors. And, in r a p i d l y expanding p l a n t s , t h e need f o r supervisors c o n s t a n t l y becomes more acute. Good supervisors a r e hard t o find. YOU HAVE TO TRAIN THEM. - Management i s dependent on supervisors in order t o reach t h e big group of workers i n t h e p l a n t , but not every worker m t s t o b e a supervisor. Some a c t u a l l y r e f u s e t o t a k e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . They do not want t o g i v e orders t o t h e i r f r i e n d s . M a n y a r e incapable of becoming good supervisors even though they would j u q a t t h e chance. They cannot plan, o r follow through, o r a d j u s t t h e i r thinking t o supervisory problems. Some people J u s t can't q u i t rrdoingtt and begin t o d i r e c t o t h e r s " t o do." Poor judgment, slowness, indecisiveness, i n f l e x i b i l i t y , sr annoylng mannerisms prevent them from e y e r becoming effect i v e supervisors. - m e r e , then, do we f i n d men and women t o t r a i n as supervisors? They must be discovered among t h e ambitious workers who are w i l l i n g t o pay t h e p r i c e ~ f ~ e a d e r s h i p , who can work w e l l with t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s . You s p o t and them in t h e r a n k - a d - f i l e of your own plant. --- &my planks give c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s e l e c t i o n of top supervision, but n j u s t appointn q u i t e c a s u a l l y t h e f i r s t - l i n e supervisors, t h e ones who r e a l l y a r e i c l o s e s t touch w i t h t h e workers who g e t out production. F'irstn l i n e supervisors a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y important because t h e y make up t h e group from which higher supervisors are most o f t e n selected. The g r e a t e r a s u p e r v i s o r ~ s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e more c o s t l y are t h e mistakes i f t h e ntan i s not r e a l l y f i t t e d f o r supervisory work. Management d e l e g a t e s much of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o supervisors; hence, h i t i a l s e l e c t i o n i s of prime importance. S e l e c t i o n of men and women f o r s u p e r Fisory p o s i t i o n s i s a d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of management, b u t a s s i s t a n c e can be gained and t h e s e l e c t i o n procedure improved i f t h e recommendations of p r e s e n t supervisors and, sometimes, of b o t h t h e union and i n d i v i d u a l workers a r e enlisted. To f i n d one l e a d e r you must g e t t h e f a c t s about a number of p o s s i b l e candidates. You mist choose c a r e f u l l y , because a mistake i s costly. Personal prejudices and f a v o r i t i s m must be avoided. You must f i n d a p o t e n t i a l s u p e r visor and t r a i n h m i . And d o n ' t f a i l t o give him a f e e l i n g of PERSONAL SATISFACTION i n his new job. i Training Within Indus rg.
    • P I C K I N G THE WORKER TO BE TRAINED A A SUP2RVISOR S I n slow moving times, supervisors o f t e n were c r e a t e d overnight by someone who said, '1Tomorrow you take over t h e department. NOW you a r e a foremane's Many of them turned out t o be excellent. In easy-going times, t h e boss does knoiv h i s men. But when f i v e , twenty, o r a hundred new slipelvisors are -neeaed over a r e l a t i v e l y s h o d period i a r a p i d l y expanding organization, n t h e r e i s l i t t l e time t o get well enough acquainted w i t h ivorkers t o pass judgment on t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r supervisory jobs, Under p r e s e n t conditions superintendents, and o t h e r company executives, d o n ' t know i n d i v i d u a l workmm well enough t o take such "shots i t h e dark," n A more s y s t e m t i c method i s needed. Selection i s inproved when t h e method includes p a r t i c l p a t i o r ! by t h e p r e s e n t supervisors ir, t h e nomination of candidates; use of a uniform, objective Teasure of a b i l i t y ; m d group judg- ment of candidat es a The s e l e c t i o n program described in this b u l l e t i n has been o u t l i n e d from i n d u s t r i a l experience, It w i l l help t o spot t h e men and women who w i l l The procedure i s s r i q l a . be l i k e l y candidates f o r supervisory r e ~ p o n s i b i 1 i t . y ~ And, it works, EXPLAINING THE SELECTION FWXXAM TO P A A E E J d N G X XT ' T h i s s e l e c t i o n program must be completely understood by top management and it must have management approval, Management must s e e t h a t t h e approach i s outlined t o t h e operating heads, Responsibility f o r t h i s s e l e c t i o n program must b e assigned t o one o p e m t i n g o r personnel man who w i l l s e e tnat i t i s c a r r i e d through a l l s t a g e s of operation, Basically, t h e r e a r e six s t e p s . I present supervisors a r e asked t o nominate candidates f a r , a d d i t i o n a l supervisory jobs, It may a l s o be f e a s i b l e t o a s k f o r nominations from t h e workers and from union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , 2, Each s u p e r v i s o r ' s nominations a r e discussed w i t h him. 3. A committee made up of an operating man, a personnel man, and another r e p r e s e n t a t i v e designated by management considers t h e records i n o r d e r t o prepare a l i s t of candid2kes. Each candid a t e on tkis list. i s interviewed i f he i s not known t o t h e members of t h e committee. 4, A standard o u j e c t i v e measure, such a s a t e s t , i s used t o g e t information about t h e a b i l i t y of each candidate, 5. The s e l e c t i o n committee reviews all t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the cmdidatese 6, Those judged t o be q u a l i f i e d f o r supervisory t r a i n i n g a r e s e l e c t e d , T h i s w i l l provide, in addition t o immediate needs, a r e s e r v e t o meet f u t u r e demands, A t t h e time t h a t management decides t o undertake this s e l e c t i o n program and assigns t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r operating it, a follow-up procedure . I . m L. .
    • t o make s u r e it i s c a r r i e d out must be agreed upon. must be assigned t o a s p e c i f i c person. Follow-q r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 1, STARTING THE SELECTION PROGRAM The need must be explained t o the p r e s e n t supervisors. They must be assured t h a t t h e i r own jobs w i l l not be unfavorably a f f e c t e d , and t h e i r cooperation must be won. To accomplish this it i s necessary t h a t an a p e r a t i n g o f f i c i a l who c a r r i e s weight with t h e men c a l l t h e supervisors t o g e t h e r and inform them about t h e new method, He w i l l need t o : - ~ x p l a i n h e need of having new s u p e r v i s o r s coming along. t Raise question, "Do we have any workmen in t h e ranks who might become good supervisors, i f p r o p e r l y trained?" Eluphasize t h a t t h e r e i s no thought of d i s p l a c i n g present supervisors, It i s p a r t of t h e i r jobs t o be on lookout e o k f o r new t a l e n t . W ~ t a f ~ t ~ e r l goodomaterial. " A l l of u s need understudies. You cannot move up u n t i l t h e r e i s someone t o t a k e your place," Make assignmerit: "Consider a l l t h e men in your departments. Donit t a l k t o them about this t o p i c , but t h T a b o u t the'm. Jot down names of a l l t h e men who you f e e l might have supervisory a b i l i t i e s . Do not suggest men from other departments we want information about t h e men you r e a l l y know something about from i n t i m a t e working r e l a t i o n s h i p s , % know which men t a k e t h e lead, and whether t h e others in t h e group accept t h i s o r r e s e n t it. You know, too, which ones l e a r n new jobs most q u i c k l y O n - Discuss persoilal q u a l i t i e s which a r e required of s u p e r r h o r s . Think i n terms o f t h e whole p l a n t and what is expected of a supervisor. Remind tham t h a t , while t h e s u p e r v i s o r has t o know t h e work, t h e b e s t uperator i s not n e c e s s a r i l y t h e b e s t supervisor, b u t he =st have enough operating a b i l i t y t o merit r e s p e c t from t h e workers he supervises, n S e t a s p e c i f i c time t o have l i s t of names handed i , Sometimes supervisors consciously o r unconsciously stand in a man16 way i f he is a good o p e r a t o r t h e supervisor does not want t o l o s e him, Req u i r i n g each supervisor t o name "two o r three" w i l l shake good men loose, - If managemer& wishes t o g e t nominations from t h e union and fram i n d l v i d u a l workmen, t h e same s t e p s of explanation should be followed, 2. - GETTING INF'OW6ATION UOUT SUPERVISORY CANDIDATES Not a l l t h e men and women who a r e suggested w i l l be good p o s s i b i l i t i e s . It is necessary t o get more facts about t h o s e nominated. The supervisors who suggest names Kill be abls t o f u r n i s h much unrecorded d e t a i l ,
    • The person assigned t o head t h e s e l e c t i o n comrzittee w i l l need t o d i s c u s s 7~it.heach supervisor t h e persons whose names he has suggested, Ask him t o t e l l you w w he nominated t h e person, but d o n ' t p u t him on t h e s p o t , This i s a c o n f i d e n t i a l f a c t - f i n d i n g p r o c e s s , not a debate, Consider t h e following: What i s t h e man's work record, i n c h d i n g accident record and absenteeism a s w e l l a s q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of production t u n l e d out? Does he know t h e work? - Mw does he g e t along w i t h o t h e r w o r h e n on t h e job? o Has he demonstrated such super%<sory=t r a i t s a s a b i l i t y t o break in new men o r t o g e t men t c ccoperate with MX on jobs? I I Do men go t o him f o r help? H o w does he conduct h i m e l f on t h e job? Does he t a k e t h e l e a d o u t s i d e t h e p l a n t community events o r s p o r t s ? Does he have i d e a s ? improvements ? - does he o r g d z e Make c o n s t r u c t i v e suggeetions f o r Has he been included in any t r a l n i n g programs? How d i d he g e t along? Some names may be w i t h d r a m by t h e supervisors a t t h i s s t a g e , and t h e s e perscns need not know t h a t they have been considered and judged u n s u i t a b l e . 3. BOUGH SCPEFNING Get personnel records ( i n c l u d i n g h e a l t h arid s a f e t y records) f o r a12 rnan s t i l l on l i s t , in order t o have them considered by t h e s e l e c t i o n c o d . t t e e , This committee should be made up of an opesaLing =ecutive, a personnel man, and another r e p r e s e n t a t i v e designated by management, One of t h e s e w i l l be t h e man responsible f o r running t h e s e l e c t i o n program, (This s e l e c t i o n committes w i l l be most e f f e c t i v e i f it has occasional %ew blood.") a. Search t h e records. Look f o r c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r s , b u t do not give weight t o ' ' s t a l e bonersn t h a t should have been f o r g o t t e n long ago, b, Retain t h e names of a l l t h o s e who look promising, c. Consider t h e s u p e r v i s o r who made the nomination you go along w i t h his opinion? - can When t h e s e records a r e s c r u t i n i z e d , some a d d i t i o n a l workers w i l l be considered u n s u i t a b l e f o r s u p e r v i s o r y development, These need not know t h a t t h e y have been r e j e c t e d u n l e s s such information i s considered a d v i s a b l a f o r personal development. The surviving candidates who a r e not k n m t o t h e members of t h e s e l e c tiom committee w i l l be interviewed b r i e f l y t o f i n d out i f p o s s i b l e about recent. instances i which they have t a k e n t h e lead, n
    • 4. - GETTING IlE3RMATION FROM SUPEXiVISORY C ANDDATES Judgment s c far has been l a r g e l y based on opinion, and t h e r e may be l i t t l e unifornAty in t h e records t h a t are a v a i l a b l e f o r consideration. Select i o n i s improved f f t h e method i n c l u d e s t h e use of a standard, o b j e c t i v e measure such as a t e s t , Some p i s n t s ~ i already have r x o r d s r e s u l t - k g from a r e c e n t t e s t i ~ h i c nhas bee^ used f o r h l l emplqees. Ifl o t h e r p l a n t s production sgepsl-ts by aorlcers nay gi..re a measme of a b i l i t y LCJhzmdle f i g w e s and f o l l o w m i t t e n in1 s t r u c t i c n s . 3 o t h e r s It m 2 y be s u i t a b l e t o 2211 the >;elected group of can(5idate.s t o g e t k e r and gi.-re them a s j l q i e t e s t .In cjrder " h v e a standard ; meassre f o r a l l . There a r e many s b p i e t e s t s available c ~ m e s c i a l l y . Some compa-Lbes p r e f s r tc! &aw up theirx om t 5st.3, itsing r e a l p r o b 2 . w from t h e p l a n t . m~~+yjr questians of t h e foliowing type a i l 1 mdce ilp a u s e f u l t e s t : If a r i g g e r ' s I t s o i l r ~r~ t e i s 9C eelits, what w i l l it be s i f it i s m c r e a s e b 10 p e r cent;? -mat is i h e cost of a sqgare fcclt af s q p e r i f a p i e c e 15 f e e t by 1 feet i costs 45 c e n t s ? A b i n holds 200 cubic f e e t of lime, If t h e ' c h i s 10 f e e t long a d 5 f e e t wide, ~ G W deep i s it;? Divide 144 hcu-s equalLy among three s h i f t s * If t i n e and a h a l f i s p a i d f o r aI!. t i ~ e over 8 hours, haw m c h w i l i B, m g e t f o r woi-khg ll horns it' his hem-ly r a t e i s 60 c e n t s ? A n r e h o ~ : s ei s f o u r s t o r i e s high, and t h e i n t e r i c r measurem a t s are 50 by 290 f e e t . HOW m a n y square f e e t of f l a o z space? HQW much more i n t e r e s t do you g e t 5n a y e a r on $200 a t b% t h a n on $200 at 33 -' Divide : I f a mire 20 inches long i s t c be c u t s o t h a t one p i e c e i s 2 / 3 a s long as t h e o t h e r piece, how many inches long w i l l t h e s h o r t e r p i e c e be? How much cheaper p e r pound i s s u g a r a t 12 pounds f o r a d o l l a r than a t 9 c e n t s a pound? 'Ahen a p l a n t d r ~ m i 5 s o m t e s t f o m , it u s u a l l y i s d e s i r a b l e t o up change t h e f i g u r e s in t h e t e s t Kith successive groups of candidates, Most commercial t e s t s have alternate forms f o r repeated use. Whatever t e s t forni i s used, it i s important t o remember t h a t t h e s c o r e i s only one of t h e p i e c e s of recorded information on which a d e c i s i o n i s based,
    • - DO not s e t a minimum o r npassingn score t e s t s a r e used only t o indic a t e those in t h e group who have t h e most a b i l i t y t o do simple figuring and each person t o understand w r i t t e n d i r e c t i o n s , N time l i m i t should be s e t o should be allowed t o complete t h e fom. - A l l candidates who a r e t o be t e s t e d should be c a l l e d together t o hear about t h e s e l e c t i o n program d i r e c t from management, r a t h e r than through rumors, An operating executive, who has p r e s t i g e with workers, explains t h e Comnpaqy is looking t o t h e future. More supervisors a r e needed. Somebody has thought t h a t each man i n t h e room might make a good s u p e r v h o r , SupervPsors have "headachest* but t h e r e a r e a l s o rewards. Not every man i n t h e roam w i l l be a supervisor. Ke need more f a c t s , A p r a c t i c a l t e s t w i l l be used t o supplement t h e other records, It w i l l help t o indicate those who may become supervisors, but it i s not going t o be t h e only point on which t h e decision i s - s. Even if you a r e n t t selected, this i s n ' t going t o hurt you. Every man doesn't w i n every race he enters. There may be some who w i l l i n d i c a t e a t this time t h a t they a r e not i n t e r e s t e d i n being considered f o r supervisory positions, I f they ~ 5 s h ,they should be allowed t o leave before t h e test i s givene After the t e s t s a r e scored they should be added t o t h e records concerning t h e persons, Tests should not be returned, A score may be given t o an individual i f requested, but not um a f t e r t h e decision as t o supervisory n appointme~thas been made, The selection committee will now review each mants record separately: a. personal Mstory data b, t e s t record or other uniform measuse u, other records t h a t i n d i c a t e t h e c a l i b r e of t h e man When t h e committee considers this f i n a l assembly of records, it w i l l be important t o consider p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e manly work histoly. Has t h e man had t h e L x d of experience needed on t h e new assignment, o r can he get it quickly? Remember t h a t a man may make a good supervisor on one kind of work but not another, Consider present and prospective supervisory openings.
    • ! 1 : The s e l e c t i o n committee should look f o r t h e s e q u a l i t i e s and a b i l i t i e s and. t h e knowledge considered e s s e n t i a l in your o r g m i z a t i o c . I n general, .the b e s t p r o s p e c t s a r e t h e men who: - have appropriate ex7 e r i e n c e are level-hesded, t o learn i n t e l l i g e n t , trainable, a d w i l l i n g have t h e person&.i characLesistics you want of supervisors in your p l a n t have d m o n s t r a t e d theLr a b i l i t y t o g e t teamwork a r e acceptable t o t h e i r associa-be%sad p r e s e n t supervisors are x i l l i n g t o t a k e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ~ . supervising f har,dle :she i r p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s int elligentl:- can adapt themselves t o change E m who f a i l in one or more of those q ~ x i l i f i c a t l o n sw e c i o ~ 3 t f c l prospects, 6. SELECTING THX PEOPLE FQR TR4ZNI!d'G The s e l e c t i o n c o r n i t t e e n m has t h e f a c t s on wtlisl; o ;i decisions. a, base, its Accept o r r e j e c t each m a i l on l i s t as a p r o s ~ s c tf o r supervisory t r a i n i n g . Decision should, i f p o s s i b l t , be unanjnnous. If a s u f f i c i e n t number of l i k e l y prospects are "voted in" a t t h i s s t a g e , t h e doubtful cases can be held f o r f u t u r e con side ratio^, I f t h e r e i s disagreement, s o t h a t no one g e t s unapljaous endorsement, then f'urther consideration should be given t o nominees where t.hese i s majority approval of t h e i r qualifications. I f p o s s i b l e , observe t h e man breaking-in a new worker en t h e job, before f i n a l choice, Let each candidate know where he stands, T h i s method sf picking men i n d i c a t e s who w i l l p r o f i t most from sound supervisory t r a i n i n g , The next s t e p s t o p l a c e him proper% and see t h a t he g e t s good t r a i n i n g , Don't j u s t allm him t o pick up i n f o m a t i o n as t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r f s job i n s haphazard names, Remember t h a t you do not have a readym d e superwisor. -
    • Same of t h e men may be appointed supervisors a t once and get t h e i r t r a i n h g on t h e job, Others may be p u t i n pre-supel.visorg t r a i n i n g courses, still others w i l l be held as a reserve or pool. And t h e r e w i l l be some who you know never w i l l be appointed a t a l l . A l l these candidates must be t o l d just w h e r x q stand, The nsqervisorjr pooln must not be b u i l t up beyond the number needed within a reasonable t h e , such as t h r e e t o six months. I f there i s not any turnover in t h e pool, t h e wbole s e l e c t i o n plan may be unpopular, In order t o folluw the supervisory pool principle, it i s necessary that2 a* management have some idea o r e s t i m ~ t e t h e number of of supervisors needed over some such period as t h r e e months be a l l pramotions t o supervisory positions come from t h e pool S f your pian+ has an exbensive employment procedure, you may already have secant t e s t reccz9.s t h a t give you an objective, uniform measure you m a y alrsady have t h e i n f o r m ~ t i o n needed f o r Step he - If p a r do not have man$ supervisory positions t o f i l l , it probably w i l l be beat not tc s e t t i a Wpcl" f o r i f t h e r e a r e no appointments made from it i a rezsonable length o f t h e , t h e men w i l l be more d i s s a t i s f i e d than i f they n had been t o l d t h a t someone e l s e got the job and no more a r e open. - Qhlt, i -a n plant, it w i 1 X pay t o a n t i c i p a t e needs and go about superr i s e q y s e l e c t i o n In aa organized lnanrrer rathe? than t o look a t it as Itgetting a m f o r t h e new shift, tonight." And f o r any opening, it w i l l pay t o look a t t h e qualifications of more than one man, - Planning and foresight w i l l pay dividends, The whole purpose nethod of picking men t o be t r a i n e d as supervisors i s t o i d e n t i f y t h e t h a t dl1 inventory t h e a b i l i t i e s of workers, s o t h a t nhidden t a l e n t a c ~ e r l o o k e d , k nran8s q p e a r a n c e a d manner m y not be impressive, y e t . k v e exeellent superrisorg abiiitv, of t h i s steps i s not he may Mo m e person in t h e p l a n t carn possibly have a l l of t h e e s s e n t i a l f a c t s necessary t o nake nspotn decisions regarding t h e p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t i e s of a man, 'Zao o r three men, f a m i l i a r with t h e problem and acquainted with t h e men available f o r promotion, can do a b e t t e r job of selecting than one can alone, The judgment of one supplements t h e others, A review of t h e record and a discussion of t h e needs and f a c t s prevent hasty decisions, Yen with supervisory a b i l i t y e m be found among rank--e workers. That i s t h e major source of supply. The men who w i l l make good supera visors a r e there. This method gives you a simple r y t o %urnt h e searchlight ori -&a grcrup and t o Mnd them,
    • Washington, D. C. A p r i l 1945 Bureau of Training ;"[ar ?,!anpowe r C o m i s s i o n "HOW TEUIIN.ING CAN B DONE E - METIIODS, AIDS" C O S THE BEST h B H D H OE hTO Use It ~,!ONSTRATION Dontt Use It To show a manipulative operation. When note-taking is required. I n p l a c e of p r a c t i c e . To c l a r i f y p r i n c i p l e s o r theory. To show use of equipment. PRACTICE To develop p e r f onnance s k i l l . O a t h e o r e t i c a l problem b u t n only on a r e a l one. To h e l p i n r e t a i n i n g information. DISCUSSIOJ! To make people t h i n k . To fill i n time. To eraphas i z e f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l . Without good. l e a d e r . To warn up o r review. To p r e s e n t new m a t e r i a l . TO I n p l a c e of p r a c t i c e . give reasons. To g e t b e n e f i t of previous experience. Unless people are a l r e a d y informed about s u b j e c t , To g e t opinions and h e l p . CCWEFiENCE hlEE TIPJGS A s i n i t i a l trairLng. To mod-ify opinions . I n p l a c e of p r a c t i c e . To develop understanding. To g e t acceptance. LECTUFE IEETINGS When p r e s e n t i n g informational m a t e r i a l o r explanatory material. Supplemented by v i s u a l a i d s . For m a t e r i a l with many d e t a i l s . For t r a i n i n g i n a s k i l l .
    • HOW TO CONDUCT A PLANT IBETING Meetings a r e common i n any p l a n t - when two o r more people get together, One person - t h e person who wants t o g e t something out of t h e meeting - needs t o have a d e f i n i t e purpose f o r t h e meeting, needs t o have planned what w i l l be discussed, and needs t o have ready any m a t e r i a l r e q u i r e d f o r t h e discussion. it 1s a meeting. i Two few meetiiigs a r e planned on t h a t b a s i s . Consequently, t h e meetings a r e meaningless, g e t no r e s u l t s , become unpopular, and may be attended only occasionally. - ! l Meetings can s e r v e a u s e f u l purpose t h e y can be t h e method of inform- I , ing, o r consulting, o r t r a i n i n g , o r g e t t i n g acceptance. i - I There a r e f o u r s t e p s i n running a meeting: 1. Get b a d y Define o b j e c t i v e c l e a r l y . L i s t p o i n t s t o cover. Plan e x h i b i t s o r a i d s . Find s u i t a b l e place. Be sure everything i s ready. 2. Open t h e Meeting S t a r t on time. S t a t e what you a r e t r y i n g t o accomplish. Find out what is a l r e a d y known about t h e s u b j e c t . 3. Guide t h e Discussion Question group and i n d i v i d u a l s . Get across ideas with r e p o r t s , samplesj e t c . Discuss p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . k. Close t h e Meeting Make s u r e of common understanding about "next s t e p s F i n i s h on time. . It meetings, s m a l l o r l a r g e , w i l l be improved i f t h e y a r e systema t i c a l l y plaruled i n t h i s way. bll 1. Get Ready ---- Define c l e a r l y j u s t what you a r e t r y i n g t o accomplish. If t h e r e no objective, do not hold the meeting. Decide w G t m a t e r i a l s - samples, charts, and r e p o r t s should be taken along, and g e t them ready. Find a able place f o r t h e meeting - a room t h a t is l a r g e enough, where l i g h t i n g v e n t i l a t i o n a r e adequate, where you w i l l not be i n t e r r u p t e d o r d i s t u r b e d noises. - I I I i is models, suit, and by I 1 I
    • S e t a time f o r t h e meeting - do n o t make i t any l o n g e r t h a n necessary. Consider the reason you a r e having t h e meeting. Is i t worth t h e c o l l e c t i v e time t h a t w i l l be s p e n t on i t ? Notify people who a r e t o a t t e n d - give them time t o arrange t o cone, b u t do n o t make t h e i n t e r v a l s o long t h e meeting i s forgotten. A very important meeting may make a personal, last-minute check of expected attendance worthwhile. Before t h e time s e t f o r t h e meetirig, check t o s e e whether equipment i s on hand. Plan timing of a n i n t e r m i s s i o n i f t h e meeting i s t o l a s t more t h a n two hours. 2. Open t h e Meeting - S t a r t t h e meeting on time. penalize those who a r e prompt. I f you h a b i t u a l l y wait f o r s t r a g g l e r s , you ---- S t a t e c l e a r l y j u s t what you a r e t r y i n g t o accomplish. This i s fundamental t o concentrating a t t e n t l c n on some s p e c i f i c item which you want underrefer stgod, accepted, o r opened up. P u t your o b j e c t i v e on t h e blackboard Find o u t what members of t h e group. a l r e a d y know a.bout t h e : t o i , hold t o i t . f i l l i n gaps. subject - - 3. Guide t h e Discussion Use a questiongng technique. Direct questions t o i n d i v i d u a l s , n o t t o t h e group. Do not " c a l l onft a member, o r introduce t h e question by h i s name. Keep a l l t h e members following you by using a name a t t h e end of t h e question. Avoid questions which can be answered by ftyes" o r Itno." I f some members a r e r e l u c t a n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e , d i r e c t l e a d i n g or obvious questions t o them. Donlt l e t any one person monopolize t h e d i s c u s s i o n . Be r e a d y t o break i n with a thank you - a.nd have a question f o r another member ready. I f one member stands o u t alone, g e t o t h e r members of t h e group t o answer h i s questions. Find o u t whether anything i n t e r f e r e s w i t h accomplishing t h e o b j e c t i v e and what i t i s . Guide t h e d i s c u s s i o n toward concrete evidence and s ~ e c i f i c ---- can do something about. Discuss p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . Li'st t h e s e f a c t o r s you i n t e r f e r e n c e s and s o l u t i o n s on t h e b - l oak while you do boa.& work - and do not block t h e view of t h e whole board while you w r i t e . Summarize f r e q u e n t l y . -- - - Use models, sam?les, and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s t o i l l u s t r a t e i d e a s . 4 Close t h e Meeting Keep the d i s c u s s i o n on t n e s u b j e c t of t h e discussion, and watch your schedule s o you can c l o s e on time. about ---Make s u r e t h a t t h e r e i s a common uncierstanding -Vho is going t o -----do what, and when." Put t h i s on t h e board - then p u t it on your l i s t of work --- i f t h e importa.nce o r complexity makes i t advisable t o give e v e r y member -t o do of the group a w r i t t e n r e p o r t on a c t i o n decided o r p o l i c y accepted.
    • I SELECT TE MOST EFFECTIVX A E I MOTION PICTURES (silent or sound) FIUL STRIPS OR SLIDES (gilerht o r sound ) PROJECTIONS ILLUSTRATIONS, CHARTS, DIAGWJS - Use when o v e r a l l view o r impression i s needed, when noise of a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n would prevent explanation, when a c t u a l use o r o p e r a t i o n of product i s a t a d i s t a n c e , when operation has t o b s sloved dovm o r stopped f o r explanation, when v i e ~ i i n g operation would hamper production, when i t i s s a f e r t o g e t preliminary v i e w from f i l m . - Same as f o r f i l m s except motion i s n o t required o r d e s i r a b l e , o r expense o r l a c k of equipment prevents use of motion pictures . ) I i 1 1 - mere a l l of group needs t o look a t same drawing, c h a r t o r photograph simultaneously and l e a d e r wants t o foccs a l l a t t e n t i o n on one s p e c i f i c p o i n t a t a time. - When process flow i s important, when t r e n d s need t o be emphasized, f o r comparative s t a t i s t i c s . SAMPLES - To show r e a l C UTAWAY S - To show s t r u c t u r e of opaque object, r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n . MC-P O KU S - 1 I I I object. ! I I I When f i n i s h e d assembly covers p a r t s , when f i n i s h e d product is not a v a i l a b l e , when s a f e t y i s involved. I OZS A EL LARGE SCALE - Large enough t o permit handling, i d e n t i f y small p a r t s . M DL O ES S A L SCALE ML - Perrnit operation without us in^ l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of m a t e r i a l , make a whole o p e r a t i o n v i s i b l e . EYJIIBITS - - For sketches, d i a g r a m , o u t l i n e s , d e f i n i t i o n s , d i r e c t i o n s , s m a r i e s assignments. 1 Shosv f i n i s h e d products, kinds of scrap, r e s u l t s of poor work, e f f e c t of breaking s a f e t y r e g u l a t i o n s . BLACKBOARD I i BOOYS, PMNLJALS, PAIG'HLE T , S IhJS TRUCTION SIBETS CARTOONS, POSTERS , I j ! - For standard information and guides, manufacturer 1s informat i o n , reference, background. 1 - To arouse i n t e r e s t , a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n . 1 7-6728 Pa b u - f i n a l
    • TRAINIE WITHIN INDUSTRY BUTUTIN S E R m Washington, D. C. December , 1944 W R O V I N G SUPERVISORS ' KNOVLEDGE O THE WORK F i I i 1 I There is no s u b s t i t u t e f o r a thorough knowledge of the v e q work t h a t the supervtsor d i r e c t s . m e t e c h n i c a l nature of t h e a r k is c o n s t a n t l y c h p n g i n ~ , as products and processes change. Naturally, work t h a t goes by t h e s h e name d i f f e r s from company t o company. It d i f f e r s between departments. Everyone admits t h a t a supervisor i n a r o l l i n g m i l l must h a r the steal business, but t h a t is not enough he has t o know it a s it a p p l i e s t o h i s plant, i n his o m department. A supervisor i n a c o a l mine must know c z -g, and he has t o know his own p l a n t s problems and methods of c o a l mining. A supervisoz i n an accounting department must h o w his organizationls accounting p r a c t i c e , not j u s t standard accounting p r a c t i c e found i n t e x t books. ~t is squarely up t o each p l a n t management t o s e e t h a t its own supervisors have t h i s s p e c i f i c knowledge of t h e i r work. Naturally t h e same holds t r u e f o r every business and swry department, covering every f e a t u r e of technical o r operating work throughout t h e Nation. -- - - - I Many companies have had thoroughly capable supervisors f a i l because they lacked t h e proper howledge of t h e i r work. This need n o t be. A 1 1 t h a t ia necessary in a given p l a n t i s f o r someone t o have a plan and s e e t h a t it is - 1 / Tkiat Wmaeone* in each caapszry is the -r, o r 8o t b r permn to horn manageant delegates tids r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . FollorirU( are a few m g g u t i o m ~ E I t o "plan.* Naturally, each company should develop its own plan according to i t s a m problems and the mecis of i t s own supervisors. C. R. Dooley, Director Training Uithin Industry S e n i c e Here a r e a few of the more common circumstances which p o i n t t o supervisors who need t o knuw more about t h e i r w o r k 1. New Supervisors Many new supervisors are being appointed t o replace men who go in the ksmy o r who a r e t r a n s f e r r e d o r r e t i r e d . Perhaps t h e new supemiaors know all t h e operations and have the required t e c h n i c a l background and perhaps t h y d o n ' t , Sometimes t h e new s u p e m i s o r i s f a m i l i a r o n l y w i t h thoee operations onwhich he worked. Likely he has only passing f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t k e much larger group of operations f o r which he i s now responsible. -- 2. Exusrienced S u ~ e r v i s o ma n New Jobs Many times "old hand st^ are placed an new jobs i n new o r converted p l a n t s o r i n d i f f e r e n t departments. Often it i s assumed t h a t years oP sePvice alone mean adequate t e c h n i c a l knowledge even though the exbglrience is limited t o one o r two operations.
    • countless thwappds of jobs have changed because of t h e n e c e s s i t y of maktng ~ r d u c t s u t of new mataria. on new equipment.. Vsually the newer t h e o r d product o r nateu-ials o r equipment, t h e l e s s c e r t a i n am l e s s stzindard t h e operations. Often these are t h e very jobs that change again and again, as perhaps m e t a l l u r g i c a l changes i n t h e materials are developed and a s new operal,ing procedures are found necessary. S m WAYS O GIVING SUPERVISORS KE F N - O THE WORK F 1 I n 8 t r u c t i o n from Superior . u, fa? example, a foreman i s newly promoted t o his job, sometimes t h e general f0rau-m can, over a period of t i m e , give him a thorough knowledge of t h e work. This is t h e i d e a l arrangement, f o r everyone does and should look t o his boss f o r guidance and d i r e c t i o n in j u s t about everything connected with h i s job. often, however, i n s t r u c t i o n from a s u p e r i o r takes t h e form of guidance on day-to4ay procedures only. The s u p e r i o r may n o t have the time o r may think he hasn't t o i n s t r u c t the mw supervisor i n many d e t a i l s . Hence, baring t h e training job s o l e l y up t o every s u p e r i o r i s n ' t an assurance t h a t ( o r w i l l do !) should be it dll be done. How much the Nboss" can do carefully considered. However, it is sometimes s u r p z n g how much nthe bossfi can help lrhen he is required t o do s o by t h e nbig boss." - - -- 2. - I n s t r u c t i o n by Outside S p e c i a l i s t s outside s p e c i a l i s t s can h e l p to a marked degree. A common example the h e l p provided by most machinery and equipment companids Most c o q a n i e s w i l l arrange f o r one of t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o come t o when t h e equipment is new and s t a y f o r a period ranging from a few s e v e r a l weeks. Full advantage should be taken of a l l such o f f e r s . . of such i s of t h e s e t h e plant. days t o In other cases a s p e c i a l i s t f r o m t h e ordnance department o r from t h e o r i g i n a l c o n t r a c t o i canpany w i l l spend time with a supervisor on t h e job. S p e c i a l i s t s from l a b o r a t o r i e s o r observers from t h e f i e l d of b a t t l e provide two more k i d s of help. D e r y company can r e a d i l y assemble t h e l i s t of such outside s p e c i a l i s t s uho might be used. he training i t s e l f should b e done r i g h t on t h e job. There i s no b e t t e r method than having a s p e c i a l i s t spend a g r e a t d e a l o f time r i g h t i n t h e shop discussing with the supervisor t h e d e t a i l e d problems of the job. 3. Planned Work Experience - -- new o r experienced may need t o be i n s t r u c t e d i n Often a supervisor performing s e v e r a l manual jobs i n order t h a t he can d i r e c t them w e l l . This i n s t r u c t i o n i s t o give him f a m i l i a r i t y with the operations themselves Of 1' course, t h e r e is much more t o know about a job than t h e d e t a i l s of mechanical operation. But uhere these s k i l l s should be learned, theye i s no s u b s t i t u t e f o r mlearning them by doing them. n Many a supervisor f e e l s he is "stepping downtt when he runs a machine f o r a feu days o r a few weeks. He f e e l s he has l o s t h i s s t a t u s i n the eyes of h i s workers because the workers can perform the operations b e t t e r than t h e boss. - 2 7-6740 3 ' 2
    • Any s u p e n i s o r who wants t o succeed, however, must accept this risk. Actually he runs no r i s k a t a l l if he i s t h e Q4ght Mnd of a guy.* Workers admire the boss who i s w i l l i n g t o mget h i s hands dirtyn i n order t o *know what he is t a l k lng ab0ut.r Doing this very thing has *maden many a successful supervisor. 4. W e r i e n c e i n Another Plant Sometimes a supervisor can be s e n t to another plant f o r a s h o r t time t o pick up some technical knowledge or operating procedures. Thousands of p l a n t s have coopersted with each other on t h i s b a s i s already. Even p e a c e - t h competitors in many cases have helped b a k e a man* f o r each other in war-tk. 5. Job Breakdowns A sure-fire way of g e t t i n g thoroughly informed as t o operations or procedures is t o have supervisors m k e a n accurate, written outline af each operation o o r process, N p a r t i c u l a r form of b r e a k d m i s necessarg, muever, any supervisor who has used e i t h e r the Job f n s t m c t i o n o r Job Methods form of breakdown would c e r t a i n l y understand thoroughly those operations he mbroke darn, * Much time and money has been wasted by supeI-vlsors uho j u s t observed and talked n a l l about it, Coapanies about a manufacturing pmcese and Wthought they k & have been known t o send supervisors t o observe the same process four o r f i v e times before they caught a l l the operating d e t a i l s . I these saw supervisors f had been required to make a complete breakdown of t h e process, they w a u l d have caught all t h e d e t a i l s and t r i c k s of tbe t r a d e t h e f i r s t tiare. Haking breakdarns a t f i r s t may appear t o be sanething of a task. However, they b e o o ~ eea8i.r to maka d*pzmctia~. 'LPlsir use sovw eo tfr, o f f o r t , and c o s t l y mlstakes that t h e lnaking of them is j u s t i f i e d a hundred tirres over, The use of manuals is coPIPon, and they have many values. Manuals a r e available from a v a r i e t y of sources, o r may be w r i t t e n in the plant. Rarrsver, not even t h e most complete manual should ever be regarded as t h e s o l e answer to a supervisor1s need for technical and operaang infonuition. Help from one or more of t h e company1s engineering group8 is often t h e mst valuable t h a t a supervisor can receire. Some engineem take a mhigh-brarct a t t i t u d e t w l the apoor shop manor On t h e other hand, some shop supervisors o ad consider themselves the only Vracticalw men, mey look down on t h e engineers. Getting the two groups close together w i l l produce cutstanding results. Engineers can help i n several ways. The best m y o i a l l is f o r - a n engineer t o spend t h e i n the shop uith t h e operating supervia o r r i g h t on the job. An engineer can a l s o hold a a z s of meetings with plant supervisors where he presents technical knowledge o r answers questions. Getting appropriate understanding t h a t the engineers a r e expected t o help plant supervisors i s e s s e n t i a l . Top management must see Engineers K i l l f i n d t h a t t h i s i s not a none-way" process. They, too, g e t extremely valuable help from shop supervisors.
    • 8. Plant Conferences In same companies t h e r e a r e regular staff meetings t o pass along information a t each executive and supemisory level. I n other companies these are occasional. In still others t h e r e a r e s p e c i a l meetings about company products and manufacturing methods. The question of nhow many meetingsn is a v i t a l one. fie only answer is t o hold as many m e t i n g s a s a r e necessary t o be s u r e t h a t s i n g l e thing t h a t i s necessary- f o r h i m t o know i n ~~~ervisor that he do a ' ' z 9. S w ~ l e n w n t a mInstruction E x t r e n d y valuable supplementary i n s t r u c t i o n may be received from the engineering colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s au well a s t h e vocational schools. If the p l a n t i s not near one of these i n s t i t u t i o n s , very often an extension program can be especially arranged. If a company desires c e r t a i n s p e c i a l courses t o be developed, and the number of p r s o n s j u s t i f i e s such a course, these schools w i l l often develop such s p e c i a l programs. Thia Supplementary i n s t r u c t i o n i s of value tb the p l a n t only i f t h e program meets the supervisorst s p e c i f i c needs. RESPOEIBILITY F R DEVELOPING SUPERVISORS O Acquiring knuwledge about supervisory work should not be l e f t t o the superrlsor's i n i t i a t i v e . There are those who argue t h a t leaving i t Wp t o each personn is one of the t e s t s of i n i t i a t i v e , one of the nays of showing who b worthy af promotion. Unfortunately things do not umys work out this way. Often the thoroughly able supervisor w i l l not take the i n i t i a t i v e ; he may think of it, he may n o t know what he needs, he may n o t know what i s available. Sometimes he feels t h a t such a c t i o n might be improper o r t h a t he would be regarded by his fellows a s s e l f l s h and nforward.n Conversely, a supervisor with limited a b i l i t i e s but rdth devastating ambition may voluntarily seek more information about t h e technical s i d e of his work, be disappointed i f k~ does not g e t recognition and r e s e n t it. -- DnprovFng supervisorsf technical knowledge should be planned j u s t a s carefully as any other company program. The management should l e t it be known t h a t every supervisor i s expected t o keep abreast of t h e t e c h n i c a l demands of h i s job and t h a t a l a n is t o be followed i n accomplishing t h i s end. Someone o ay e designated t o counsel with each executive and superi n the c w n shou v i s o r concerning the needs of each of h i s subordinates. H should a l s o help e each executive and supervisor plan f o r the development of each subordinate. In l a r g e r companies t h i s person i s usually the t r a i n i n g d i r e c t o r . I n smaller companies it is often a production executive who gives p a r t of his time t o this work. %h6 The procedure between the t r a i n i n g d i r e c t o r and a l i n e executive is simple. Together they s e t d m what a subordinate now knows about the job. Then they s e t down h t he needs t o how. Next t h e y x c i d e which of the above suggest l o m -- or others -- should be used. The l i n e executive i s than ready t o c a l l i n the subordinate, go aver the plan with him, and see t h a t the subordinate getu t h e required knowledge. -
    • WAR PRODUCTION BOARD Labor D i v i s i o n Training within I n d u s t r y B u l l e t i n #7 INCREASING WAR PRODUCTION TXROUGH BAPLO9SENT O ?lOMXN F Employing women i n war i n d u s t r i e s i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers i s i n e s c a p a b l e , b u t should n o t be looked a t a s & s u b s t i t u t e procedure. Rnploying a woman f o r a n y job t h a t s h e can do, o r can l e a r n t o do, w i l l r e l e a s e a man e i t h e r f o r work n o t s u i t e b l e f o r women o r f o r a c t i v e armed s e r v i c e . The employer who h a s n e v e r had any women employees on his f o r c e mag need t o be reminded, i n some c a s e s , t h a t a new woman worker i s j u s t a new worker. C a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n s h o u l d f u r n i s h women who a r e good prosp e c t s - t h e same as men. New women need t r a i n i n g - s o do new men. They a r e e n t e r i n g a new environment, b u t s o a r e farm hands who t a k e f a c t o r y jobs . The p l a c e of women i n i n d u s t r y has been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d s i n c e t h e l a s t war. One-fourth o f manufacturing workers a r e women, and a number a r e i n t e c h n i c a l o r managerial f i e l d s , Employers who t h i n k t h a t t h e employment o f women i n t r o d u c e s some mysterious element i n t o t h e f a c t o r y s i t u a t i o n need t o be reminded t h a t t h e y have known women a l l t h e i r s e c r e t a r i e s , n u r s e s , w a i t r e s s e s , saleswomen - and t h a t women lives from . a l l t h e s e groups w i l l i n e v i t a b l y become a p a r t of t h e w a r production effort. - This b u l l e t i n draws on t h e e ~ e r i e n c eof a number of i n d u s t r i e s where women workers have had a n important p a r t f o r many y e a r s , and on t h e experience o f B r i t i s h war production. C . R. Dooley, D i r e c t o r Training within Industry PO E I N THE: LABOR SUPPLY PICTURE l MN I n many i n d u s t r i a l c e n t e r s t h e r e a l r e a d y a r e l a b o r s h o r t a g e s . I n g e n e r a l , women will n o t add t o t h e s u p p l y o f s k i l l e d l a b o r , b u t t h e y do p r e s e n t a l a r g e and promising s o u r c e of workers f o r a wide v a r i e t y o f o p e r a t i o n s . In England it has been n e c e s s a r y t o r e q u i r e young women t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e war e f f o r t , e i t h e r through a u x i l i a r y s e r v i c e o r a c t u a l p r o d u c t i v e work i n f a c t o r i e s . There are many women who now need t o e a r n wages. Curtailment of c i v i l i a n production r e l e a s e s nwnbers o f women w i t h varying d e g r e e s of s k i l l , These wonen a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r r e t r a i n i n g f o r war p r o d u c t i o n work. SPECIAL FACTORS T CONSIDER I N WLOYING W O J E N O I n t r o d u c t i o n o f women workers i n i n d u s t r i e s o r p l a n t s where 'ihey have n o t p r e v i o u s l y been e m p l o p d w i l l o f t e n mean t h a t women w i l l a c t u a l l y be p u t on llmenls work It w i l l n o t always be a s i m p l e placement and t r a i n i n g p r o c e s s - b u t ? when t h e snags a r e a n t i c i p a t e d , B r i t i s h exp e r i e n c e shows t h a t remarkable r e s u l t s a r e achieved. Management needs ."
    • t o give advance, and inmediate consideration t o some g e n e r a f a c t s - some l i m i t a t i o n s , some advantages, and some changes i n f a c i l i t i e s and equipment. S t a t e Laws Regarding Women Workers Many s t a t e s have f t p r o t e c t i v e nl e g i s l a t i o n which s e t s standards f o r working conditions f o r women, limits hours (both as t o length and time of day), and r e s t r i c t s occupations. I n some s t a t e s provisions havebeen made t o permit modification of standards where necessary f o r war production. S t a t e laws covering a p a r t i c u l a r p l a n t should be checked as the f i r s t s t e p . The I n d u s t r i a l Commission o r the S t a t e Sedretary of Labor can supply s p e c i f i c information. Phvsical Limitations of Women Workers There a r e some physical l i m i t a t i o n s f o r women. As a means of o v e p a f o r example, i n l o a d - l i f t i n g , coming them, mechanical aids m y be used r o l l e r conveyors and p e d e s t a l l i f t s a r e helpful. Tools may need t o be scaled t o women and benches made lower f o r assembly workerrs - S a f e t y and t h e Woman Worker The s a f e t y records of women a r e b e t t e r than those of men, b u t t h e r e It may be necessary t o require t h e wearing of p r o t e c t i v e clothing. The s a f e t y engineer who s e l e c t a caps and jumpers w i l l do w e l l t o consult with t h e women who w i l l wear his i n t e r e s t may be i n finding a cap which w i l l insure the clothing t h a t h a i r will not catch i n a machine, while t h e employee may a l s o be concerned about a cap which w i l l p r o t e c t h a i r from d u s t and n o t r u i n a It i s poor p r a c t i c e t o s e l e c t clothing which requires dis, new hair-do. c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n t o enforce wearing or which causes resentment. are s p e c i a l hazards t o be recognized. - Absence Records Woments records f o r days-off a r e worse than ments. They a r e not a l t o g e t h e r due t o i l l n e s s b u t frequently t o unavoidable home responsib i l i t i e s . A V l y i n g squadront1 of u t i l i t y operators who can f i l l i n on numerous jobs i s a common s o l u t i o n . Labor Turnover Women do not change jobs as e f t e n as men, Good supervision, sa* factory working conditions, adequate wages, and f a i r treatment w i l l hold women t o t h e i r jobs and thus, by decreased turnover, reduce o v e r a l l t r a i n i n g time. Supervision Many persons w i l l advocate t h e employment of a woman personnel o f f i c e r t o work on problems connected with working women. This i s based on the assumption t h a t t h e r e i s a innate and intangible d i f f e r n ence between men and women a s employees t h a t w i l l be beyond a m r s experience. This i s not t h e b e s t b a s i s f o r t h e introduction of women
    • t o the production shop. Women a r e e n t e r i n g war production on t h e same terms a s men, even i f i t i s necessary t o make physical segregation i n a few respects and t o separate groups i n i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n s . Their r e l a t i o n t o t h e personnel department i s t h e same a s new men. Women have a u s e f u l place i n personnel offices, b u t not n e c e s s a r i l y a s concerned with women employees. The woman who i s new a s a f a c t o r y employee i s making a change. S k i l l e d personnel people should handle cases r e l a t i n g t o people new t o industrial situations . Women a s f i r s t - l i n e supervisors can sometimes handle r o u t i n e departmental. problems concerning women more e a s i l y than men, and ranen can t r a i n women. The opening of even minor supervisory p o s i t i o n s t o women w i l l pqovide a promotion incentive. However, i f women supervisors do not correspond i n a u t h o r i t y with men i n similar p o s i t i o n s , t h e employees may be i n c l i n e d to by-pass t h e woman supervisor and take t h e i r problems t o t h e man whom they f e e l i s "the boss." SELECTION AND PLACEXE3T OF WCEEZN WORKEHS All mmen m i l l not, of course, make productive f a c t o r y employees. The s e l e c t i o n procedure should include p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o the background brought t o t h e job - education, t r a i n i n g , and aptitudes. ! I E Ihousewife who i s untrained and perhaps f r e e f o r only part-time work may move i n t o c i v i l i a n production and s e r v i c e operations, r e l e a s i n g f o r full-time war production employment, women who have had r e g u l a r work experience. Even i n the comparatively s h o r t time of c u r r e n t war production, there a r e a number of instances of t h e value of c e r t a i n backgrounds of work r e q u i r i n g d e f t han& - g i r l s who were needle-workers o r hairdressers have proved s p e c i a l l y adaptable f o r p r e c i s i o n metal work. With good t r a i n i n g , they work t o tolerances measured i n ten-thousandths of an inch. Jobs requiring "feel," such es minute assembly and adjustment, a r e examples of jobs where placement of women has produced part i c u l a r l y good results, i n many i n s t a n c e s b e t t e r than men. It is more accurate t o s a y t h a t they have l i t t l e ttmechanical f a m i l i a r i t y . " Women a r e not accustomed t o working w i t h wrenches and d r i l l s , b u t the lowered l e v e l a t which t r a i n i n g begins a l s o means an opportunity to begin t r a i n i n g with c o r r e c t procedures - they do not bring "picked-upn bad h a b i t s t o t h e job. A common opinion l s , 'Women have no mechanical a b i l i t y . " TRAINING FOR Wm THE S M AS FOR MEN ON A E Well-planned t r a i n i n g f o r women who have been s e l e c t e d and placed according .to g o d standards w i l l provide a l a r g e , productive new force and give p e r f e c t l y s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s i n e v e r y respect. Get ready f o r t h e job. What is the work? i n t o s e v e r a l jobs, t o be taught separately? Should i t be broken up
    • Consider t h e work p l a c e , the t o o l s . Are changes needed? Find o u t what t h e new workers a l r e a d y know. Is some preliminary i n s t r u c t i o n needed i n shop a r i t h m e t i c o r b l u e p r i n t reading? Would advance f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h s m a l l t o o l s help? W i l l "shop t e r m and procedures" need s p e c i a l explanation? 'Ahat pre-employment t r a i n i n g i s available ? T r a m on t h e job. Does i n s t r u c t i o n given on t h e job include supervised t r y o u t and follow-up? Does t h e new ern~loveeknow where t o go f o r help? Provide supplementary i n s t r u c t i o n . Does t h e p l a n t provide t r a i n i n g t o round-out background and i n c r e a s e s k i l l s ? Are t h e r e p u b l i c vocat i o n a l courses a v a i l a b l e ? d Upgrade t o h i g h e r s k i l l s . A r e women being moved on t o more d i f f i c u l t jobs as t h e y show a b i l i t y , i n order t o make maximum use of t h e i r best s k i l l s ? J O B F R Ym3tlEN I N WAR IIDUSTRY O To t u r n again t o B r i t i s h experience, women a r e working successf u l l y on t h e s e jobs: a s sembly band-s awing boring crane opera ti on drilling grinding inspecting Lathe work ( i n c l u d i n g t h e use of c a l i p e r s and micrometers ) o p t i c a l grinding and p o l i s h i n g p r e s s operating riveting turning welding To summarize t h e o v e r a l l problem, t h e c o n t r a c t o r m u s t : 1 Consider t h e employment of women with an open mind. . 2. Recognize t h a t t h e r e i s , a s always, a t r a i n i n g job t o do. Washington, D. C. March, 1942 7-6927 P4 b u - f i n a l
    • T M I N I N G W I T H I N INDUSTRY BULLETIN SERISS Bureau of T r a i n i n g War Manpower Cornmission J u n e , 1943 INTRODUCING THE NEW EMPLOYEE TO THE J O B / I I > The Importance of a Good I n t r o d u c t i o n A new p l a c e t o work means a d j u s t n e n t f o r any i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s easy f o r the new man t o jump t o wrong c o n c l u s i o n s . The s u p e r v i s o r h a s a n exc s l l s n t chance, d u r i n g t h i s i m p r e s s i o n a b l e p e r i o d , t o e s t a b l i s h a good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e employee and s e e t h a t he g e t s a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e p l a c e where he i s working. He can g e t t h e new man o f f t o t h e r i g h t s t a r t . This p r o c e s s o f making t h e new employee f e e l a t home, o f t e n c a l l e d i n d u c t i o n , goes on a t t h e same time a s job i n s t r u c t i o n , and b o t h have t h e same making t h e new man a p r o d u c t i v e p a r t o f t h e b u s i n e s s . aim I t should n o t b e assuned t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n w 5 l l do b o t h jobs. The s u c c e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n may depend on t h e q u a l i t y of t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s . - C. A. Dooley, D i r e c t o r Training Within Industry PROCESS OF INTRODUCING EMPLOYEES Some of t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r i s e i n i n t r o d u c i n g employees a r e : Can a l l enployees be i n d u c t e d a l i k e ? What a t t e n t i o n should be g i v e n t o a t r a n s f e r r e d o r r e h i r e d employee compared t o t h e new employee? I s a s y s t e m a t i z e d p l a n das i r a b l e ? Many of t h e s e q u e s t i o n s can be answered o n l y i n t e r m s of c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i a n . I n g e n e r a l , however, t h e p r o c e s s of i n t r o d u c t i o n can be considered under t h e s e h e a d i n g s r 1. 2. 3. 4. handling t h e i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w p r o v i d i n g t h e employee w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e company p r o v i d i n g t h e employee w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t h i s work a s s i s t i n g t h e employee t o a d j u s t t o h i s fellow-workers Thcse phases of t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s a r e i n t e r r s l a t e d and, . f o r e , should be regarded j u s t a s a sequence of s t e p s . As 3 reminder i g i o r n a t i o n t o be g i v e n and t o enabla t h e s u p e r v i s o r t o know what he co-~ered w,!en it i s n e c e s s a r y to c o n t a c t t h e employee a t i n t e r v a l s , a l f s t m3y be provided ( s e e Z x h i b i t A ) . thereof t h e has check- -- 1. Hmdligg t h e I n i t i a l I n t e r-- i e w v The s u p e r v i s o r ' s f i r s t approach t o t h e m p l o y e e w i l l haye c o n s i d e r a b l s i n l l u e n c e on h i s f u t u r e a t t i t u d e t o 7r3.rci t h e s u p e r v i s o r and t h e company. The s u p e r v i s o r should draw upon h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h men and be c a r e f u l t o s e e t h a t he does n o t make statements and a c t i o n s which can be m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . The s u p e r v i s o r should use t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o b e g i n t o e s t a b l i s h a f r i e n d l y a t t i t u d e which, of course, should c a r r y o v e r beyond t h e i n d u c t i o n p e r l o d . 7 - 1 6 8 1 P i o f 8 bu-cos-we
    • Many s u p e r v i s o r s f o l l o w t h e s e i n t e r v i e w i n g s t e p s : a. Beforehand, t h e s u p e r v i s o r c o n s i d e r s what he a l r e a d y knows a b o u t t h e new employee and t r i e s t o p i c t u r e how he would f e e l i f he were i n h i s shoes. H i s o b j e c t i v e i s t o make t h e employee f e e l t h a t i n him he h a s a s u p e r v i s o r who w i l l c o n s i d e r i m p a r t i a l l y b u t s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y whatever problem he may c a r e t o t a l k o v e r . b. If c o n d i t i o n s make it p o s s i b l e , t h e new employee i s b r o u g h t t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r t s d e s k where he i s g r e e t e d and a s k e d t o s i t d o m . I n any e v e n t , t h e b e s t c o n d i t i o n s f o r an u n i n t e r r u p t e d i n t e r v i e w a r e sought. c. To a r r i v e a t common ground and e s t a b l i s h mutual i n t e r e s t s , t h e employee i s a s k e d a q u e s t i o n o r two on m a t t e r s of g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t . T h i s u s u a l l y g e t s t h e employee t o t a l k i n g and e n a b l e s t h e s u p e r v i s o r t o l e a r n more a b o u t h i m w i t h o u t a p p e a r i n g i n q u i s i t i v e . He may have t o t r y s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t a c k s t o e s t a b l i s h a mutual understanding and a v o i d p u t t i n g t h e employee on t h e d e f e n s i v e . d. The s u p e r v i s o r d e c i d e s t h e p r o p e r t i m e t o s t a r t g i v i n g t h e employee The employee i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e company and t h e employee's job. h i m s e l f may l e a d i n t o t h i s t h r o u g h q u e s t i o n s . e. I n c l o s i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w t h e s u p e r v i s o r should l e a v e t h e employee f e e l i n g t h a t - h e can come back a t a n y t i m e . 2. P r o v i d i n g t h e Ehployee w i t h I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e Company i n Which He Works The employee must b e p r o v i d e d w i t h a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e c m p a n y and i t s p o l i c i e s , a s e a r l y a s p r a c t i c a b l e a f t e r he r e p o r t s t o work, i n I t i s d e s i r a b l e t o s e e him s e v e r a l t i m e s s n a l l enough segments t o be r e t a i n e d . a t i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t two o r t h r e e days. One of t h e main c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i s t o c a u s e t h e employee t o f e e l proud o f t h e company and t o g i v e him an app r e c i a t i o n of i t s p o l i c i e s and what t h e y mean t o him. The new employee should be u r g e d , when he wants t o know more, t o come t o t h e same s o u r c e f o r information the f i r s t - l i n e supervisor. -- - When p o s s i b l e , some i n f o r m a t i o n should be g i v e n t o t h e employee by h i s d e p a r t m e n t c h i e f , i n o r d e r t o widen t h e employee's h o w l e d g e of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o g i v e t h e d e p a r t m e n t c h i e f an a d d i t i o n a l way o f knowing h i s p e o p l e . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s t h e c h i e f w i t h a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r checking t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e employee. T h e r e s h o u l d , however, be a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g among t h o s e concerned a s t o p r e c i s e l y what i n f o r m a t i o n t h e d e p a r t m e n t c h i e f w i l l g i v e t h e employee. I t i s d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e d e p a r t m e n t c h i e f t o p r o v i d e t h a t informat i o n on which it i s d e s i r e d t o p l a c e s p e c i a l emphasis. The s u p e r v i s o r i s t h e b e s t judge o f t h e e x t e n t t o which h e should make a d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n of a n y one item. O r d i n a r i l y t h e broad o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e company programs, what t h e y mean t o t h e employee, and how h e c a n t a k e a d v a n t a g e of them, w i l l s u f f i c e . Care should b e e x e r c i s e d t o s e e t h a t t h e employee does n o t f e e l s u b j e c t e d t o p r e s s u r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n company s o c i a l cr s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s .
    • EXHIBIT A INDUCTION GUIDE - .............. .............. FOR--(Employeef s ~ a m e ) EMPLOYED.. (Date) ...... 1. Has he read t h e employee's handbook? 2. Does he know l o c a t i o n of l o c k e r s and washrooms? 5. I Have f a c t o r y r e g u l a t i o n s smoking, f i r e d r i l l s , absences, e t c . been explaineb? 4. Date Does he know s a f e t y r u l e s , pract i c e s , and t h e r e p o r t i n g of a c c i d e n t s ? Where t o g e t f i r s t - a i d t r e a t m e n t ? Has . h e read t h e s a f e t y handbook? 3. Information g i v e n by Does he know l o c a t i o n of c a f e t e r i a ? Lunch and r e s t - p e r i o d t i m e s ? - - -- - 6. Does he know about p a s s e s temporary, permanent, package, e t c . ? 8. Does he know o r g a n i z a t i o n of department, d i v i s i o n , and shop? Names of s u p e r v i s o r s ? 9. - Was he informed about time-clock and clock-card r u l e s ? 7. - Does he know what t h e department manufacturers? - - 10. Has he been introduced t o fellowworkers, and t o l d about company activities? 11. Have company personnel p o l i c i e s been explained? 12. Does he know how h i s pay i s f i g ured piece-rate, incentives, l e a r n i n g period, overtime, p a y r o l l deductions, e t c . ? 13. Does he understand t h e b e n e f i t q r i n s u r a n c e plan? 14. Does he know where t o g e t i n f o r mation? Help? - --
    • -- A 3. Providing t h e Employee with Information about His Work d i s t i n c t i o n should be made between t h i s phase of t h e induction process and job i n s t r u c t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e here i s t o a s s i s t t h e employee t o a d j u s t t o h i 8 new s i t u a t i o n through providing him with background i n f o r n a t i o n . Much of t h i s inffonaation, of course, such a s l o c a t i o n of t h e l o c k e r s , w i l l Information about work have t o be given s h o r t l y af'ter he r e p o r t s f o r work. and should be given c l e a r l y . I f he i s new t o t h e i s of immediate concern, job he may be unfamiliar with terminology. H e should be encouraged t o a s k questione. Most new employees want t o make a good impression and a r e a f r a i d of not "catching onw r a p i d l y . -- 4. A s s i s t i n g t h e ?bployee t o Adjust Himself t o H i s Fellow-X~rkars Most i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e new t o an organization a r e concerned over how they w i l l be acaepted by t h e i r fellow-nork&. Getting o f f t o t h e r i g h t s t a r t with Pellow-workers depends g r e a t l y upon t h e employee himself, but t h e euperv i s o r can see t h a t t h e new employee i s introduoed t o t h o s e i n t h e v i c i n i t y of h i s work and, i n some i n s t a n c e s , it may b e d e s i r a b l e t o t e l l t h e employee a fen i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s about h i s fellow-workers. When it i s p o s s i b l e t o make a choiae of s e v e r a l work l o c a t i o n s f o r t h e new employee, t h e s u p e r v i s o r can give considerations t o t h e i n t e r e s t s , sex, age, and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of those near whom he might be plaoed. I t might, i n a few i n s t a n c e s , even be d e s i r a b l e t o change a s e a t i n g arrangement s o t h a t t h e new employee w i l l be looated i n a group where he w i l l g e t a l e n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Most alxpervisora, through knowing t h e i r people, develop a " f e e l N f o r such conditions. Helping t h e employee a d j u s t t o h i s working group w i l l n o t o r d i n a r i l y be done by one s i n g l e a c t i o n , b u t w i l l involve many follow-ups over a considerable period of time. I t has been s a i d , probably r i g h t l y , t h a t t h e supervisor'e work i n h e l p i n g employees a d j u s t t o each o t h e r i s never f i n i s h e d . SYSTEMATIZING THE INTBODUCT ION PROCESS When new employees a r e being taken i n t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n , some systematized prooedure should be adapted. This may involve doing c e r t a i n t h i n g s on c e r t a i n days, o r it may be nothing more t h a n d e l e g a t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r induoting t h e new employee. - and it must be a p l a n made For any induction prooedure, a plan i s wise from t h e viewpoint of t h e man with h i s needs i n mind. These p o i n t s should be oonaidered~ Purpose % -a t ahould t h e new employee g e t from t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n prooess? 2. What should t h e oampany g e t ? Cont a n t 1. 2. mat r o u t i n e s and r e g u l a t i o n s must be explained a t onoe? What, l a t e r ? What oompany information must be given? Method 1. 2. I s proaeas on i n d i v i d u a l o r group b a s i s ? W i l l a p l a n t o r department t r i p be included? I .
    • Respoasi bility 1. What is supervisorvspart? 2 What is employment office's part? . 3 Who will co-ordinate and check complete coverage? . Timing 1. - What is the order in uhioh infornation is to be given? 2 How much shall be given at one time? . By using the guide which appears as Exhibit A as a oheok-list for t h e kind of information to be given the employee, a plan suitable to the organization can be worked out in a short time. Suoh a plan oan probably be best prepared through the collaborative efforts of the supervisors in the department where it is to bo used. A detailed time sohedule, such as Exhibit B, may be desirable. After a guide has been drawn up, it is good practice to set dorm the elenentary inforination needed. For example, not until the new man b o w s the location of the time-clock, haw it is operated, where to put his aard, the occasions on which he is required to register, the rules about registering only his own oard, and what to do if he makes a @stake, can the subject of time-clooks be considered adequately covered. It has been estimated that froan six to twelve hours is needed to provide the employee with basic information about the company and his job. It ia obvious that, if many new em?loyees are coming to the plant, supervisors may not have this muah time to give to many employeea individually. Although personal contact with the new employee is highly desirable, it may be necessary during suoh periods to use group methods to oonvey some of the information about the company and the employee's work to new employees. Regardless of the number of new employees, however, the supervisor should not fail to make some personal uontaot with each of them as early as possible, doing what he can to assist them in feeling at home. INDUCTTNG THE TRAiiSFEmD OR REXIBED EMPLOYEZ ~t is obvious that neither as muoh information nor attention will ordinarily have to be given to the rehired or transferred employee as to the newly hired employee. Sometimes there is a failure to explain olearly to an employee the reasons for his transfer, an item of great concern to him. Although his fomer supervisors and the employment office are responsible, his new supervisor can well afford to make aure that he understands, and that any doubts he nay have are expressed and talked aver as early as possible. It should be remembered that this employee will have to pass through an adjusting or orienting period similar to the new employee. Supervisors should not take it for granted that these employees are familiar with the company or their work, yet to assume they are totally ignorant of the organization may provoke resentment. In addition to these general kinds of information, the rehired or transferred employee usually wants to know, promptly, what grade of work he is assigned to, what his rate and probable earnings will be, what shift he is to be working, and similar information that shows him at once 'where he stands. "
    • EXHIBIT B SAMPLE INDUCTION OUTLINE I WHAT AND H W O ? W E AND W B R E ? HN BY W O ? HM F i r s t Day 1. On a r r i v a l i n plant 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o working supervisor 1. By person who did hiring 2. On a r r i v a l i n department 15 minutes 2. Information needed i n d a i l y routine a. Any i n f o r m a t i o n he may need on g e t t i n g t o and from work, parking regulations, etc. b. S t a r t i n g time, lunch peri o d , q u i t t i n g t i m e , hours p e r week c. Review o f compensation i t e m s (when he w i l l be p a i d , where, how, how much) c. Opportunity f o r questions 2. By s u p e r v i s o r 3. Following preliminary interview one ha1 f hour 3. I f e e t i n g o t h e r workers, g e t t i n g t o know l a y o u t of b u i l d i n g a. T r i p through department w i t h g e n e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n of product b. Show him where he i s t o work and meet neighboring workers. c. Show him h i s l o c k e r and l o c a t i o n o f wash rooms. d. Show him t h e time-clock, h i s c a r d , and e x p l a i n regulations. e. T e l l him about any s p e c i a l r u l e s on smoking, l e a v i n g department, e t c . 3. By s u p e r v i s o r o r group l e a d er 4. Following 3 till noon Job I n s t r u c t i o n 4. By person who i s t o handle training 5. Noon Show l o c a t i o n of c a f e t e r i a and e a t lunch w i t h new man. a. Show him noon r e c r e a t i o n facilities. b. I n t r o d u c e him t o o t h e r s . 5. Neighboring worker 6. A f t e r lunch till h a l f hour b e f o r e quitting t i m Job I n s t r u c t i o n 6. Trainer 14. . /.
    • YiHAT AND. H W O ? 7. Half hour before closing BY W O ? HM Give p a s s , e x p l a i n u s e , and r e g u l a t i o n i n c a s e of a b s e n c e . Give b o o k l e t o f r u l e s , r e g u l a t i o n s , and p o l i c i e s t o b e r e a d a t home. 7. Supervisor Second Day 1. A t a convenient t i m e , one h a l f hour Review b o o k l e t of r u l e s and regulations, policies. a . t o s e e t h a t he u n d e r s t a n d s s u b j e c t s covered i n booklet b. t o g i v e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s k questions 1. Supervisor 2. A t a conveni e n t ti me Check t h r o u g h j o b w i t h s a f e t y e n g i n e e r and r e v i e w p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s on s a f e t y . 2. S a f e t y Engineer Meet w i t h o t h e r new men f r o m o t h e r departments a . Tour p l a n t . b. Have o r g a n i z a t i o n s e t - u p described. c. Have m u t u a l b e n e f i t and other organi z a t ion plans described. 1. Personnel Department Interview with supervisor o f f job a. Find o u t what h e i s thinking. b. C l e a r up a n y m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . c . Give o p p o r t u n i t y f o r questions. 1. Supervisor 15 minutes W i t h i n F i r s t Week F i f t h Day
    • I n t r o d u c i n g an employee means t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r o b t a i n s background i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e man a s w e l l a s g i v i n g him i n f o r m a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e . he s u p e r v i s o r n e e d s t o know h i s men, and t h e man n e e d s t o k n m t h e d e p a r t ment s o t h a t he w i l l f e e l a t home. It i s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f a d j u s t m e n t The t h a t t h e employee's f u t u r e worth t o t h e company i s l a r g e l y determined. employee's immediate s u p e r v i s o r should s e e t h a t t h i s i s done r e g a r d l e s s o f whether complete a u t h o r i t y has been d e l e g a t e d t o him o r a s y s t e m a t i z e d p l a n , i n v o l v i n g t h e employment o f f i c e , has been adopted. The s u p e r v i s o r 1 s s u c c e s s i n i n t r o d u c i n g employees w i l l depend l a r g e l y on t h e c a r e and i n s i g h t w i t h which h e approaches t h i s work. H i s e x p e r i e n c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e should be c o n s t a n t l y drawn upon f o r h e l p . Bulletin 7-1681 P 8 b u - f i n a l #8
    • TRAINING IiITHIN INDUSTRY BULLETIN SERIES Bureau of Training war Manpower C o w i s s i o n Washington, D. C. December, l 9 U KEEPING SUPERVISORS INFORMED ABOUT THEIR RESPONSIBILITIES This b u l l e t i n o u t l i n e s a simple p l a n f o r giving t r a i n i n g t o s u p e m s o r s i n the knowledge of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . It is prepared e s p e c i a l l y f o r those managers who have t h e p o i n t of view of n a n t i c i p a t i o n and preventionn r a t h e r than It ndiscorery and c o r r e c t i ~ n . ~ i s f o r those who look beneath t h e s u r f a c e f o r t h e s o l u t i o n of t h e i r supervisory problems. It i s important t h a t every supervisor know not only t h e t e c h n i c a l phases of h i s job but a l s o just what his r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e . Since these responsib i l i t i e s change, it i s necessary t h a t t h e plan f o r keeping supervisors informed of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s h a l l operate continuously. N p l a n t management can hold a supervisor responsible f o r things about o which he has not been informed. This p l a n i s only an o u t l i n e f o r a method of approach within whlch any company can develop i t s own program i n d e t a i l according t o i t s own problems and needs. C. R. Dooley, Director Training Within I n d u s t r y EPONS IBILI TY FOR DEVELOPING SUPERVISORS We one domin&lt influence i n each s u p e r v i s o r ' s l i f e , j u s t a s i n t h e case of each employee, is his boss. Therefore, t h e b e s t supervisory t r a i n i n g i n the worl2 is having a ngood boss.n The most s u c c e s s f u l supervisory development prag r m is one sponsored and d i r e c t e d by top management. This plan enables each o f f i c e r and supervisor t o keep h i s subordinate s u p e m i s o r s Fnformed i n an organized manner. Without some organized plan this : ~ b i s e a s i l y crowded out of the p i c t u r e by the rush and pressure of production ? u t i e s , and t h e supervisor acquires information about h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a haphazard manner through c o s t l y experience. It i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e program s t a r t a t t h e top l e a s t t h e general manager of a given p l a n t . - the president o r at Basic Features of t h e Plan Acceptance by top management of t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r adequately informing supervisors of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , Regular conferences a t each o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l , sponsored and d i r e c t e d by Line organization supervisors . Frank discussion, f r e e c o n s u l t a t i o n , and appropriate a c t i o n concerning company p o l i c i e s and i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , a t each l e v e l . The appointment of s t a f B t r a i n i n g men t o d i r e c t t h e r o u t i n e of these meetings, see t h a t arrangements a r e made, n o t i c e s s e n t out, agenda prepared, and r e p o r t s i s s u e d -
    • SETTIW UP THE PROGRAM me i n i t i a l meeting should be c a l l e d by t h e chief o f f i c e r of the company o r p l a n t and attended by h i s immediate s t a f f and o t h e r key people who a r e regul a r l y associated with them. The o b j e c t of t h i a meeting i s t o d i s c u s s the need f o r keeping supervisom informed about t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and the d e t a i l s of a proposed program for accolllpUshing t h i s objective. The head of the company o r p l a n t should be t h e a c t i v e ahainnan of t h e meeting. A t r a i n i n g man should a s s i s t t h e head of t h e company o r p l a n t i n l a y i n g o u t t h e agenda f o r t h e meeting and should a t t e n d the meeting t o lend a s s i s t a n c e i n p l m i n g t h e l a t e r program. Naturally t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n problems outside t h e a b i l i t y of the supervisor p l a n t extension, t o do anything about, but p r a c t i c a l l y every company problem equipmsnt, finance, q u a l i t y c o n t r o l , shipping schedules, c o s t s , l a b o r r e l a t i o n s , etc.-should be touched upon t o determine a t t h e very o u t s e t t h e scope of t h e r e s p o n e i b i l i t i a s t o be c a r r i e d st each successive l a y e r of supervision. Succeeding conferences on lower l e v e l s should each determine d e f i n i t e l y j u s t what respon s i b i l i t i e s are t o be c a r r i e d by each supervisor on each l e v e l of a u p e d s i o n . - The e x t e n t t o which it appears t h a t information about r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s is Packing on t h e various l e v e l s of supervision w i l l determine the c h a r a c t e r of the program both a s t o agenda and as t o schedule of meetings. 1 Periodic conferences f o r supervisors on a l l l e w l a . _i Each chief supervisor should meet r e g u l a r l y with those supervisors who r e p o r t t o him. Experience dl1 determine the length and frequency of t h e s e meetings but u s u a l l y m e and one-half hours every two t o f o u r weeks w i l l be found s a t i s f a c t o r y . The b e s t meetings a r e those f o r which t h e agenda i s brie:t and the conference i t s e l f kept informal.. The,&e-up of t h e conferences must be determined according t o each company's organizational s t r u c t u r e The c r i t e r i o n i s t o have i n each meeting only those supervisors who have comparable responsibilities. . A s soon a f t e r t h e c l o s e of t h e f i r s t meeting a s convenient, each member of t h a t conference should c a l l a conference of those supervisors r e p o r t i n g t o him and c a r r y on the discussion. This process should continue on d o n t h e organization u n t i l t h e f i r s t - l i n e supervisors have been reached. This p a t t e r n i s of v i t a l impurtance. t o p i c s to be discussed, promptness of following up unfinished business, and t h e effectiveness of the program as a It includes r e g u l a r i t y of meetings, sending o u t r e p o r t s , promptness of many other items vital t o s t e e r i n g whole. The head of each group should alwaya be present u n l e s s unavoidably detained, and should never f a l l i n t o t h e h a b i t of leaving t h e conduct of t h e meeting t o 4 s u b s t i t u t e because of c a s u a l reasons. A conference which i s n o t worthy of t h e a t t e n t i o n of the s u p e m i s o m chief is not worth holding a t a l l . 4. 2. Conference l e a d e r s h i p The executive o r supervisor i n charge of each group a t each l e v e l must be chairman of his m conference. I f he i s a t r a i n e d conference l e a d e r he may l e a d t h e m e t i n g himself. If not, he may t u r n t h e leadership of t h e
    • d i s c u s s i o n over t o a conference l e a d e r o r he may open and c l o s e t h e meeting and t a c t f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n b a t depend upon t h e conference l e a d e r t o keep t h e d i s c u s s i o n on t h e t o p i c s and on schedule. Some supervisors inexperienced i n leading conferences w i l l quickly become f a m i l i a r with t h e procedure aod g r a d u a l l y t a k e more d e t a i l e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Others w i l l never a t t a i n competence i n using t h e conference method, and s t i l l others may l e a v e t h e conduct of t h e meeting t o a conference l e a d e r j u s t s o they can p a r t i c i p a t e in t h e d i s c u s s i o n s and o t h e r d m a i d t h e program a s a member of t h e group. m a t e v e r procedure is used, t h e r e must never be any doubt t h a t t h e supervisor i n charge is responsible f o r t h e conference and i s personally going t o s e e t h a t it i s a success t h a t everyone who a t t e n d s f e e l s i t was worth h i s time. - 3. Agenda of c u r r e n t supervisory problems The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r determining the agenda r e s t s with t h e conference conducted by t h e t o p executive, The company t r a i n i n g d i r e c t o r , meeting w i t h groups a t a l l l e v e h , maintains t h e thread of c o n t i n u i t y and s e e s t h a t a c t i o n is not delayed and t h a t proper r e p o r t s a r e rendered. I n some p l a n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a r g e companies, t h e r e may be a full-time -'conference s e c r e t a r y . # The i l r s t s t e p i n planning a s e r i e s of agenda i s t o f i n d out what p o l i c i e s have already been s e t down i n writing. This a p p l i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y t o employment, t r a i n i n g , hours, wages, t r a n s f e r s , promotions, s e n i o r i t y , layoff, discharges, Plans include insurance, h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , s i c k b e n e f i t s , vacat i o n s , savings, stock purchase, i n c e n t i v e s ; procedures include methods of wage payment, r o u t i n e f o r r e p o r t i n g accidents, method of arranging t r a n s f e r rules,covering a wide f i e l d , a r e o f t e n not t o o s h a r p l y defined. Quite often t h e r e is nothing i n w r i t i n g on a s u p e r v i s o r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as t o scheduling, c o s t , maintenance, q u a l i t y , waste, interdepartmental r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Each s u p e r v i s o r should a l s o have knowledge of l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s and r e g u l a t i o n s which e f f e c t p l a n t operations. There w i l l be w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l on union c o n t r a c t s and o f t e n on a grievance procedure. Each conference, from t h e top down, p l a c e s on i t s agenda two binds of topics: Those which concern i t s own p a r t i c u l a r group only. Those which should be brought t o t h e a t t e n t i o n of o t h e r groups, - Many conclusions a r r i v e d a t must be passed on t o groups o f lorrer l e v e l s f o r execution b u t many of t h e conclusions and some of t h e opinions should be passed up t o groups on higher l e v e l s f o r t h e i r information. One of the major r e s u l t s of this program of conferences i s t o help break d m t h e n a t u r a l i n s u l a t i o n between an executive and t h e e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e beluw him. Many suggestions and opinions, i f t a c t f u l l y presented, w i l l b e uelcaaed by t h e higher o f f i c e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s of a p l a n t o r company. 4. Subject-mattw f o r supervisory conferences The top conference group u s u a l l y develops enough t o p i c s f o r d i s c u s s i o n by groups a t lower l e v e l s t o keep the schedule overcrouded. The problem g e n e r a l l y i s how to e l i m i n a t e t o p i c s f o r d i s c u s s i o n r a t h e r t h a n how to suggest them. Additional t o p i c s a l s o f l u w upward.
    • Homver, f o r those who may not know how t o g e t s t a r t e d , t h e following suggestions may be helpful: Open t h e meeting by p r e s e n t i n g one o r two t o p i c s which have been handed down by t h e next higher group. ~f t h e company has no w r i t t e n i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s policy, each group may develop i n i t i a l d r a f t s of such p o l i c i e s and p r e s e n t them t o the higher groups. I f t h e company has w e l l defined w r i t t e n i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s policies, each group may p e r i o d i c a l l y review them i n the l i g h t of c u r r e n t r e quirements and mcomend changes t o t h e higher groups. Recent government r u l i n g s , l a b o r agreements, and t r a i n i n g programs, a f f e c t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of supervisors may be discussed. Questions of customer s e r v i c e , q u a l i t y , maintenance, inspection, store-keeping, shipping, o f t e n involve misunderstanding a s t o j u s t which supervisor i s responsible f o r what. The most e f f e c t i v e method y e t discovered b y which areas of responsib i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y can be c l e a r l y d e t o d n e d , overlapping of f m c t i o n s eliminated, i n t e r n a l jealousies diaaipated, and procedures c l a r i f i e d and s i m p l i f i e d i s through group a n a l y s i s of t h e responsib i l i t i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l departments, d i v i s i o n s , supervisors, and g e t t i n g group agreement t o conclusions. Frequently such agreements c l e a r up d i f f i c u l t i e s between departments o f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . There i s s c a r c e l y an a c t i v i t y t h a t i s not m a t e f l a l l y changed and improved when subjected t o t h e group m a l y s i s of t h e various executives and supenrisors a f f e c t e d . A l l supervisors need up-to-date i t s products, and i t s t e c h n i c a l by i n v i t i n g company s p e c i a l i s t s discussions i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e 5. informatson concerning t h e company, processes. T h i s i s e a s i l y accomplished t o at-nd group meetings and l e a d f i e l d s of a c t i v i t y . Importance of f i r s t - l i n e supervisors Having general matters start w i t h t h e chief executive group and flow down through t h e various conferencas sometimes r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l h e l p when such matters reach f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s . I f t h o r e a r e two o r t h r e e work s h i f t s , it may be impossible f o r t h e foreman to meet l r i t h all h i s supervisors. Perhaps it is not p o s s i b l e t o remove a l l supeFvisors from the f l o o r a t one time. I n such cases the foreman o r g e n e r a l foreman can d e l e g a t e t o a conference leader t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of conducting solas of t h e conferences f o r h i m . It i s important t o remember t h a t information tends to l o s e i t s c l a r i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e a s it passes from one l e v e l t o another. A r e p o ~ r tfrom t h e f i r s t - l i n e supervisors t e l U n g t h e i r underatanding of the information should be asked f o r h e n t h e r e i s any p o s s i b i l i t y of misunderstanding.
    • T. W. I. PROGRAM AND POLICY T h e Training Within 1ndust1.y Program was esta t)lislicd in August 1 940 b- the National Defense Advisory Comnlission and was contiriued under tlic Office of Production h4anagement and then Lhe War Productiorl Board. B y Presidential order or1 April 18, 1942, Training Within Industry functions were made part of tlle W a r Manpower Commission. T . W. I. operates as part of the Bureau of Training. Management is interest,ed primarily in getting o u t increased a n d irnproved production. Supervisiorl and training are sometimes regarded as separate functions, but they are with management. T. W. I. attempts to get this viewpoint accepted, actually concurre~lt and T. W. I . work deals exclusively with what management itself cnn do to train its supervisors. T . W . I . Advocates I t is recornmended t h a t all war production plants give balanced and appropriate attention to the follouing pllascs of in-plant training: 1. U P G R A D I N G of all classes of persolme1 as their experienc~ and abilities warrant, through planned job progression, job rotation, and i~itensi-c supplementary instruction both on and off the job. Each plant sl~ould take stock of tbc talent and experience of its own personnel before employing nev men arid women. 2. Derrlopmcnt of P R O D U C T I O N SPECIALISTS t hrougli int cnsivc instruct ion on the job in basic operations. 3. Developrncrit of all-round SKILLED M E C H A N I C S through trade apprenticeship, in accordance with Federal standards, separntc from production worker training, for the purpose of developi~lg predetermined, limited number of alla round journe-man mechanics. 4. 1)erelopn~entof SUPERJTISORS through careful sclcctioi~, assignment, of suprr~ i s o r yduties of increasing rcspo~~sibility, and provision for related organized help through discussions and confewnces, under both plant and outside auspices, dealing with methods of insti.uction, methods of developing better ways of doing a job, methods of improving working relationships, and knowledge of responsibilities. T . W . I . Conducts T h e Training Within Industry Service conducts intensive programs for newly appointed and experienced supervisors and those responsible for in-plant training. There is no ailthority to enter a plant on anF basis other than with rnanagementls cooperation. The programs for supervisors require 10 hours of basic training, a n d for training directors 40 hours. Job Instruction gix~csthe superrisor practice in Ilow to "break in" men on new jobs. J o b Methods helps the supervisor to simplify and improvc methods of doing a job. Job Rrlutions gives the supervisor practice in how to prornote teamwork. Progrum D ~ v ~ l o y s r ~ e n t shows training men how they can develop thcir own in-plant programs by giving them intensified coacllirlg in a method of planning, operating. and improving plant-wide training programs. Organization Thc. Training Witllill Industry Service has a field forcc with offices in 24 districts s througliout the. r'nitcti S t a t c ~ and in Hawaii They a1.r. stnffod by trairlirig and personnc.1 sprcialists, nlany of whom are loaned by their companies for part-time or full-time mrol-l.;. H endquwrtc1.s and field of% w s h a r e aclriscrs from both management and labor.
    • MANAGEMENT AND SKILLED SUPERVISION The job of getting out war production and of optrating essential services is being done by many of men and women. The managements of war plants, and other industries such as railroads, end services s11c11 as hospitals, depend on their to get results through these millions of people The supervisors are the key persons in the production, home-front job. Since the management responsibilities of supervisor~ greater than ever before, the impo~tance are of skillcd supci?%ion increases daily. At the same tinle, the difficulties of supervisio11 are mountingunskilled new workers and changing designs. Many supervisors themselves are new-they have not had time to "grow into their jobs." Under these conditions, every step that management can take to improve thc skills of superrision yields important results. T. W.I . urges munagc~mentto nlakc the spotting of all its trnirling nwds the responsibility of a specific ptmon within the organization, and helps him to plan training to meet these needs. T h e Supervisor's Five Needs In order to do the job management expects, the supervisor needs knowledge of his work and of his responsibilities, and must constantly use the skills of instruction, of improving methods, and of working with people. Knowledge o f His W o r k I n order to properly direct the people under his supervision, the supervisor himself must k n o ~ what doing the p~rticularkind of work involves, what materials and equip~nrntarc needed, how the job is done, what standards must hc met. Since jobs differ from plant to plant (and t ~ c from n department to department), only the managemrnt knows just what work knowledge is needed by its various supervisors. Knowledge o f Responsibilities To the people u-110 work under him, the super iwr i s ~ ~ i i i l l : l g ~ l ~ ~ ~ l l t he C I P N I . ~ ~ just U111t)ss . li110w u hat rnanagemc~ntc~iprc~ts to pass on to the him ~ o r k e r s what plant policies cont1.01 his artions, , and where he fits into the organization, he cannot be an eft'ective supen-isor. Training supervisors in company policies and relationships is an important phase of improving the quality of supervision-and it is a job which each company must carry on for itself, brcause individual plants are as diflcrmt as individual persons. Skill i n I n s t r u c t i n g There are over twenty million workers on important jobs which :ire rclntively 11(.v to them. There is no time to be wasted on "comirig up to production rate," and scrap and rejects must be reduced to a minimum. The supervisor 7 m s t be able to get a person to do a job, quickly, correctly, . and consci~~ltiously This problem is common to all supervisors iu a11 plants and can be met through a common approach. Through industrial experic'nce a 4-step metllod has becn evolved. When the supervisor leaim this method and uses it,, he develops skill in instructing. T . W. I . lwlps management to provide its s11pc.rvisors with this skill through the Job Instructiori program. Management support is essentiul to insllre the ncquir~ngof this skill. Skill i n Improzdng M e t h o d s Thollsands of jobs are hcing done the way they are done simply becausc they got started that way. Many people never qurstlon the current rnethodjust keep on in the old way. Engineers and technicians develop big improvements, but cannot reach into many operations on single pieces of work which are repeated over and over and which, bu1hr.d together, make up the reel volume of productive c4or.t. The drvelopment of imp~ovements docs ]lot rtquire inventive genius-but it docbs require the. questioning att I tude of the supervisor who knows the intimate details. The skill of impwoving m ~ t h o d scan be lcarned. I t provides a way for tremendous savings through malting more effective use of manpowvr, machincs, and materials. T . W. I. helps management to provide its supervisors with this skill through t,hc Job hiethods program. hlanagement support is essential to insure thc acquiring of this skill. Skill i n Working w i t h People Full productive rffort comes only when the sllpervisor bccwnlcs the leatlcr of his p ~ o p l e when , htl organizes them into a tcam anti thcy ~ r o r k well together. In thc past, sliperv~sors have dcvelopcd a skill i n lradership tlm~uglicxpcrioncc. I n wartime the situntions w hic~li causc misunderstandings and grievances have multiplied, and the resi~ltsof these delays are more serious than eT7er before. Supervisors must quickly learn to lead thr~ir people. T . llT. helps mnnagrnlcnt I. to provide its sllpervisors with this skill through the Job Kclu t ions program. Alanagemcn t support is essential to insure the acquiring of this skill
    • How t h e T . W . I. Programs Operate Training T i t h i n Industry experience has proven that results come only when daily use is made of what has been acquired through basic training. Accordingly, T . W. I . programs are started in plants only when top management, as a result of spending the time necessary to understand the programs, sponsors the programs, prepares to operate them through the production orgnnization, and demands results. An important step in operating the T . IT. I . programs is informing mlddle management-the persons who link top executives with operating supervision. They also must understand and accept the programs in order that the supervisors will appreciate tlie importance of using them. In any plant, regardless of size, any job requires that some one person be made responsible for getting it done. Gctting basic training in the F ' . T . I I. programs accomplished and seeing t h a t supervisors use what they have learned in order that continulig results will be obtained is a real job, and T. W.I . insists that the responsibility for this job he definitely assigned. When these conditions h a r e been met, the Training Kithi11 Industry Service makes its techniques available to nny eligible establishment (the order of assistance being determined by the priority of importance to the war effort). T . W . I . trains a plant representative to put on the Job Instruction, Job h/Iethods, and Job Relations programs. This preparntion of trainers requires one week. T . W. I . provides the training outlines and simple instruction materials. The trainer conducts a program by putting on five 2-hour sessions for a group of 10 supervisors. These sessions are to be put on daily or on alternate days. Since these progrnrns are depended upon by plants to do a production job for them, T . W. I. urges managements to schedule these sessions during working hours, a t plant expense. I n all three of tlie programs, the first session is devoted to the exposition of a 4-step method for supervisors to use. The other four sessions (8 hours out of the 10) are spent by the supervisors in pr:wticing on their own problems. If a plant is too small to be able to have a trainer from its own staff (in general, this means plants with less thnn 50 supervisors to be trained), T. TT. I . n ill arimlgc for an outside trainer who can be compensated for his time through state vocational funds. After the basic training phase of any one of these programs is started, T. W. I . representatives help the plant to set up procedures to give sustained support to the programs in order that they will be used and results obtained continuously. Union stcwards are eligible for participation in the Job Relations program, either in sessions put on by union tra.iners under union sponsorship, or as members of plant groups made up of both supervisors and stewards. The J o b Instruction Program When a supervisor lms to b i w k in a man on new job, he JS interested in lla%g him come up to quality and quantity requirements of production as quickly as possible, in avoiding accidents which will injure the worker, in avoiding damnge to machines and equipment, and in spoiling as little work as possible. In order to accomplish this, the supervisor needs to get ready to instruct. H e must: Have a time tablehow much skill you expect him to have, by what datc. Break d o w n the job-list important stcps pick out tlie key points. Huw every fhing readythe right equipment, materials, and supplies. H a ~ e workplace properly arrangedthe just as the worker will be expected to keep it. These "get,-ready" points provide the basis on which the 4-step method of inst'r~ct~ionstarted: is STEP 1-PREPARE THE WORKER. P u t him a t ease. State the job and find out what he already knows about it. Get him interested in learning job. Place in correct position. STEP %PRESENT THE OPERATION. Tell, show, and illustrate one IMPORTANT S T E P a t a time. Stress each KEY POINT. Instruct clearly, complet cly, and patiently, but no more than lie can master. STEP 3-TRY OUT PERFORMANCE. Have him do the job-correct crrors. HRVC explain each KEY POINT to you him ~ as 1 1 does the job again. Make sure lie understands. Continue until YOU laon- HE knows. STEP 4-FOLLOW UP. P u t him on his own. Designate to whom he goes for help. Check frequently . E n r o ~ age questions. u Taper off extra coaching and c,lose follow-up.
    • Throughout the 10 hours, the trainers st,re,ss: the worker hasn't learned, Ih.e instructor hasn't Gught. When supervisors use the Job Instruction steps, bleak-in time is reduced, accidents decrease, and scrap loss falls. rf ~ ~ ~ iResults o f Use o f Job Instruction. c a l steel con~pany.-"In the past it has taken 6 to break in a man or woman in handling a traveling overliead crane. After J . I . training of instructors in how to break in people on a crane ,peration by following a breakdown sheet of the job, it now takes 6 % days. This includes the proper operator maintenance of the crane." Electric manufncturing company.-"One mor@h after thc J . I . program was started, reject tickets F~erc reduced about 50% in two departments with 2,jC)O workers." Shipyard.-"A crew, originally of 85 men, now of 70 (49 of them women), is turning out 10% more work than the original and larger crew did. Bptter method of training through J. I., efl'ected this result." Brass company .-"On one operation where 9,600 pieccs werc run per 8 hours, thcre was an average o l,77O pieces of scrap. A J . I. key point reduced f the scrap to 25 pieces, and further application of J. I. reduced this to 5 pieces in 20,000." The Job Methods Program Materials are growing scarcer, machinery is difficult to replace, and m a n p o w r is critical. Bett,er ways to use available materials, machines, and manpower are developed when supe~visors use the J o b Methods technique: STEP 1-BREAK DOWN THE JOB. 1. List all details of the job exactly as done by t'he present method. 2. Be sure det,ails include nllhlaterial llandling. Machine work. Hand work. STEP 2-QUESTION EVERY DETAIL. 1. Use these types of questions: W H Y is i t nccessn~.y? WHAT is its purpose? W H E R E should it be done? W H E N should it be done? WHO is best qualified t,o do it? HOW is the "best way" to do it? 2. Also question the: hlaterials, machines, equipment, tools, product design, lay-out, work-place, safety, housekeeping. STEP 3-DEVELOP THE NEW METHOD. E L I M I N A T E unnecessary details. COMBINE details when practical. REARRANGE for better sequence. S I M P L I F Y all necessary details: To make the work easicr and safer. Pre-position ilia tcrials, tools and equipment a t the best places i l l the proper work arcn. Use gravity-fwd hoppers and d r o delivery chutes. Let both hands do useful work. Use jigs and fixtures instead of hands, for holding work. 5. Work out your idea with others. 6. Write up your proposed new neth hod. 1. 2. 3. 4. STEP 4-APPLY THE NEW METHOD. 1. Sell your proposal to your "boss." 2. Sell the new mc~thodto thc operators. 3. Get final approval of all concerned on safety, quality, quantity, cost. 4. P u t the new method t,o work. Use it until a better way is dereloped. 5. Give credit where credit is due. American industry today is the result of improvements. Many of these improvements have been made by specialists, or else by someone who had one "flash" idea that worked. This Job Methods technique stinlulates every supervisor to look critically a t all the jobs hr directs-not just once, but repeatedly, as a part of his supervisory job. Typical Results o f Use o f Job Methods. Aircrajt plant.-"An average of 12 hours per plane was being lost in the installation and adjustment of the door-locking mechanism. Workers designcd a new lock, accepted by engineering and manngement, with the result that perfect installation and adjlistrnent can br madc in about 20 minutes." Ctmen t Compa7r y. - "An improved method fol feetling cemcnt snrks into n clcatlcr saved 35 rnilc~. of walking per day, 70 girl crnployees afl'ectcd." Wurehouse.-"In the operation of wrapping 100-pound to 600-pound rolls of duck, a J. M. improvement resulted in a saving of 48% in manhours, a reduction in the department affected from 1,008 hours to 528 hours per 48-hour weck, and eliminated one fork lift and truck. This improvernent also eliinillatrd skin infections from handling, and results 111 savings a t the armual rate of $300,000 in labor and material."
    • cnncompany.-"(l) By a new method for testing cans, the girl now doing the job can handle 3 more marllines and still have 2 hours left out of 8. (2) In making solder, during busy times one inan had to lift twice (once up 4 feet on to a truck and again off the truck into a smelter) a total of 8,000 pounds, or 4 tons, of material per day. B y a new method, all this lifting is eliminated. ( 3 ) A ncw method of handling and cutting dunnage lumber results in a 2.5% saving in cost and eliminates 6 trips of 000 feet each way per carload of cans." The Job Relations Program The supervisor can avoid many problems in his department if he builds a foundation of good relations. T. W.I . stresses these fund:ln~cntals: Let each worker know how he is getting along Figure out what you expect of him. Point out ways to improve. Give credit when due. Look for extra or unusual performonce. Trll him wliile "it's hot." Tell people i n advance about changcs that will aflect them. Tell them WHY if possible. Get them to accept the change. Make best use o each person's ability. f Look for ability not now being used. Never stand in a man's map. Peopl~ Must Be Treated As Indiciduals. Applying these foundations is not, however, enough. Because problems do arise, the supervisor must be able to liandle them before they seriously affect production or grow to larger proportions. The problem-solving technique is: DETERMINE OBJECTIVE STEP 1-GET THE FACTS. Review the record. Find out what rules and plant customs apply. Talk wit11 individuals coricerncd. Get opinioris arid feelings. Bc swrc yov h o t ~ ~ h u401( .sto~y. STEP 2-WEIGH AND DECIDE. Fit the facts together. Consider their bearing on each other. What possible actions are there? Check practices and policies. Consider objective and dl'ect on individual, group, and production. Don't jum y at conclusions. STEP 3-TAKE ACTION. Are you going to handle this yourself? Do you need help in handling? Should you refer this to your supervisor? Watch the timing of your action. Don't pass the buck. STEP 4-CHECK RESULTS. How soon will you follow up? How often will you need to check? Watch for changes in output, attitudes, and relationships. Did your (~ctionhelp production? Typical Results o f Use o f Job Relations. Coal mine.-"As N direct result of Job Relations, tlic output of coal has increased 120 cars per week (480 tons of coal)." Steel company.-"Coniplaint cases to mamgemerit have dropped 54% since J . R . was started. Grievance committee meets now on an average of three times a month; formerly it was a t least three times per weel<." Radio plant.-"Since the Job Rtlatiorls program has been in eficct, about 6 weeks, employee cornplaints or grievances have becn reduced Y7Y0, or from 30 pcr month to 1 pcr month." Food plant.-"Most of the probleins that used to come to management are now liandled by tlw foremen tlicmselves. Forcmen have increased confidcnce. The foremen arc noticeably careful in making a decision to be sure they are within the practices and polivies of thc company so that they will be supported hg their superiors." Meeting the Plant's Overall Training Needs Thc majority of T . W. I. time is spent in the field of supervision but, as stated, T. W. I. programs arc not stfirted in a,plant until management has indicated its definite intent to stress their us(. by giving the responsibility for training dircv%ion or coordination to a spccdic person. T. W. I. provides to management assistance foi this training marl througli 4-day Program Development institutes in wllich the inan learns and uses a 4-step method of mwting production problems through training. STEP 1- SPOT A PRODUCTION PROBLEM. Gct supervisors and workers to tell about their current problems. Uncover problems by reviewing records-11crformance, cost, turnover, rejects, accidents. Anticipate probleins resulting from changes organization, production, or policies. Analyze this evidence. Identify ti.ainiug needed. Tackle One Specific Necd a t a Time.
    • STEP 2-DEVELOP A SPECIFIC PLAN. Jrllo will he trained? IThnt content? Tho can help determine? I-Iow can it he donc best? Who sl1ould do the training? Whcn should i t be done-- how long will i t take? Vllel.c should it be done? I17cli(.lt jor relation ?{this pla,rz to other current training plans and progrcrms. STEP 3-GET PLAN INTO ACTION. Stress to nmnngc~rientevidence of nc.ed- usc f t ~ c t anti figures. s Present the expected results. Discuss plan - content and mr>tl~ods. Subrnit timetable for plan. Train those who do the training. Secure understanding and acceptance by those aff ccted. Fix rcsponsibility for contirll~irlguse. BEszire r n m a g ~ r n ~ particiyafes. nt Step 4--Check Results. Row cn11 results be checked? Against what evidence'? Wllnt results will bc loolieti for? I s rnanagcment being informed how? I s the plan being followed? How is i t being kept in use? .4re m y changes necessary? I s the P l a n Helping Production? The Institute is scheduled as two consecutivp days during which the members practice the mrthod, using material drawn from many industries. Then they return, after one week, for wol.k 0 1 their own plans wll i c l ~they h i r e meanwhile 1 dc~~cloped. Througllout, T . W. I. strcsses that: for T l x Line organization has the respor~sibilit~ making continuing use of the knowledge and skills acquired through training as a regular part of tlw operating job. The Staff provides plans and teclmical " k n o ~ llow," and docs some things FOR but usually works THROUGH the line organization. WAR MANPOWER COMMISSION Bureau of Training T R A I N I N G W I T H I N INDUSTRY SERVICE Birectw C. R . DOOLET. JTALTER DIETZ, As~oci(ztc Dir~cfo7 h l . d. I ~ A N E W ~ L L I ACONOVER, nnd M Assistant Uirtctors For service 01. further information, call the nearest War Manpower Corrimission representative, or:
    • THE T W I JOB THE COMPANY JOB GET TOP MANAGEMENT TO ACCEPT THE RESPONSIBILITY BACK THEIR PROGRAM THROUGH THE HELP TRAINING DIRECTOR PLAN AND OPERATE AN ADEQUATE PROGRAM I N THREE SKILLS INSTRUCTING IMPROVING METHODS LEADING SEE THAT QUICKLY, ALL WORKEXS CORRECTLY. PRODUCE CONSCIENTIOUSLY U. 5 . G O V E R N M E N T P R l N T l N G O f f l C E '344
    • TRAINING WITHIN INDUSTRY BUREAU OF T R A I N I N G W A R MANPOWER C O M M I S S I O N B u l l e t i n #8-A Washington, D. C. May, SAFETY ON THE JOB FOR THE NEW 1942 EMPLOYEE I n d u s t r i a l s a f e t y i s v i t a l t o war p r o d u c t i o n . All accidents interfere w i t h t h e f l o w o f w o r k : many r e s u l t i n d a m a g e t o m a c h i n e r y , e q u i p m e n t , o r w o r k ; some i n v o l v e i n j u r i e s . I n j u r i e s r e s u l t i n a t l e a s t temporary l o s s of s e r v i c e s when f u l l - t i m e w o r k of e v e r y e m p l o y e e i s n e e d e d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e new e m p l o y e e r e c e i v e a n e a r l y i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e company's program and p o l i c i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o s a f e t y . T h e r i q h t way to d o a job i s t h e s a f e w a y , a n d t r a i n i n g i n t h e r i g h t way t o d o a j o b w i l l b e t r a i n i n g i n t h e s a f e way t o w o r k . S a f e t y must b e a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e i n t r o d u c i n g and i n s t r u c t i n g p r o c e s s . If s a f e t y is handled a s an " a f t e r - t h o u g h t , " e i t h e r i n induction or i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e e m p l o y e e may c o n s i d e r i t a s a p a r t f r o m h i s r e g n l a r d u t i e s . S a f e t y i s n o t s o m e t h i n g j u s t f o r a m e e t i n g . n o t j u s t a humane a t t i t u d e - i t i s f u n d a m e n t a l i n g e t t i n g o u t maximum w a r p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s b u l l e t i n h a s b e e n p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n of t h e N a t i o n a l C o m m i t t e e f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n of Manpower i n War I n d u s t r i e s , D i v i s i o n o f L a b o r S t a n d a r d s , U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o r . C. R . D o o l e y , D i r e c t o r Training within Industry INTRODUCING EMPLOYEES TO SAFETY i n t r o d u c t i o n t o s a f e t y i s p a r t of j o b i n d u c t i o n . The program and p o l i c y of t h e company, i t s s a f e t y r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , must b e p u t o v e r i n t h e g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n s o as t o form a n a t u r a l p a r t of t h e p a r t i c u l a r j o b under consideration. 1. Handling the I n i t i a l Interview The s u p e r v i s o r s h o u l d always t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e man's p r e v i o u s e x perience. I f t h i s i s h i s f i r s t job - what. i f a n y t h i n g , d o e s h e probably know a b o u t i n d u s t r i a l s a f e t y i n g e n e r a l ? If he received t r a i n i n g a t a t r a d e o r v n t a t i o n a l s c h o o l - w h a t a t t e n t i o n , i f a n y , w a s p a i d t o s a f e work practices? I f h e h a s b e e n employed i n a n o t h e r company, what s a f e t y p r o g r a m d o e s t h a t c o m p a n y h a v e ? What w a s t h e e m p l o y e e ' s i n j u r y r e c o r d ? If I f t h e s e f a c t s a r e n o t known b e f o r e h a n d , t h e s u p e r v i s o r s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o d r a w them o u t d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w . 2. P r o v i d i n g t h e Employee w i t h Program Information about t h e Company's S a f e t y I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e company's s a f e t y program and p o l i c i e s s h o u l d h e g i v e n a t t h e s a m e t i m e cs i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g g e n e r a ! , d c L c . i e s .
    • S t r e s s t h e m e a s u r e s t o g u a r d m a c h i n e s a n d m i n i m i z e p h y s i c a l h a z a r d s , as w e l l as m a n a g e m e n t ' s i n t e r e s t i n t h e w o r k e r s ' w e l l - b e i n g . 3. P r o v i d i n q t h e Employee w i t h I n f o r m a t i o n about S a f e t y a t H i s ti& When t h e e m p l o y e e i s b e i n g g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t h i s w o r k , p o i n t o u t t h e h a z a r d s t o which h e w i l l b e e x p o s e d ; ( a ) i n t h e t y p e of work t o which h e w i l l b e a s s i g n e d : ( b ) as a r e s u l t o f w o r k b e i n g p e r f o r m e d i n h i s immedi a t e v i c i n i t y ; a n d ( c ) as a r e s u l t o f o p e r a t i o n s o r p r o c e s s e s c a r r i e d on i n t h e department. The s u p e r v i s o r should stress t h e p r e c a u t i o n s which t h e e m p l o y e e must t a k e t o a v o i d i n j u r y , a n d emphasize i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s a f e t y and t h e advantage t o t h e employee. The s u p e r v i s o r s h o u l d a l s o p o i n t o u t t h e d a n g e r s a t t e n d a n t upon " h o r s e p l a y " and t h e u n a u t h o r i z e d u s e o r t h e m i s u s e of a i r h o s e a n d o t h e r e q u i p ment. Company r u l e s s h o u l d b e e x p l a i n e d c l e a r l y . The employee should b e g i v e n g e n e r a l information about any p l a n t s a f e t i .:ontests o r campaigns, a n d t h e s t a n d i n g of h i s d e p a r t m e n t i n them. General s a f e t y m e a s u r e s , s u c h as t y p e o f c l o t h i n g , r u l e s f o r k e e p i n g a i s l e w a y s c l e a r , e n c l o s u r e s a r o u n d b e l t s , s t o r a g e and p i l i n g of materials and e q u i p ment, should b e pointed o u t d u r i n g t h e t o u r of t h e department. If the s a f e g u a r d o r r u l e w a s a d o p t e d f o l l o w i n g a s e r i o u s a c c i d e n t , o r i f a n accid e n t h a s r e s u l t e d from d i s r e g a r d of s a f e t y . m e n t i o n t h e i n c i d e n t when t h e guard o r rule is pointed out. T h e employee s h o u l d b e shown t h e f i r s t a i d room, and have e x p l a i n e d t o him r u l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e p o r t i n g of e v e n "trivial" injuries. 4. Safety in "Hazardousn P l a n t s I n many war p r o d u c t i o n p l a n t s c o n d i t i o n s s h o u l d f r a n k l y b e d e s c r i b e d T; I t h e employee as " h a z a r d o u s . " 'fake t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n " d a n g e r o u s " :.rid " h a z a r d o u s . " Where e x p l o s i o n s c a n b e c a u s e d b y c a r e l e s s n e s s , o n l y t h e thorough following of a r i g i d s a f e t y program c a n keep a hazardous p l a n t from b e i n g a dangerous one. I f a c c i d e n t p r o b a b i l i t y i s h i g h , m o r e r e s t r i c t i o n s may b e n e c e s s a r y . F o r e x a m p l e , e m p l o y e e s may b e p e r m i t t e d t o m o v e a b o u t o n l y i n t h e i r w o r k i n g a r e z , a n d c l o t h i n g may b e d e s i g n e d b e c a u s e o f s p e c i a l h a z a r d s . 5. Responsi b i l i t y f o r I n t r o d u c t o r y H a t e r i a l on S a f e t y T h e s a f e t y p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e new e m p l o y e e , i i k e h i s w o r k p e r f o r m a n c e . is t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h i s s u p e r v i s o r . A s a f e t y program, supervised by a s a f e t y e n g i n e e r , d o e s n o t e x c u s e t h e s u p e r v i s o r y a n y more t h a n a n o r g a n i z e d p l a n of i n d u c t i o n j u s t i f i e s f a i l u r e t o f o l l o w t h r o u g h on t h e g e n e r a l induction process. As i n t h e w h o l e i n d u c t i o r . p r o c e s s , t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s care and i n s i g h t i n a p p r o a c h i n g t h e j o b , and h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e , w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e of t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o safety. SAFETY AND THE TRANSFERRED OR REHIRED EMPLOYEE When a n e m p l o y e e e n t e r s a new d e p a r t m e n t , h e n e e d s s a f e t y i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g t o a l m o s t t h e d e g r e e o f t h e new m a n . be may know t h e c o m p a n y ' s
    • g e n e r a l ~ o l i c y ,b u t he n e e d s i n f o r a a t i o n a b o u t h i s new a s s i g n m e n t . T h e new I f a bad a c c i d e n t d e p a r t m e n t p r o b a b l y w i l l h a v e i t s own r u l e s a n d h a z a r d s . record figured i n reasons f o r a lay-off, previous discharge, or t r a n s f e r , s t r e s s s a f e t y r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y . SAFETY IN INSTRUCTION A g o o d j o b b r e a k d o w n must b e made b e f o r e good j o b i n s t r u c t i o n c a n b e g i n . A j o b b r e a k d o w n s h o w s how t o d o t h e j o b e f f i c i e n t l y , s a f e l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y . The s a f e p r a c t i c e s i n a job a r e t r u e k e y p o i n t s , T h e r e a r e s h o r t c u t s on most j o b s , b u t s p e e d on one p i e c e of work i s n o t a s i m p o r t a n t on w a r p r o S a f e t y a n d e f f i c i e n c y are s i m u l t a n e o u s d u c t i o n a s is c o n t i n u o u s o u t p u t . p r o d u c t s o f good m a c h i n e d e s i g n , w e l l p l a n n e d p r o c e s s e s , a n d c a r e f u l l y t h o u g h t - o u t work p r a c t i c e s . Good j o b b r e a k d o w n s a n d t h o r o u g h t r a i n i n g a r e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r s a f e , e f f i c i e n t work. THE PLANT SAFETY PROGRAM I n many l o c a l i t i e s , s a f e t y h a s s u f f e r e d f r o m a s e n t i m e n t a l a p p r o a c h . Management may f e e l t h a t i t s j a b i s h a n d l e d b y t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t " u n s a f e p r a c t i c e s w i l l not be t o l e r a t e d . " Some c o m p a n i e s l o o k on s a f e t y as a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s p o l i c y ( a f e t b e l i e v e t h q t a p l a n t s a f e t y program r a n k s a l o n g w i t h d e v i c e s t o b u i l d good w i l l ) factory picnics . - S a f e t y and Product ion S a f e t y & a p r o d u c t i o n problem. Every a c c i d e n t , whether o r not i t i n v o l v e s human i n j u r y , i s a n i n t e r r u p t i o n t o t h e o r d e r l y flow of p r o d u c t i o n . Manpower l o s s i s a b l o c k t o p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h is a l m o s t i m p o s s ' i b l e J o make up. P l a n n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n on t h e b a s i s of t h e s a f e way a n d e m p h a s i z i n g h a z a r d s a l o n g w i t h k e y p o i n t s i n b r e a k i n g i n a man o n a new j o b a r e r e a l i s t i c f o u n d a t i o n s f o r a p l a n t s a f e t y program which i s u n d e r t a k e n on t h e b a s i s of 'good b u s i n e s s i n war t i m e , " n o t j u s t b e c a u s e " # i t ' s t h e r i g h t t h i n s t o d o . " - i t is n e c e s s a r y t o f o l l o w u p c o n s t a n t l y t o S a f e t y i s a continuous job make s u r e t h a t t h e man whose s p e e d i s i n c r e a s i n g i s n o t making t i m e t h r o u g h d a n g e r o u s s h o r t - c u t s . S u c h s h o r t - c u t s . t h o u g h s p e c t a c u l a r a t t h e moment, w i l l not speed production. S h o r t - c u t s may p o i n t o u t t h e n e e d f o r a b e t t e r b u t a s h o r t e r way c a n n o t b e t o l e r a t e d u n l e s s i t i s s a f e . way t o d o a job - P l a n n i n g f o r s p f e t y may b e a s t a f f j o b , a n d t h e d e s i g n a n d i n s t a l l a t i o n of s a f e t y e q u i p m e n t i s d e f i n i t e l y work f o r a s a f e t y e n g i n e e r , b u t m a k i n g s a f e t y e f f e c t i v e i n t h e p l a n t i s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e job of l i n e s u p e r visors. ( S a f e t y e n g i n e e r s and foremen c a n g e t t r a i n i n g i n s a f e t y methods through c o u r s e s i n S a f e t y Engineering Defense T r a i n i n g , offered by engineeri n g c o l l e g e s a n d s p o n s o r e d b y t h e N a t i o n a l C o m m i t t e e f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n of Tuition is Manpower i n War I n d u s t r i e s a n d t h e U . S . O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n . p a i d b y t h e O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n . ) Safe Pract ices Do n o t d e p e n d o n t h e making o u t of a n e l a b o r a t e s e t of s a f e t y r u l e s . Sometimes r e g u l a t i o n s a r e a n i n v i t a t i o n t o b r e a k i n g them. " S a f e p r a c t i c e s " t h e r i g h t way t o d o t h e j o b , i l l u s t r a t e d on t h e j o b w i l l overcome t h i s - - - 3 7 - , no. n . . .
    • d i f f i c u l t y i n many c a s e s . S a f e p r a c t i c e s have t o b e worked o u t f o r s p e c i f i c jobs. Some b e l o n g t o t h e f a c t o r y , o r p e r h a p s t o t h e i n d u s t r y a s a w h o l e , b u t most a r e a t t h e j o b l e v e l . S a f e p r a c t i c e s a r e t h e n a t u r a l outgrowth of good j o b i n s t r u c t i o n . Group A p p r o a c h P o s t e r s and m e e t i n g s where g e n e r a l i t i e s a r e t h e t o p i c d o n o t p u t s a f e t y across. R e m i n d e r s can b e u s e f u l i f a g r o u n d - w o r k h a s b e e n l a i d , b u t t h e y cannot d o t h e whole job. P o o r l y p l q n n e d c o n t e s t s may o n l y r e s u l t i n r i v a l r y w h i c h p r o m o t e s r e c o r d s , b u t d o e s n o t i m p r o v e c o n d i t i o n s a n d may even l e a d t o f a i l u r e t o r e p o r t a c c i d e n t s . To o b t a i n r e s u l t s a s a f e t y program m u s t h a v e w h o l e - h e a r t e d management b a c k i n g ; a n d , t o h o l d i n t e r e s t , i t must p r o v i d e f o r a c t i v e e m p l o y e e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Group i n s t r u c t i o n i n s a f e t y i s e f f e c t i v e when i t i s k e y e d t o s p e c i f i c p r a c t i c e s a n d h a z a r d s which a r e w i t h i n t h e job e x p e r i e n c e . T h e f o r e m a n who s t u d i e s h i s d e p a r t m e n t ' s s a f e t y r e c o r d s a n d knows t h e c a u s e s o f a c c i d e n t s c a n p r o m o t e s a f e t y effectively. S p e c i f i c hazards should be emphasized continuously the hazards e x i s t s even i n a n accident - f r e e period. - Guards M e c h a n i c a l g u a r d s a r e s a f e t y d e v i c e s o n l y when t h e y a r e u s e d . Install a t i o n o f g u a r d s , a n d t h e n d e p e n d i n g on them t o d o t h e w h o l e j o b , i s a c u t e l y dangerous. H a l f - h e a r t e d enforcement of s u c h r e g u l a t i o n s as t h o s e a b o u t wearing g o g g l e s can l e a d t o contempt f o r a whole s a f e t y program. No e q u i p ment s h o u l d b e s p e c i f i e d w i t h o u t g o o d r e a s o n s , a n d t h e r e a s o n s s h o u l d b e e x p l a i n e d t o a l l e m p l o y e e s i n v o l v e d . O n c e made a n d e x p l a i n e d , t h e r e g u l a t i o n must b c ~ n f o r c e d . S a f e t y and Health Many j o b s demal d a t t e n t i o n , g o o d v i s i o n , s t r e n g t h , o r o t h e r d e f i n i t e p h y s i c a l requireme ~ t s R e g u l a r p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s are a s important as a r e c h e c k s o n t h e c o n d i t i o n of m e c h a n i c a l e q u i p m e n t . . Safety Clothing S a f e t y c l o t h i n g is designed f o r s e v e r a l purposes: ( a ) t o make t h e new w o r k e r c o n s p i c u o u s ( s o m e c o m p a n i e s r e q u i r e new e m p l o y e e s t o wear r e d c a p s s o t h a t t h o s e w i t h m o r e e x p e r i e n c e w i l l w a t c h o u t t o a s s i s t t h e new p e o p l e ) ; ( b ) t o p r o t e c t t h e employee b y g u a r d i n g a g a i n s t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of h a v i n g h a i r o r l o o s e c l o t h i n g c a u g h t i n moving m a c h i n e r y , o r h a v i n g f e e t h u r t b y falling-objects ( s a f e t y shoes a r e invaluable i n accident prevention); (c) t o p r o t e c t o t h e r employees ( i n t h i s g r o u p a r e t h e garments which a r e f r e e from m e t a l o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l which might c a u s e a c c i d e n t ) . To p u t o v e r s a f e t y f o r t h e new man a s w e l l a s t ! . e e ~ , a r l e n c e d e m p l o y e e : 1 2 3. 4. - Be c l e a r and give the reasons. Be b u s i n e s s - l i k e - n o t s e n t i m e n t a l . Be r e a s o n a b l e i n m a k i n g r u l e s but firm i n enforcing. I n s i s t t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s s e t t h e example i n s a f e p r a c t i c e s . - !
    • OWICE OF PRODUCTION IdANAGEHENT b Labor Division nTrain5ng within Industryn Bulletin # 4 STRENGTHENING T)IE .WAGSRIAL ORGANIZATION I f Helping managerial pe rsonnel t o meet j t s operating r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s is t h e key t o t h e auocess of a n organization. I t i s a l s o t h e key t o the t m h ing of new workers and t o t h e upgrading of present wok-kers. A l r q ~ i s it t h e key t o t h e maintenance of high morale throuehout t h e work force, represents t h e very foundation o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l defense program. The recomnended p r a c t i c e s o u t l i n e d h e r e i n , r e p r e s e n t succesaf'bl p I n m n y companies throughout t h e country. v C. R Dooley, Director . Training w i t h i n Industry lTNDgpLY I N G POLICY Planned development i s t h e key p o i n t i n c onsidering t h e building of a strong executive and supervisory foroe. I n such planning many companies a t r e s s one o r two f e a t u r e s and f e e l t h a t these w i l l b u i l d a strong managerim1 group. Some maintain a favorable s a l a r y soale; o t h e r s have a l i b e r a l retimm n t plan; some s t r e s s p e r i o d i c r a t i n g ; o t h e r s pursue e x c e l l e n t t r a i n i n g programs; s t i l l o t h e r s emphasize t h e c l o s e personal r e l a t i o n s h i p bttween upper and lower l e v e l s of supervision. I n d i v i d u a l l y t h e s e f e a t u r e s a r e sound, of course, but no one o r tm of them a m s u f f i c i e n t . The fill range of f a o t o r s a f f e c t i n g supervisors and executives m e t be given a t t e n t i o n and action i f a company is t o be a s s u m d of a s t r o n g , e n e r g e t i c , end cooperative m n g e r i a l force. Typical of t h e nmny examples showing t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a t t e n t i o n t o a11 aspects of t h i s problem a r e t h e following : Foremen a r e not l i k e l y t o do t n e i r b e s t work i n meeting schedules and reduoing c o s t s i f t h e y are h e l d responsible f o r delays and c o s t s over which they have no c o n t r o l . A foreman f i n d s it d i f f i c u l t t o be genuinely h e l p f u l t o a worker rrho has a wage question i f he has a question regarding h i s own compensat ion. Any executive o r supervisor i s n o t l i k e l y t o keep c l o s e touoh uith h i s group i f he i s a b l e t o see h i s own s u p e r i o r but once o r twioe a month.
    • Many a n e x e c u t i v e o r s u p e r v i s o r s t a y s w i t h h i s company because t h e s a l a r y i s s a t i s f a c t o r y , b u t uses b u t a p o r t i o n of h i s r c n l c a p a c i t y b e c a u s e h i s a r e a of r e s ~ o n s i b i l i t yi s n o t c l e a r , h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s b o s s n o t c o r d i a l , o r he i s a v i c t i m o f i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s , Examples such a s t h e f o r e g o i n g , i l l u s t r a t e why s o u r d and fars i g h t e d management p o l i c y i s so i m p o r t a n t , and why such policy,. even when it h a s been f o r m u l a t e d , does n o t s e r v e i t s i n t e n d e d purpose u n l e s s a l l members of t h e m a n a g e r i a l group u n d e r s t a n d it and know t h e i r s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n c a r r y i n g it o u t . SOUIJI, PRACTICES - - alreacty w e l l known r e p r e s e n t some o f The f o l l o w i n g fundamentals t h e p r i n c i p a l p r a c t i c e s which b u i l d a s t r o n g managerial f o r c e . Selection 1, S e l e c t e x e c u t i v e s and s u p e r v i s o r s on a b a s i s of l e a d e r s h i ? q u a l i t i e s , and n o t a l o n e on job knowledge a n d job s k i l l s . An i m p o r t a n t a i d a t t h e time of s e l e c t i o n i s t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a w r i t t e n p o s i t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n , s o t t i n g f o r t h c l e a r l y t h e d u t i e s and r e s u l t s e x p e c t e d of t h e incumbent, Training 2. P r e p a r e a c h a r t of t h e whole o r g a n i z a t i o n . D i s c u s s it w i t h a l l e x e c u t i v e s and s u p e r v i s o r s . S e e t h a t e a c h man u n d e r s t a n d s t h e f u n c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h e v a r i o u s u n i t s a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s own p l a c e a n d f u n c t i o n i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , 3. See t h a t a l l members of t h e e x e c u t i v e and s u p e r v i s o r y group und e r s t a n d t h e company's p o l i c i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n d u s t r i a l r e l a tions policiesA growing number of companies a r e r e d u c i n g t o w r i t i n g t h e i r b a s i c p o l i c i e s , b o t h t o c l a r i f y j u s t what t h e p o l i o i e s a r e , and t o a s s u r e t h a t everyone i n t h e company u n d e r s t a n d s them. 4. See t h a t each e x e c u t i v e and s u p e r v i s o r i s g i v e n s u f f i c i e n t a u t h o r i t y t o c a r r y o u t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s s i g n e d t o him, 5. Give such o r g a n i z e d a i d and t r a i n i n g t o t h e e x e c u t i v e and s u p e r v i s o r y f o r c e a s i s a p p r o p r i a t e and w i l l be h e l p f u l on c u r r e n t problems. Bulletin This i s a n i m p o r t a n t p o i n t r e p r e s e n t i n g a program i n i t s e l f . 4-3 i s d e v o t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o how suoh a i d and t r a i n i n g may b e g i v e n . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t a w e l l rounded p l a n f o r S t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e Managerial O r g a n i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e t w e l v e p o i n t s memt i o n e d h e r e i n , p l u s t h e a m p l i f i c a t i o n of this s e c t i o n i n B u l l e t i n 4-B.
    • 6. Plan t r a n s f e r s and r o t a t i o n s a s w e l l a s promotions, Some companies make t r a n s f e r s and r o t a t i o n s f o r t h e e x p r e s s purpose of developing and rounding-out i n d i v i d u a l e x e c u t i v e s and s u p e r v i s o r s and n o t s o l e l y t o f i l l p o s i t i o n s a f t e r a need h a s a r i s e n , They f i n d t h a t conpetent men i n widely d i f f e r i n g f i e l d s can " t r a d e jobsn, n o t o n l y without impairment t o o p e r a t i o n s , b u t w i t h di s t i n c t p r o f i t t o t h e men a n d t o t h e jobs, Fresh and unprejudiced p o i n t s o f view toward t h e new jobs u s u a l l y r e s u l t i n o u t s t a n d i n g improvements. ~t i s n o t uncommon f o r e x e c u t i v e s w i t h 25 y e a r s s e r v i c e t o have had t e n t o f i f t e e n d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s , The r e s u l t a n t competence, breadth of knowledge and j u d p e n t i s a major f a c t o r i n t h e s u c o e s s of companies pursuing t h i s plan. 7. Encourage professionaldsvelopment. Herbership i n engineering, maxmgemnt, accounting, s a l e s and o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , and a p p r o p r i a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h e r e i n i s encouraged b y rmny companies, Forenanship t o o , i s a f i e l d of growing p r o f e s s i o n a l interest. S t a t u s and Pay 8, Give s u p e r v i s o r s a l l t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f s a l a r i e d employees, p l u s *matever a d d i t i o n a l p r i v i l e g e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e i n e a c h l o c a l s i t u a t i o n , i.e., parking space, desk equipment, l o c k e r s and o t h e r symbols o f s t a t u s - 9. See t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y foremen, a r e " n t h e knorr," i .em, i t r u s t them, g i v e them a c t u a l d e p a r t m n t a l p r o f i t and l o s s f i g u r e s , n o t j u s t --hour r e p o r t s , Have them review ( s o l i c i t t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s when a p p r o p r i a t e ) and s e e that t h e y understand any p l a n t h a t i n v o l v e s them such as: Job C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , Change i n c o s t r e p o r t s , Wage payment plans. New i n s p e c t i o n plan. . Contemplated purchase o f new equipment New Payout of department Rating p l a n concerning themselves or t h e i r worhrs. w o n agreement, g r i e m o e procedure, g r i e v a n c e settlement, . Plans f o r upgrading workers and supervi s o r s Hew production o r q u a l i t y standards. And above a l l , s e e t h a t f orenen a r e i n f o m d as t o any new g e n e r a l company p o l i c y o r p r o v i s i o n BEFORE such information i s r e l e a s e d to workers, Examples : nem p l a n t r u l e s ; s i c k pay plan; p r o v i s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g and s e r v i c e ; new union c o n t r a c t , agreement o r procedure; new defense c o n t r a c t received; wage and hour law r u l i n g s , 10. Pay s u p e r v i s o r s n o t o n l y t h e going s a l a r y r a t e , b u t a rate approp r i a t e l y above t h o s e supervised,
    • 11, pay dl 1 s u p e r v i s o r s on a s a l a r y b a s i s , t i m a t o d i r e c t i n g t h e work of o t h e r s . t h o s e whose s u p e r v i s o r y f i n c t i o n d e a l s helping maintain production schedules, i . e e , a l l who g i v e t h e i r fill ( b a d men, workin$ f oremen o r o n l y w i t h a s s i g n i n g work and m y be e x c e p t i o n s . During p e r i o d s o f t e m p o r a r i l y s l a c k o p e r a t i o n , do n o t reduce superv i s o r s to an h o u r l y r a t e u n l e s s such a p e r i o d i s prolonged and it becomes n e c e s s a r y t o demote them t o h c u r l y r a t e d jobs. U n t i l thi's a c t i o n i s t a k e n a s a l a s t r e s o r t , have them work p a r t - t i m e and pay them p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , b u t m a i n t a i n them on t h e s a l a r y r o l l . 12. Give a p p r o p r i a t e s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s bbsed upon performance. Avoid being i n f l u e n c e d by the many p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t o b t a i n i n every organizetion. In mny companies it i s t h e a o c e p t e d p o l i c y t h a t t h e development of a foreman, s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o r works manager i s j m t a s important a s t h e developarsnt of a p r o d u c t , p l a n t o r p o l i c y . J u s t a s muoh a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o p l a n n i n g t h e one as t o t h e o t h e r . I n p l a n n i n g t h e development of managerial p e r s o n n e l , a g r e a t rnany f a o t o r s a r e considered. They embrace a l l t h e day-tob y p n o t i o e s and i n f l u e n o e a i n t h e company which make f o r sound growth, development and prudent management. Washington, Do C.
    • TRAINING WITHIN IWUUSTEY BULLET I N SERBS . Washington, D m C June, 1944 ~meau Training of g u Manpower Commis s i o n O SUPPLFMENllARY INSTRUCT I O N F R UPGWING America a t w a r demands t h a t every msln and woman work a t h i s o r her t o p s k i l l , Maxknwn production depends on maximum use of skill. The upgrading of workers t o more s k i l l e d jobs r e q u i r e s t h e f u l l cooperation of both employees and management. Management must be c o n s t a n t l y on t h e job of discovering s k i l l s and p l a c i n g and t r a i n i n g i t s employees u n t i l everyone i s doing t h e b e s t job of which he i s p o t e n t i a l l y capable. S i m i l a r l y , t h e employee must a v a i l himself of every opportunity t o l e a r n , on or off t h e job, both t h e t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s and t h e supplementary howledge necessary f o r advancsment t o t h e higher and more r e s p o n s i b l e jobs in h i s p l a n t . Traini n t h e e s s e n t i a l s k i l l s of a job i s b e s t done on t h e job, bllt t h e supplementary i n f o r n a t i o n which i s a t o o l f o r a more demanding job i s most o f t e n acquired off t h e job. Supplementary i n s t r u c t i o n i s app l i c a b l e a t a l l l e v e l s of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and a necessary requirement f o r moving from one s t a g e t o t h a t above. Time i s wasted and l o s t , and so a r e s k i l l s , unless mmagement encourages employees t o help themselves through o f f -the- job i n s t r u c t i o n and i n t e g r a t e s it w i t h progression on t h e job, The b e s t i n t e r e s t of t h e worker, t h e b e s t production by industry, t h e b e s t s e r v i c e t o our country depend l a r g e l y on t h e BEST USE O THE F SKILLS of a l l our people, . C. R. Dooley, Director Training Within I n d u s t r y RESPONS IBILITY FOR SUPPLEIIIEIJTARY INSTRUCT I O N Every e a r n e s t worker expects t o be promoted t o a b e t t e r job with b e t t e r wages, a s soon a s he demonstrates t h a t he can do t h a t more respons i b l e job and t h e r e i s opportunity. The i n d i v i d u a l worker g e n e r a l l y b o w s what h i s a c t u a l s k i l l s a r e and i n what p o t e n t i a l d i r e c t i o n t h e y lead. Therefore, much of t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r supplementary i n s t r u c t i o n t o develop h i s p o t e n t i a l s k i l l r e s t s upon t h e employee himself, While some employers provide both f a c i l i t i e s and time f o r r e l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n concerned with t h e job on which t h e employee i s now m r k i n g , t h e i n c r e a s i n g n e c e s s i t y f o r maximum production means t h a t t h i s t y p e of i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l more and more be done a f t e r hours. And i n s t r u c t i o n which a p p l i e s t o t h e more advanced job w i l l t e n d t o be l e f t even more t o t h e ambition and i n i t i a t i v e of t h e employee. However, management can and should s t i m u l a t e t h e employee t o seek supplementary i n s t r u c t i o n o u t s i d e t h e p l a n t by:
    • 3 . p r o d d i n g information a b u t P o c d oppssCunities f o r supplementary h s t r u c t i m 4, $5-g f outside study sssistmcs f o r o r o t h e r reoognition of m d mm.agenenk o m perf o m a useful f u n c t i o n in coordinating such ins t r u c t i o n by: 1 . guidance of o u t s i d e study t o t i e in supplementary i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h t r a i n i n g received on t h e job 2 making M o n ; ~ a t i o n about t h e employee s off-the- job ins t r u c t i o n a part of the p l a n t personnel reoords used when candidates f o r b e t t e r jobs a r e considered. The Requirements f o r Advanced Jobs bimum Each i n d u s t r y has a v i t a l and d e f i n i t e t r a i n i n g job. r e s u l t s must Be accomplished in r e c o r d time. Upgrading i s c o n s t a n t l y necessary Ff rak f i d u s t r y i s t o g e t r e s u l t s . An h v a l u a b l e a i d in securing t h e cooperation o f employees i n upgrading i s t h e use of s p e c i f i c a Job s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , l i s t t i o m giving e s s e n t i a l requiremelrts f o r jobs. ing t h e most h p o r t a n t types of t h i n g s each s k i l l e d worker does, should t h e r e f o r e be BBfdely c a z c u l a t e d among a l l employees, The worker t h e n w i l l k m what infor.mtion, s k i l l s , and a p t i t u d e s a r e r e q u i r e d of him in o r d e r n t o seeme an advanced job and w i l l s s e what he has t o do i n order t o f i l l that Jabe 0 Jab s p e c i f i c a t i o n s a r e a l s o necessary f o r schools t h a t o f f e r supplementary i n s t r u c t i o n t o workers. Properly p r e p w e d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f u r n i s h an a a e w a t e p i c t u r e of specFfic s k i l l s r e q u i r e d and may be used t o outl i n e a soh001 program of progressing s t e p s t o develop t h e r e q u i r e d s k i l l s and information q u i c k l y in w i s e l y s e l e c t e d workerse We need t o use s p e c i f i c a t i o n s now as a medium of s t i m u l a t i o n , ins p i r a t i o n , and i n c e n t i v e f o r the employee in o t h e r words, we need them now, as a neoessary t o o l in securing t h e m r k e r s s cooperation in h i s o m I upgradhg. Ee needs t o know j u s t what t h e requirements are f o r suocessfml performanse r i g h t on t h e job, -
    • L order- %o u s e s2pplemenkai-y i n s t r u c k i o n in the upgrading procedme, T iz is e s s e n t i a l t o study t h e progression t h a t c m be made if "sornethFng e l s e " i s added, The company t r a i n f n g d i r e c t o r should be responsible n o t only f o r c o l l e c t i n g information about a v a i l a b l e supplemsntary i n s t r u c t f o a but h e should p r e s e n t it t o employees in a way which shows i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e f a c t o r y jobs, - it w i l l h e l p 'PGoing t o n i g h t school" i s a good h e r i a a n custola Anerica now i f t h e young f a c t o r y o p e r a t o r , f o r example, s t u d i e s shop a r i t h m e t i c o r b l u e p r i n t reading, and t h e ambitious supervisor adds t o h i s h o w l e d g e of t e c h n i c a l m d personnel s u b j e c t s , W o r m a t i o n about Outside I n s t r u c t i o n In helping employees (men and women) t o p l a n t h e i r awn off-the-job F n s t r u c t i o n i n t e l l i g e n t l y , management through i t s training d i r e c t o r o r similar o f f i c i a l w i l l need an e v a l u a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n o f f e r e d by outs i d e agencies public school evening courses,defense cowses, governas ment-sponsored a d u l t education programs, programs of such g r o ~ p s t h e Y.M.C.A., c o l l e g e extension programs, and s o on. The d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s of t h e ~ r a i n & gw i t h i n I n d u s t r y Service f u r n i s h i fo m t i o n on t h e mod, n c a l i b e r , and c o s t of supplementary i n s t r u c t i o n , - COORDINATION O SUPPUMEWARY INSTRUCT I O N F Once t h e employee undertakes supplemenkary i u s t r u c t i o n in order to q u a l i f y f o r more s k i l l e d t a s k s , menagement must h e l p t o coordinate t h e employee's out-of -hours study in such nanrmer t h a t t h e supplementary work assists in t h e upgrading of t h e employee in minhum time. -- Training i s a maaigsrmnt r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , When ?art sf t h e m p l o y e e 9 s i n s t r u c t i o n comes from an o u t s i d e source it fs good bmirness f o r t h e agenent t o help in shaping t h e d i r e c t i m of off -+;he-jo?~f n s t ~ u c t i m . F e l l wri-btea job s p e c i f i c a t i o n s w i l l he12 mmagemsnt t o h o a r what s p e c i f i c -;->:+ r e q u i r e in s p e c i a l o r t e c h n i c a l knowledge, From t h i s howledge m n a g e a e , ~ a * ~ can h e l p t h e a s p i r a n t f o r any p c u t i c ~ l l a r job t o plar, h i s suppleqerakhsr 52,struction intelligently. RECOGNIZING SUPPLEMENTARk' INSTRUCTION IN F L W RECORDS The f a c t t h a t a young o p e r a t o r , s i n c e his e q l a y m n t , has s u c c e s s f i = l ~ y s t u d i e d b l u e p r i n t reading a n d d r d - k i n g i s as ~ e z s s s e z yF FELT$ o r t h e --.I7* p e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s a s t h e f a c t that b e f o r e he was e u p i ~ he ~ ci pxit,s2;..e' ~ ml from a high school, This o f f -the-~c~Y n s f x x ~ t i ~kzci3 ?,sZed t~ hi: ski'. :?' i m i ic has also given ana i n d i c a t i s n of p e r s o n r z ~o l : b r a e - ~ s ~ i s t i e s .z - 5 : - -c-s-t;r=uctieni s t h e r e f o r e a very importarit p a r t of Ske employeeys pe;:c:s:_.r~~. r e c o r d , It i s inmediately u s e f u l t o mmagemen'c f o r upgradling t h e i5zg.i :;*PC It i s a powerful f a c t o r in morale-building because t h e employee hem ?>I:E% management recognizes t h a t he i s t r y i n g t o improve himself not onlp sn 1 - j s p r e s e n t job but f o r t h e advanced job d l i c k he hopes t o g e t , The p l a n t t r a i n i n g m a n cannot pick up t h i s i d o r m a t i o n completely 'b$ any c a s u a l method, There must be a r e g u l a r process or channel through which t h i s information becomes p u t of t h e personnel records. This is
    • valuable information f o r t h e company, and i t i s a b u i l d e r of good w i l l . Even if t h e r e has been no insurance, t l ~ o u g ha r e g u l a r process of rezordh g information on o f f - t h e i j o b i n s t r u c t i o n , t h a t t h e company b o w s t h a t man has acquired a b e t t e r background and t h a t he has marked i n t e r e s t i n h i s job, t h e man who i s n o t considered f o r a job f o r which he h o r n he i s q u a l i f i e d w i l l f e e l resentment. The company can guide i t s employees toward u s e f u l off-t'ne-job study and it needs t o s x u p a r e g u l a r process t o g e t information about t h e ins t r u c t i o n which i t s employees a r e g e t t i n g on t h e i r own. It must be made c l e a r however t h a t t h i s kind of r e l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n i s no guarantee f o r s e l e c t i o n f o r t h e next vacancy; t o o many other f a c t o r s a r e involved. Assistance w i t h t h e Expense of Off-the-Job hstruction When a p u b l i c agency s u p p l i e s i n s t r u c t i o n which i s u s e f u l t o product i o n , p a r t of t h e load on p l a n t management has been r e l i e v e d , A number of companies f e e l it good investment t o pay a l l o r p a r t of t h e f e e s which t h e employee must pay f o r supplementary i n s t r u c t i o n when such i n s t r u c t i o n follows an approved plan and i s s u c c e s s f u l l y completed. PLANNING INTEGRATION O SWPLEMENTARY INSTRUCT I O N F With t h e increasing t r a i n i n g load, it i s necessary t o assume t h a t in each p l a t t h e y e i s one person who has t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r training (of course, in small p l a n t s , t h i s may n o t be a f u l l - t i m e job). But one i person cannot do t h e whole job of i n t e g r a t i n g su~>piementaryn s t r u c t i o n with production. Supervisors a r e in t h e b e s t p o s i t i o n t o be h e l p f u l t o those whose work t h e y h o w , Supervisors w r i t e job s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o r a s s i s t w i t h them, and t h e y If t h e r e i s a j o i n t t r a i n i n g coxmnitw i l l help most on job performance, t e e , it should be used t o g e t employeest ideas on what t h e y believe t h e y need, SUPPLEmmARY INSTRUCTIONtS IMPOHTANCE TO A PLANT P O R M RGA Off-the-job i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l do p a r t of t h e t r a i n i n g , and p l a n t management needs t o know what i s a v a i l a b l e so t h a t employees can be helped. But making information a v a i l a b l e does n o t insure t h a t it g e t s across. Supplementnry i n s t r u c t i o n must be promoted, When supplementary i n s t r u c t i o n i s planned, when it i s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e p l a n t program, when it i s used, i-t becomes an important p a r t of t h e i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g program. - Training on t h e job and supplementary i n s t r u c t i o n , when p l s m e d and t i e d in and used with t h e i n d i v i d u a l srorker's b e s t t a l e n t s in view, r e s u l t in r e a l education f o r the i n d i v i d u a l he i s t h e n a t h i s b e s t ; he grows s t r o n g , works hard, and l i k e s it, - O r i g h a l l y Issued May, 1942 7-3982 P4 b u - f i n a l
    • OFFICE OF PRODUCTION h l A U W N T Labor Division Trainitg lrithin Industry THE 'TRAIPJING WITHIN INDUSTRYn PRCGRAM The Office of Production Management has established this service f o r defense contractors and sub-contractors to a s s i s t them in meeting the increasing needs f o r s k i l l e d workers and supervisors. The underlying PURPOSE of this a c t i v i t y is1 To assist defense industries to meet t h e i r manpower needs by t r a i n i n g within industry each worker t o make the f u l l e s t w e of his b e s t skill up to the maximum of his individual a b i l i t y , thereby enabUng production to keep pace w i t h defense demands. W e d upon type8 of requests f o r assistance whlch have been received from industry, the PROBLEad of providing t h e kinds of s M l l needed divides into three parts: 1 Inventory of present s k i l l s . Thia should include those . employed below t h e i r g r e a t e s t usefulness as well a the Various national and l o c a l governmental un&p1oyed. agencies, and other cooperating grO~p8, are a t work gathering this Information, but each plant should a l s o take stock of the t a l e n t and experience of its own employees and make internal adjustments before employing new men. Training outside of industry. This includes pre-employment instruction and r e l a t e d supplementary instruction. Thia p a r t of the program i s being provided f o r by public and private vocational and trade achools and by engineerihg colleges, but it is of such v t l Interest to induaia t r y t h a t t h e c l o s e s t kind of cooperation must be continuously maintained with them, National Youth Administration, Work Projects Administration, and Civilian Conservation Corps a l s o o f f e r opportun i t i e a f o r pre-employment work experience making f o r b e t t e r preparation f o r work in defenae industries. It ie of utmost importance that the induetries aemed part i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y with the achoola in s e t t i n g up entrance standards, 80 t h a t all who complete the school t r a i n i n g rill be acceptable f o r employment. It i s a l s o important that the numbers of persons trained be not g r e a t l y i n excess of t h e needs of the industries served, Industry can w e l l afford to aupply same of ita firat-clasa employwa to schools aa teachera. Some of t h e i r r e t i r e d employee8 may be excellent irrstructolnr. Ioduatrial man8go-t can also
    • their s e d c e a eesfat theee other agenciea i n increasingly wful t o industry by constant c m d a t i o n r e g a w job mquimnagnts. 3, TRAININ0 WITHIN INDUSTRY. Thia particularly dealer with m ty r am training responsibilities, and i s the wr ' e area i n which the efforte of this a c t i v l t y a m concentrated, It i s arccanplished through upgrading of all claaaea of personnel as t h e i r experience and a b l l l t i e a warrant, t h u g h planned job progreaaion, job rotation, and intensive aupplamentary inatnrction both on and off the job. Ths conclosiona of various =cent confemcea confirm experience that this training Includes three phweat Dmml-t of sive iastrtletim< uction specialists through Intenthe job according to basic open+ Developaent of all-round s l d l l e d mechanics through trades apprenticcmhip, In accordatlce with federal atandax&, separate f k m production worker training, f o r thb purpose of devwloping a predetermined, limited nuaber of all-round journeylaen mechanics, Developtent of euperPisors thmugh careful selection, assigmnent of auperviaory duties of increasing mapons i b i l i t y , and p r o d a i m f o r related organiced help through discueeians and confemncea under both plant and outside au8picoa. Tedrnical and other management assistant8 maot be dewitloped m o . This organisation rendera epecific ADVISORY ASSISTANCE f a d e f e ~ e iaduatries i n inaugurating program which they carry on n i t h i n t h e i r amr plants a t t h e i r uun expense. The availability of thia e e l r l c e U widely known, but is not compulsory. There i s no authority to go i n t o a plant on any basia other than a t mmgelpent~smquest, Four general typee of assistance apply in most case3 and are being adapted t o fit the rarioue conditiana i n each specific plant. 2. Aid in s e t t i n g up a program within the plant to meet i b needs. 3, bjmrisnce of other employers wbu ham w t sinrilar problems is made available through headQurrrtera and f i e l d clearance. 4. 7 - 8 9 9 8 Pa b u Availability of the a e M c e s of tax-aurpported government agencies, such arr the s t a t e and federal. sl~ploymentservice, and trade schools, engineering eollegee, N.Y.A., ~oaational C C P A d larorrn to plant; managements SO that the f u l l e a t w e may be made of them, Only through interpreting
    • the needs of bdmtry to these agencies, and thellr closest tion, caa t h y fhrdah t h e m a t effectivet pre1qment educatian and pre-emoplqnwnt experience as m l l as related kratruction f o r a p l m worhem. A COUNTRY-KRZ ORGAMUTION to ass-t M v i d a a l defense manufacturers in the solution of I h i r tmhbg problesrs operates through 22 field offices of the 'h.aining within Industry branch of the O,P,M, Labor Division, These d i s t r i c t offices are l i s t e d on the reverse of this page, In charge of each. ia a M s t r i c t Represembtive who I s the direct agent of beadquarters a t lta8hington, Bormmd f n r indwtry, be uaa selected for his background I pmduction and D ifldwtrfsl relatiam. In moot d i s t r i c t s be is support& by m bsia tant Repreaenlative, The peraanal. service that maining within ZnBzldtry mnders to the individual manufacturer is performed most often by one of several Consultants, 'Ihey are part of tbe d i s t r i c t organizattion and are members of the industrial community they serve, Caultant.8 bring to their m s erteasive expdenco k in the fields of management, production, and peraomel, and have an understanding of local factors. aheir services are available on request to the M s t r i c t Repmsentative, Activities of tbe f i e l d organisation are direheadquarters a t Hiishington, from THE HEADQUARTERS1 STAF'F consists of the Director, Associate Mrector, Assistant Dirsctor8, and speciz?Us.ts w l t h broad experfence in the training problems of industry, T3m staff i a assiated by an Advlaory C d t b e composed of six representatiees of Labor and six of Umgemnt, Technical Consultants, responsible f o r the successful administration of training i n industry, complete the^ staff, Both the hadqumfara and d i 8 t r i c t offices are described, along w l t h listings of personnel, i n 0rganlsaticx.1 and gessonnel Bulletin #l4, The territory served by each office is ahaan by a nap included in the bulletin. Washington, August 15, D o 19Gf C, C- R, Dooley, Director Trnining within Industry
    • D I S T R I C T O F F I C E S T R A I N I N G W I T H I N INDUSTRY Branch of t h e Labor Division Office of Production Management Tra: For information o r advisory a s s i s t a n c e concerning t h e t r a i n i n g of workers while on t h e job, apply t o t h e Training Withln Industry d i s t r i c t o f f i c e l i s t e d below t h a t i s n e a r e s t t o you. Your request should be addressed t o t h e D i s t r i c t Representativewhois i charge. n Atlanta, Ga., Georgia School of Technolog3., 225 North Ave. N. PI. Baltimore, Md., Room 3106, Baltimore Trust Bldg Boston, Mass., Room 1039, par^ Square Bldg. . Canton, N. C, 273 Church S t . Chicago, Ill., Room 2105, Merchandise Mart, 222 N ~ r t h Bank Drive Cincinnati, Ohio, Room 802, Fifth-Third Union Trust Bldg. Cleveland, Ohio, Room 797, Union Carmnerce Bldg., 925 Euclid A m . Denver, Colo., Room 518, U S. National Rank Bldg., . 817 Seventeenth S t . Detroit, Mich., 702 American Radiator Bldg., 1346 Broadway Houston, Texas, Room 3201, G u l f Bldg. Indianapolis, Ind., Room 915, C i r c l e Tower Bldg. Lo8 Angeles, Calif., Room 452, Roosevelt Bldg., 727 West Seventh S t . Minneapolis, Minn., Room 1800, Rand Tower Bldg. Newark, N. J., Room 601, 605 Broad S t . New Haven, Conn., Room 513, 152 Temple S t . N w York, N. Y., Room 2026, 1 West /+2nd S t . e 1 Philadelphia, Pa., Room 2301, 1 2 South 12th S t . Pittsburgh, Pa., Room 360, Administration Bldg., Carnegie I n s t i t u t e of Technology S t . Louis, Mo., 603 S h e l l Bldg San Francisco, Calif., Room 702, 260 C a l i f o r n i a St. S e a t t l e , Wash., Room 957, S t u a r t Bldg., 4 t h and University S t s . ( a f f i l i a t e d o f f i c e l o c a t e d a t Portland, Ore., Room 1100, Public Service Bldg.) Upstate New Hork ( l o c a t i o n pending) ao tu; t o h' unde not whic Pay . . 7-6938 Pq b u - f i n a l ship help vi so are : L it i unde
    • OFFICE 0F.PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT Bulletin #5 Labor Division n~raining within Industry" TRAINING AIDS While the bulk of the defense training must be done on the job by using sotual machines and material, there are aids to this training which OBP be used to help a worksran make rapid progress in aoquiring skill and knowledge. Some related scientific information, teohnioal knowledge or a specific &erstanding of principles which a fully oompetent worker must possess, cannot be demonstrated very well while doing the actual work. Any suitable method which provides an understanding of such knowledge to those being tra~nedwill pay dividends in getting effeotive workers in a shorter ti=. They are usually used in a suitable olass or school-room under the leadership of an instruotor, or at home by the learner himself. C R holey, Director . . Training within Industry There are several commclnly acoepted aids which have a recognized value in helping to train production specialists, all-round skilled workers and supervisors. A typical group of these which have demonstrated their effectiveness are : - - - Illustrations Charts. (1) Standard Texts (2) Libraries of reference books. (3) Prepared outlines and guides for conferenoes and meetings. ( 4 ) Motion pictures and slide films. While not all of them may be found necessary in each training situation, it is frequently found that one or the other can contribute to a more complete understanding of the objeotive t m r d which the training is aimed. - STANUARD TEXTS The use of m.:h aids as handbooks, mathematioal texts, treatments of metals or other mahrials, chemioal and metallurgioal processes, ah., are reoognized as an aid in training and speoific applications for them oan readily be found in many training programs. These standard texts are used to su2plement the training aotually given in manipulative skill. In some instances illustrations on a large soale speoifically worked out to show the effeots of oertain operations, the structure and internal arrangement of maohinery, as well as the plaoes on maahinery where lubrioation or speoial care is neoessary, all lend themselves to a use in supplementary training. In like manner, wall charts, or sxmller sized charts, partiaularly referring to sizes of drills, taps and other tools, shop organization, production flow and a variety of other display matter may be effectively used.
    • l,&myindustrial training programs have as part of their setup shop libraries in which selected books oovering eome of the related sub3eots are amilable for any employees uee during out-of-work hours. Ih addition to these shop libraries, there is usually available in every locality public libraries which have books available on industrial subjeots which oover a wide range of subject matter. Lists of these books are often prepared on a catalogue basis which makes the selection of a partiaular volume easy to d e . In addition to the reoognited standard text books, such libraries include pamphlete, periodicals, trade oatalogues, shop mnuals, and cuts and diagrams which are more ourrent in their application than the more comprehensive standard texts. tra! sucl the Thus through books, charts and pictures, oftentimes the best possible teohniaal information from schools, col3 eges and libraries is mads available for men and women who are fitting themselves to work in defense industries. a.n C COB?EWXCE OUTLINES In order to save time in setting up a complete training program, firms which do not have a very extensive background in training nray obtain outlines which are available and which cover most of the usual training activities. In connection with supervisory training, a good deal of experience has been chryetallized and is available in outline farm. Lists of suggestive subject matter for discussion, arrangements of the order in which discussicns may be best handled, tbgether with guides for a conference leader, can also be secured. In like manner, y outlines of training courses which have been developed and used b industrial firms have been prepared and can often be had by a firm in a similar line of produotion on direct applioation to these firms. Suoh material is also available from the state vocational departments and extension departments of some universities. Suoh outlines should be viewed a s guides for they rarely can be follmed exactly as presented. They do, however, offer ground work aid in the setting up and oonducting of a program to meet apeoifio training needs. i For nxmy subjecta, partioularly relating to soientific and teclanioal information, tho m ~ i n g picture offers an excellent medium for presenting accurate inform-tion. Some work processes are also available, particularly metal work such as riveting, machine tool operations, punoh prees and assembly work. I I i Rash
    • There are a number of oommercial produoers of motion pictures who have liats of such subjects which can be considered if motion pictures seem to be suitable for best presenting a particular part of the information. The motion pictures may be accompanied by sound and often are rmde in natural oolors. In addition to motion pictures, slide films, which, of course, show a series of still pictures usually accom~anid by a lecture (recorded on discs), are also available oovering a wide range of subjects. Slide f i l m and motion pictures, both silent and with sound effects, are available for presenting fundamentals of supemieory work on uhioh much information is available through aommercial produoers. The degree to which either or all of theso aids can be used to advantage in training has to be decided by the particular firm considering it. In no case can such aids to training be considered as a substitute which will oompletely eliminate the need for specific instruction in the actual handling of tools and materials by an experienoed operator or instructor. Rashington, D C. . August 1, 1941
    • Labor M v i s i o n Training within Industry TRAINING PRODUCTION l'ORKER$ Many defense contractors a r e facing these common questions: m e r e can I g e t s k i l l e d operators? Is it too l a t e t o start t r a i n i n g now? Where can I t r a i n them? How long does it take t o g e t r e s u l t a ? Where can I g e t help on t r a i n i n g plans? How about the cost? How should I s t a r t ? There a r e no etock answers t o such questions which f i t a l l l o c a l i t i e a o r industries, but one defense contractor who had t o a n m r them and t r i p l e his work force reports: "As l e a r n e r s were 'broken i n 1 on t h e day s h i f t s , they were transferred t o t h e second and thIM s h i f t s and placed on t h e i r own. This kept up u n t i l a l l machines on a l l shifts m r e f i l l e d , res u l t i n g i n a 24-hour day, 7-day week f o r the machines. Since t h e operators work a 5-day week, a d d i t i o n a l trained m r k e r s were made ready t o take t h e places of t h e men who a r e off, t o keep a l l machines running continuoualy. We found t h i s system of t r a i n i n g s h o r t and good; we know it w i l l work i n any industry and on any kind of work." The following procedures represent successful practice i n many leading companies. They a r e recornended t o any company t h a t wishes t o get new workers i n t o production in a minimum of t r a i n i n g time and t o develop experienced worke r s t o t h e i r g r e a t e s t usefulness. C. R. Pooley, Director Training within Indust- EXPEDITING PRODUCTION THROUGH TRAINING Three s t e p s normally are taken i n t r a i n i n g production workers: la Engineer the jobs. 2. I n s t r u c t new workers on beginning Jobs. 3. I n s t r u c t experienced m r k e r s in new skill8. These s t e p s a r e such t h a t any o r a l l of them can be used and adapted to any campany's production problem.
    • m U E l THE JOBS 0l E E S companies find it possible and advantageous to s o engineer t h e i r p m ducing f a c i l i t i e s t h a t each operation requires b u t one p r i n c i p a l skill on t h e p a r t of t h e worker t o perform it. Although t h e engineering of production processes may not seem t o be a p a r t of a t r a i n i n g program, it does represent t h e first and b a s i c s t e p i n meeting and simplifying t h e t r a i n i n g problem because it s e t s up t h e s t e p s t o be followed i n doing t h e work. IIWl'RUCT RWI IIORKERS ON BEGINNING JOBS I n most cases t h e s u r e s t - quickest and most thorough way t o train a nem , i s on-the-job, where he does, o r helps t o do, pmductive work. This is true whether t h e new man has had no p r i o r training; has perhaps learned beginning skills i n a vocational school; has had p r i o r experience i n t h e f i e l d b u t i n ano t h e r industry; o r possesses a skill that has n o t been used f o r some years, and m a t be brought up t o date. Through t h i s plan, t h e p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s of which a r e given below, many companies have doubled t h e i r personnel and production in six month time. Experienced operators from the various types of operations o r machines, are s e l e c t e d t o "break inftnew men. &ad ttmechanicsn do not n e c e s s a r i l y make good teachers, s o t h e s e l e c t i o n s a r e made with extreme care. Those s e l e c t e d t o i n s t r u c t new men a r e made f a m i l i a r w l t b t h e basic p r i n c i p l e s of job a n a l y s i s and job i n s t r u c t i o n as outlined in B u l l e t i n #2-+"Helping t h e Experienced Worker t o 'Break I n t a Man on a Nem Joben N e w operators a r e c a r e f u l l y selected. T e ~ c s ,administered by someone f a m i l a r a t h t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s , provide valuable a i d s t o judgment. A new man ( s e v e r a l i f t h e process permits) i s placed with each experienced worker who hacl been s e l e c t o d t o give t h e i n s t r u c t i o n . The more a p t of t h e new men are placed on t h e more d i f f i c u l t operations. The experienced operator gives t h e new man h i s i n i t i a l job i n s t r u c t i o n and teaches h i m t h e e n t i r e operation a s r a p i d l y a s he can master it. On many operations t h e help of t h e new man i s such t h a t production i s increased, i n which case t h a experienced operator may receive t h e b e n e f i t of such a d d i t i o n a l production i n his pay. On others, t h e r e may be a temporary drup i n production, in d i c h case t h e experienced operator should receive e x t r a compensation, i.e. beyond his reduced earnings, while engaged i n i n s t r u c t i o n work.
    • This plan operates p a r t i c u l a r l y re11 on Jobe where t h e r e are s e v e r a l things t o do, s o t h a t t h e experienced operator can keep t h e l e a r n e r busy m o s t of t h e time. hamples: machine t o o l operation, pipe Z i t t i n g , b o i l e r making. Where t h e job i e a continuous s e r i e s of r e p e t i t i v e operations, a p p r o p r i a t e a d a p t a t i o n must be made, EYamples : punching, d r i l l i n g , stamping. Sometimes t h e new man can be p u t on t h e machine next t o t h e experienced o p e r a t o r ' s machine. Often i t i s necessary f o r t h e experienced operator t o spend some time from an hour t o a day w i t h t h e new man g e t t i n g him properly s t a r t e d . - - Best results from this plan a r e obtained, of course, when t h e supervisory f o r c e understands t h e procedure and lends help and encouragement t o both t h e experienced operators and t h e new men, The shop superintendent and a l l t h e s u p e r v i s o r s should be familiar m t h t h e fundamentals of job a n a l y s i s and a l s o job i n s t r u c t i o n . The l a t t e r i s o u t l i n e d i n B u l l e t i n #2-C-"Helping t h e Ecperienced Worker t o 'Break In' a Man on a New Job." ?'his important phase of i n s t r u c t i o n on t h e job i e one which i a a l l t o o o f t e n overlooked. Maq companies l o s e t h e full b e n e f i t of capable men, and many employees l o s e t h e opportunity t o render t h e i r b e s t s e r v i c e because no one takes t h e t r o u b l e t o develop them t o t h e maximum of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l abilities. The following a r e some of t h e many ways i n which i n s t r u c t i o n may be given t o experienced workers. a. Through i n s t r u c t i o n o r "coachingn by t h e foreman. ** Here a r e j u s t a f m of t h e ways a foreman can help nbring a man alongl1, Any foreman can u s e them if he i a wide awake t o his opportunities. -Point out t h e important "tricks1' or'lcnacksn of t h e job. -Ask questions ( t a c t f u l l y , of course) regarding p a r t s of t h e operation where a c e r t a i n p a r t f i t s i n t o t h e f i n a l product why a t o l e r a n c e i s important t o s u c c e s s f u l uswhat m u l d happen i f c e r t a i n mistakes a r e made. --Explain t e c h n i c a l and s a f e t y p o i n t s through sketches t h a t can be quickly drawn a t the employees work place. -Call operators from s e v e r a l i n t e r - r e l a t e d operations toget h e r t o i n s p e c t and review some scrapped m a t e r i a l o r f a u l t y operation. --Take o r send operators t o t h e f i n a l assembly l i n e ; t o t h e department where t h e i r work is used; t o t h e experimental o r t e s t department; o r t o wherever is necessary t o gain a f u l l understanding- of t h e complete job. - - -
    • b. Through s p e c i a l i n s t r x t o r s , Some companies have s e t up t r a i n i n g s e c t i o n s s e p a r a t e from t h e r e g u l a r production shop, using t h e output of such sect i o n s i n t h e regular manufacturing process. Whether t h e i n s t r u c t i o n i s given i n production shops o r i n s e p a r a t e t r a i n i n g sections, it i s necessary t o equip those s e l e c t e d t o do t h e i n s t r u c t i n g with an organized knowledge of prod u c t i o n operations and t h e a b i l i t y t o impart it t o o t h e r s , I n some cases t h e number of men t o be t r a i n e d j u s t i f i e s making t h e experienced operator a f u l l time i n s t r u c t o r . (See B u l l e t i n #2-B-"How t o Prepare I n s t r u c t o r s t o Give I n t e n s i v e Job I n s t r u c t i o n . ") c, Through s p e c i a l arrangements s o an employee can "get h i s hand i n on new workff. Sometimes it i s p o s s i b l e f o r some of t h e machinery o r equipment t o be used a f t e r t h e c l o s e o.f t h e r e g u l a r work s h i f t by employees who wish t o q u a l i f y f o r new jobs. Where t h i s is not possible, some companies p u t machinery and equipment i n a S p e c i a l l o c a t i o n expressly f o r t h e use of employees who wish t o q u a l i f y f o r b e t t e r Jobs, I n each case, of course, a foreman 3r i n s t r u c t o r i s present., n o t o n l y t o i n s t r u c t t h e employees thus engaged, but t o assure t h a t t h e equipment i s p r o p w l y used and l e f t i n proper condit i o n f o r t h e next r e g u l a r work s h i f t o r " ~ r a c t i c egroup". d, Through use of l o c a l schools. Often vocational schools, high schools and engineering colleges can provide valuable help t o experienced employees where t h e r e i s machinery and equipment on which employees may p r a c t i c e higher s k i l l e d operations. These a r e e f f e c t i v e t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t school and i n d u s t r y plan t o g e t h e r and agree upon t h e i n s t r u c t i o n t o be given. It i s e q u a l l y important t h a t a similar agreement be reached regarding r e l a t e d t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n t6 be given by t h e schools. -
    • OFFICE O PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT F Labor Divlsion P a i n i n g within Indus tryn Policy Bulletin TRAINING W R T S TO MEET DEFENSE N E 3 O KR E2 The r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g need f o r mom t r a i n i n g on the job in Defense p l a n t s c a l l s f o r a common understanding of t r a i n i n g objectives. During this emergency we must keep our eyes on t h e one common objective i n the s h o r t e s t p o s s i b l e t h e , With We plnanimous approval of the Labor Division's Advisorg C d t t s e on Training, t h e follcmfng statement of p o l i c y is i s s u e d f o r t h e information of workers and manage- - much more production This b u l l e t i n i s supplemented by two others, One of t h e s e is B u l l e t i n 1 The Training within Industry Program -- which o u t l i n e s measures f o r giving e f f e c t t o the p o l i c i e s described. The o t h e r is B u l l e t i n 1-A -- Organization and Personnel which l i s t s those who a r e charged with p u t t i n g t h e p o l i c i e s and program t o work throughout industry. Other b u l l e t i n s i s s u e d by this branch take up various phases of t r a i n i n g most e s s e n t i a l t o Defense, -- -- C. R. Dooley, Chief Training w i t h i n Industry LEARN BY DOING - PRODUCE BfHILE LEAFGYING In t h i s emergency, a s w e l l as i n more normal times, i t i s good American p r a c t i c e and e f f i c i e n t business t o have each worker make t h e f u l l e s t use of h i s best, s k i l l up t o t h e maximum of h i s i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y . Only through such use cf the i n t e l l i g e n c e and s k i l l of t h e n a t i o n ' s man-power w i l l prod w t i o n keep pace with defense needs, 1, Additional workers w i l l not be t r a i n e d unless t h e available unemployed of equal s k i l l have been absorbed o r none are available locally, There a r e n o m l l o s s e s from among s k i l l e d workers due t o advancement i n t o s u p e r - ~ i s o r y o s i t i o n s changes t o o t h e r p occupations, sickness, death and retirement, These l o s s e s go on continuously, and i t i s necessary t o b r i n g along well t r a i n e d workers t o replace them, I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s need t o make up f o r the lack of apprentice t r a i n i n g during t h e p a s t t e n years, These a r e t h e reasons why organized apprenticeship programs a r e s o important now. , There a r e two important phases of apprentice t r a i n i n g : D e f i n i t e l y planned program of experience, scheduled and assigned s t e p by s t e p to enable t h e a p p r e n t i c e n over a pre-determined time t o acquire s k i l l on i c-reasingly d i f f i c u l t kinds of work in a trade.
    • 33 . %ed ' ~ A S ~ ~xa+t ~ . C Z t e r , much of which can best be taught off t h e job, be effective, t h i s related InatrucLSon msP, be ve closely t i e d i n t o the current job expaarlence, Wact i c e , related theory and technical knowledge mt go hand i n hand, Workers, employers and technical edube cators should collaborate i n deteracing what SU included i n t h i s i n s t r u c t i a n and how it can best be related t o the work experience. For every sk%Bled 303 The proportion of apprentices t o be trained can best be d e b * rnined in l o c a l areas i n numbers and programs agreed upon in joint conferences between manageinent and i n t e r e s t e d groups of employees o r by agreements arrived at by c o l l e c t i v e bargaining units. 3, In a l e s s formal way, many workers acquire a breadth of e x p p ience by learning one Job a t a time and becoming sk.ll'led in that, and advancing t o a higher grade of work when opportunity permits. In an upgrading program the time cannot be d e f i n i t e and i s controlled by available opportunities, depending upon prodnction program and s p e c i f i c vacancies as they occur, lbis d i f f e r s from an apprenticeship program where the oppor?:mity i s controlled by advance agreement. Therefore, a l e craftsman experience m y be gained by an apprentice i n fram a three t o four years, it may tab the production s p e c i a l i s t tvo or three times a s long, o r longer, t o acqutre corresponding skill and v e r s a t i l i t y through an upgrading program, In times of rapid expansion when t h e m i s a shortage of skilled workers, there i s no choice but t h a t of using inexperienced workers from other kinds of work o r young people uithout any work experience but with good o l i e n t a t i m background gained in public vocational s c h o o b during pre-employment training. Through intensive instruction they then must be brought to t h e i r highest s k i l l on a l i m i t e d operation in the s h o r t e s t posAdvancement i n t o more s k i l l e d work should almya s i b l e time. be made from among employees of longer experience on jobs which Attempts should are good foundations f o r t h e h i g h r skills. not be made t o replace s k i l l e d workers by narrarrly a k i l l e d specialists. This puts upon Management a two-fold responsibility: Foremen, instructors and experienced workers must a s s i s t l e s s experienced workera in acquiring new s k i l l s , and ,... They s h o u l d see t h a t employees lrfao have t h e desire and capacity f o r advancement be not kept indefinitel y on jobs requiring s k i l l i n single operations, 4. Apprenticeship, upgrading and supervisory training programs within industry are greatly jmplemented by making a-milable
    • b . v 2 g --b~nitles ~ for indiv5duais t o g e t i n s t r u c t i o n and, pelate8 >_~~.-w?_adgti enable them t o fit themselves f o r advancement, srhich m iher these f a c i l i t i e s are made available by public educae t d s n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , emplcyers o r organized l a b o r groups, it i s e s s e n t i d that thsre be continuous consultation between students, management and educators. Only through such c o o p e r a t i o n can the i n s t r u c t i o n be of immediate p r a c t i c a l value, such philosophy, such p r a c t i c e s well-balanced t r r i n i n g programs, and approach t o c r e a t i n g and maintaining t o meet t h e rapidly increasing needs and such consultaticn should result i n bring about an o r d e r l y and an effective a supply of competent workers a v a i l a b l e of defense industry. AF'PR06rED BY THE ADVISORY COMaTTEE ON TRAINING O THE LABOR DIVISION, 0. P, M, F United A i r c r a f t C o r p o r ~ t i o n Lockheed A i r c r a f t Corporation United S t a t e s Rubber Co~pany Tiectixghouse Elc o t r i o and E'lanufacturing Company I n t e r n e t i o n a l Association of K a c h i n i s t s S t e e l it'orkers Organizing Connnittee The Falk Corporation United ~ u t o m o d i l e Ko$kers of America E, J, R O B B S O M I n d u s t r i a l Union of biarine and Shipbuilding 'Xorkers of America Internntionnl ~ r o t h e r h o ~ d of E l e c t r i c a l Workers Newport News Shipbuildiog and Dry Dook Company X r a t i u e P l a s t e r e r s 1 and Cement F i n i s h e r s ' I n t e r n a t i o n a l Asan. -
    • O B P I C E O P P R O D U C T I O N T B A l I I N G W I T H I N D I S T R I C T M A N A G Z M E N T I N D U S T R Y OFl'ICES For information or advisory aseistance concerning the training of workere while on the Job, apply to the Training within Industry district office nearest you. Atlanta, Ga., Georgia School of Technolorn 225 North Ave., B.W. (Hemlock 6890) Baltimore, Md., Boom 3106, Baltimore Trust Bldg. (Plaza 1 6 S ) Boeton, Mas;. , Room 1033, Park Souare Bldg. (~ubbard0380) Buffalo, X.Y. (location pending) Chicago, Ill., Room 1441, 20 North Wacker Drive (Andover 1744) Cincinnati, Ohio, Room 802, Fifth-Third Union Trust Bldg. (Cherry 3740) Clsvelmd, Ohio, Room 797, Union Commerce Blde. 925 Euclid Ave. (Cherry 2984) Denver, Colo., Room 518, U.S. National Bank Elk., (Keyetone 4151 596) Detroit, Mich., 702 Boulevard Bldg., 7310 Woodward Ave. (Trinity 1-5520) Houston, Texas, Room 3201, Gulf Bldg. (Fairfax 9842) Indiarmpolis, Ind., Room 1428, Circle Tower Bldg. (Market 9411) Lor Imgelse, Calif., Boom 452, Boosevelt Bldg., 7 7 Weet Seventh St. (Trinity 2104, 2106) 2 Winneapolie, M ~ M . , Boom 1800, Rand Tower Bldg. ridgepo port 7591) Newark, N.J., Room 601, 605 Broad St. (Mitchell 2-1114) PTw Baven, Conn., Boom 513, 152 Temple St. (6-5186) le New York, N.Y., Room 2026, 11 Weot 42nd St. (Pe~eylvania 6-0486) Philadelphia, Pa. , Room 2301, 12 South 12th St. (walnut 6820) Pittsburgh, Pa., Room 360, Administration Bldg., Carnegie Inat itute of Technology ( ~ a ylower 2600) f Raleigh. M.C., Raleigh Bldg., Fayetteville and Hargett Sta. (2-3306) St. Louie, Mo., 603 Shell B l d g . , (Central 4206) San Francieco, Calif.. Room 702, mewhall Bldg., 260 California St. (Exbrook 0369) Seattle, Waah., Room 957, Stuart Bldg., 4th and University Sts. (Eliot 6404) ; affiliated office located at Portland, Ore., Room 1006 Bedell E l k . (Broadway 0280) - .
    • !TRAINING WITHIN INDUSTRY BULLETIN SERBS u e a a of Training g Manpower Commission r Revised June, 1944 TYING-IN PRE-EMPLOYMENT TILAINING WITH ON-THE- JOB TRAINING Training p r i o r t o employment helps s h o r t e n t h e time needed f o r developing s k i l l on t h e job. With pre-employment i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e new employee l e a r n s t h e new job more quickly. He a d j u s t s himself more r e a d i l y t o f a c t o r y surroundings. He grasps sooner t h e language of t h e f a c t o r y . And more import a n t , he acquires beginning s k i l l . Thus, a s h o r t e r Ire&-in period i s required before t h e new worker reaches good production standards. Pre-employment t r a i n i n g i s most valuable *en it i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e job t h a t t h e prospective worker w i l l f i l l . When pointed taward a specif i c job, it has g r e a t e r appeal and t h e s t u d e n t i s more eager t o l e a r n . The r e s u l t is better training. This b u l l e t i n i s based upon p r o g r h in successful operation. Experienae s h m t h a t success depends upon a sound r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n s t r u c t i o n tmder publio 'auspices and t r a i n i n g in t h e f a c t o r y , C. R Dooley, D i r e c t o r . Training Within Industry PURPOSE OF PRE-EMPLOYMENT TRAIMNG The t h i e f purpose of i n s t r u c t i o n in advance of employment in w a r produotion i s t o enable t h e worker t o perform h i s t a s k s more e f f e c t i v e l y and r e a c h production a f f i c i e n c y more r a p i d l y when he goes on t h e job. The beginner beoames aoquainted w i t h t h e t o o l s , machines and m a t e r i a l s employed in t h e industry where h e w i l l work and a c q u i r e s o p e r a t i o n a l skills based upon r o u t i n e s and saPeguu-ds in oonnnon use. P h i s form of training c a l l s f o r ( 1 ) i n s t r u c t i o n in t h e ways of f a c t o r y l i f e ( 2 ) i n t r o a u c t i o n t c machines, t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s , and t h e acquiring 02 beginner 's skill w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r machine, INSTRUCTION I N FACTCRY WAPS Among o t h e r s , -the following r o u t i n e s am3 p r a c t i c e s should be ~ t m 8 8 % d : SaPety should bs emphasized from t h e v e r y beginning f o r f i r s t impressions are I s s t t a g . The Beginner ahonld be taught t h e
    • use of goggles, s h i e l d s , and guards. H i s use of them where necessary should be s t r e s s e d . He should be made acquainted with t h e d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t of c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e a s found in grinding wheels, f l y wheels and work in machines. He should l e a r n how t o l i f t man loads s a f e l y and he should be schooled in t h e precautions t o be t a k e n a g a i n s t i n d u s t r i a l hazards. I n d u s t r i a l hazards p e c u l i a r t o t h e job and safeguards a g a i n a t them must be made c l e a r . He should be informed about s a f e t y shoes and s u i t a b l e work clothes. 2. Shop I n s t r u c t i o n s The prospective employee should understand t h e purpose of shop r u l e s , booklets of information f o r employees, operation s h e e t s , i n s p e c t i o n forms and o t h e r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l designed f o r c o n t r o l and r e p o r t purposes and f o r h f o r m i n g t h e worker. He should l e a r n huw t o punch a time clock, samething about how t h e pay check i s computed, and t h e p r e v a i l i n g methods of payment whether by check o r in cash. 3. Blue Prints and Measurements If t h e f a c t o r y job r e q u i r e s t h a t a person work from blue p r i n t s , t h e course should include suoh i n s t r n o t i o n . Elementary shop mathematics naay a l s o be needed. The i n s t r u c t i o n should be pract i c a l ~i l l u s t r a t i o n s and problems should be drawn from t h e l o c a l i n d u s t r y f o r which t h e employee i s being prepared. 4. Manufacturim Process A explanation of t h e flow o f production through t h e shop i s n d i s t i n c t l y valuable. The d e s c r i p t i o n should r e f e r t o t h e industry i which t h e s t u d e n t i s being t r a i n e d , if that i s possn i b l e . Production f l o w diagrams, assembly c h a r t s and s i m i l a r e x h i b i t s t h a t i n d i c a t e g r a p h i c a l l y t h e s t e p s i n t h e production process a r e very helpful. Information about t h e u l t i m a t e use of t h e product i s of value in c r e a t i n g and maintaining i n t e r e s t . In order t o gear t h e pre-employment and supplementary training i n t o t h e manufacturing process, m m y of t h e school shops a r e l a i d o u t as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e t o d u p l i c a t e t h e production l i n e s of w a r production p l a n t s and t h e t r a i n i n g i s given around t h e production of s e l e c t e d p a r t s that may go i n t o t h e f i n a l produot i o n assembly. !L'RAIWING IR USE OF MACHIRES A D TOOIS J Training of this c h a r a c t e r should be speoifio-on t h e machine o r w i t h t h e t o o l s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t w i l l subsequently use. A smattering of s k i l l should be avoided. It i s b e t t e r that t h e beginner be a b l e t o perform one o r two simple o p e r a t i o n s t h a n t h a t he be s u p e r f i c i a l l y aaquainted w i t h several.
    • Whenever p o s s i b l e , t h e shop f a c i l i t i e s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n should approximate t h o s e in t h e f a c t o r y where t h e p r o s p e c t i v e employee l a t e r w i l l m r k . This r e f era e s p e c i a l l y t o t o o l s , machines, work benches and similar equipm e n t . When t h i s i d e a l o a m t be r e a l i z e d , t h e n e x t b e s t equipment a v a i l a b l e should be provided. The suggestions below regarding i n s t r u c t i o n may be helpfulr Machines When t r a i n i n g prospective workers f o r t h e machine shop o r a m & a l mrkAng establishment, t h e simple c u t t i n g operation on an engine l a t h e i s of g r e a t value in acquainting t h e s t u d e n t with t h e workings of power d r i v e n t o o l s . On t h i s machine t h e student l e a r n s something about t h e process of c u t t i n g metal and about feeds and speeds. In a d d i t i o n , he becomes acquainted w i t h ciutting t o o l s and how t o grind them and t h e use of c u t t i n g rolutions. He f u r t h e r grows f a m i l i a r with t h e p a r t s of t h e l a t h e and how t o look a f t e r t h e maohine, This experience i s a good base f o r l a t e r training in v a r i o u s c u t t i n g operations. Engine l a t h e s a r e a v a i l a b l e almost everywhere, Correot p r a c t i c e in t h e use and c a r e of t h e s e instruments of production should r e c e i v e m a s r a t t e n t i o n . It i s comaon b o w ledge t h a t some l o s s e s in the p l a n t a r e due t o new workers who have n o t y e t mastered t h e b e s t methods o f using simple t o o l s and measuring instrumelrts although t h e y consider themselves o o q e t e n t . It i s important t h a t beginners r e c e i v e e a r l y training in t h e c o r r e c t use and care of small t o o l s and instruments, Since they a r e a v a i l a b l e generally, a good d e a l of demonstration and p r a c t i c e may be afforded, While in t h e school shop it i s p o s s i b l e t o develop a f a i r degree of d e x t e r i t y in the, use of a a l i p e r s , snap and plug gauges and micrometers. This speeds t h e development of beginner's s k i l l and d i s c l o s e s t h o s e who have mechaniaal a p t i t u d e . The beginner should l e a r n something about t h e m a t e r i a l s used in t h e industry f o r which he i s being prepared. With samples a t hand, t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a p p l i c a t i o n s can be demonstrated. Reference should be made a l s o t o s o l u t i o n s , l u b r i c a n t s , cleaners, f i n i s h e r s , abrasives, adhesives and s o on. AVAILABILITY OF HIG-EXPLOYMEXI! TRAINING Re-employll3sxrb i n s t r u o t i o n in varying degree i s a v a i l a b l e in almnst every l o c a l i t y . Publia vooational and t r a d e schools, public high schools, and many of t h e engineering colleges a r e ready and w i l l i n g t o o f f e r t h e i r
    • s e r v i c e s o ah ~ d d i t i o n ,government agencies e s p e c i a l l y the NYA oonrsider tha needs and reca~rmendations of industry in shaping t h e content of t h e i r preemployment work projects. SEUCT I O N FOR PLACEMEIE While t h e prlmary object of pre-slllployment i n s t r u c t i o n i s adjushem% t o t h e factory emviromnent and t h e imparting of i n i t i a l s k i l l , t h i s t r w should a l s o r e v e a l t h e individual employeets f i t n e s s f o r a job in industry. Obsesvat ion, i n s t r u c t o r 3s ratings and perf ornranoe records, together w i t h a s u i t a b l e t e s t i n g method a r e helpful in grading t h e student with regard t o general a b i l i t y , speed of learning and capacity t o handle jobs a t various l e v e l s of s k i l l . M o w a t i o n of t h i s character i s highly valuable t o placement of ficers--in t h e sohools, s t a t e employment off i c e and l o o a l f a c t o r i e s . CONDI!CIOPJS FOR BEST R E S W S The aloser t h e cooperation between t h e plant and t h e t h e likelihood of s a t i s f a o t o r y placements and of sucoess t r a i n e d f o r a s p e c i f i c job and then being placed on that p l a n t build confidenoe on t h e p a r t of t h e new worker and ment t o t h e working conditions. Washington, D C. . Originally issued 1948 school, t h e greater on t h e job. b i n g kind of s o r k in a a i d in prompt adjust-
    • TRAIBIXG WI!lXIH IXIDUSTRY BUUETIH SERIES Washington, D. C . June, 1944 Bureau- of Training flar Yanpmer Commission This b u l l e t i n o u t l i n e s a p r a o t i c e whiah i s probably more widely used throughout Amriaan i n d u e t r y than s ~ n po t h e r form of i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g , and r h i o h i s most important from t h e standpoint of both production and employees. Yany oampanfes have long pursued e x o e l l e n t programs of Nupgrading* without ever having given t h e practioe a name. How i s t h e t i m f o r every company t o review i t s upgrading praotioe, - t h e y a r e l i n e s of flow through t h e shop. One job leads Jabs a r e not s t a t i c t o a b e t t e r one, and, s t e p by s t e p , t h e employee r e c e i v e s h i s t r a i n i n g and advanaes i n s k i l l . The Job i s a nurg on t h e ladder of progress t h i s i s the e f f i o i e n t way as w e l l as t h e b e r i o a n m y . Upgrading i s a method t h a t leads workere upward i n the pyramid of organization. Rapid and e f f i o i e n t t r a i n i n g can be msde t o meet unusual needs through suoh a d e f i n i t e step-by-step program. - C. R. Dooley, Dire&or Training Within Industry Upgrading r e f e r s t o t h e n a t u r a l and l o g i o a l movement of employees within an organization f o r t h e purpose of developing and using each t o t h e maximum of h i s a b i l i t i e s . S p e o i f i o a l l y , upgrading means: 1 . - D e f i n i t e l i n e n of progression planned promotion from w l t h i n , both i n departments and between departments t r m s f e r t o work f o r whioh a wonker i a b e s t f i t t e d , or t o other l i n e s of work where g r e a t e r opportunity 12es having qualified employees "trade jobsn t o develop experiance and vsrsatility "job r o t a t i o n A 2. Job inatrutstion - - i n s t r b o t i n g employees r a t h e r than " l e t t i n g them learnn h e n promoted or transferred 3. - Rate a d j u s b e n t s prompt a d j u s t a e n t s i n i n d i v i d u a l r a t e s , aaoording t o performance on t h e Job .nd movement t o o t h e r jobs perjniio r a t e review t o assure equity - 4. - Sarpplslnsntary i n s t r u a t i o n e n o o m g i n g employees t o pursue r e l a t e d o u t s i d e i n s t r u o t i o n t o i n c r e a s e usef'ulness From t h e oompanyls standpoint t h e development of each employee t o h i s highest b l of usefulness i a r e q u i s i t e t o caapany suocess. ~ u i l d i n gcompetent manpower La Oonsidersd one ~f =agemerrt*s i primary functions i n many companies.
    • From t h e a p l o p e t s standpoint, growth and adwmoement through h i s work should r e p r e s e n t t h e c e n t r a l core of h i s l i f e . l o t h i n g i s s o d e s t r u c t i v e t o employee e f f i o i e n o y , l o p l t y , and morale aa t o have a man h i r e d from t h e o u t s i d e and given a h i g h e r r a t e d job f o r w h i c h someone a l r e a d y employed f e e l a h e coula qualify. T e l l i n g t h e m r k e r t h a t t h e pressure o f war produotion i s s o g r e a t t h a t t h e r e i s no t i m e t o g i v e him t h e opportunity t o l e a r n a n ~ t h e rjob i s not a s a t i s f a o t o r y answer. T'nia i s e s p e o i a l l y t r u e i n t h e case of a man who h a s h i s eye on a b e t t e r job. F u r t h e m r e , when an employee understands t h a t upgrading i s an e s t a b l i a h e d p o l i o y , he w i l l do a b e t t e r job of "breaking i n w a new worker assigned t o him. m e n pressure f o r production e a s e s and retrenahment beoomea imminent, worker It i s e s s e n t i a l , thereef'ficienoy and l o y a l t y w i l l perhaps be even more necessary. f o r e , t h a t t h e foundations f o r good f u t u r e i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s be l a i d now. HOW UPGRADING IS DONE A well-rounded program of upgrading i n o l u d e s t h e following p r a a t i o e s : Determine P e l i o y Top mawgemen% i s a u e s a w r i t t e n p o l i a y o r l e t t e r o l e a r l y s t a t i n g t h a t raoanoiea a r e t o be f i l l e d by upgrading, promoting, t r a n s f e r r i n g , o r r o t a t i n g p r e s e n t workers before new workers a r e h i r e d . A l l new workers a r e t h u s h i r e d f o r c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e beginners? jobs i n t h e low paid braokets. . P l m t h e Program One i n d i v i d u a l who is familiar w i t h jobs and workers in t h e p l a n t i s assigned t h e t a a k of c a l l a b o r a t i n g w i t h superintendents and foremen i n preparing a p l a n by which t h e upgrading i s t o be done. I n a amall p l a n t t h e program may be both planned b u t t h e important f e a t u r e i s t h a t one perron and c a r r i e d out by t h e superintendent There a r e o e r t d n must draw up a aohedule of o r d e r l y movement from job t o job. a t e p s which f i t t h e operation, whether t h e s a a l e i s l a r g e o r s m a l l : - 1. Determine l i n e s of progression (from what job t o *at j o b ) . - - ~ s u a l l y it i s found thaz t h e r e a r e m y groups sf o p e r a t i o n s f o r rrfiioh t h e r e a l r e a d y a r e n a t u r a l l i n e s of promotion. There a r e o t h e r s , however, t h a t do n o t f i t i n t o t h e normal promotional sequenae and whioh should be f i t t e d i n t o t h e sequence t o rovide normal promo$fonab oppsr%uxdtg and t o prevent %h from beeomin d a f l e f jobsA P l produstion jobs i n the shop are listed h t h e Q F ~ wdi%& i ~ d i t x ~ t e ~ ~ T @lest r a t e d , t h e l i n e s of promotion from t h e lowest r a t e d t o t h e dona by departments, omupations, o r a n y l o g i s a l g r o i n g of jabs. oases this m e a n s movement from one departme o anotiher; fQP examp & h a operator to apprentiae toaPmaker, %oo er $ 0 oh design en * l i n e of progressionw doe8 n o t nean that mcmsment from eaeh job to t h e is a ~ nb m i e d i a t s promotion. Obrlouely, before a promotion t o m n y jobs i e p o s s i b l e , workers nay be t r a n s f e r r e d t o two o r more jobs on t h e present l e v e l t o prepare them f o r promotion. Perhaps two, t h r e e , o r nore workers a r e asked t o t r a d e jobs t o g i v e them neoeaaary baokground and work experienos* ( ~ o o a a i o n a l l y h i 8-means t h a t a worker m a t t e m p o r a r i l y move t t o a lower r a t e d job i n order t o g e t i n t o a d i f f e r e n t l i n e o f work *ere e v e n t u a l l y h e o m move up t h e l i n e and i n t o h i g h e r earnings.)
    • The l i n e ~f promotion i n d i c a t e s t h e order i n uhich jobs must be learned, so t h a t , i f t h i s learning order i s f o l b w e d over a period of tinre, eaoh worker w i l l be using h i s b e s t skill t o t h e maximum o ' h i s individual a b i l i t y . € 2. Indicate experienoo necessary t o q u a l i f y t h e employee f o r eaoh job.--For each job, t h e operations t h a t a qualified operator must be a b l e t o perform should be indioated. Such descriptions provide a ready reference f o r busy superintendents and foremen when promotions a r e considered, and a r e paatiou l a r l y helpful when t r a n s f e r s o r r o t a t i o n s a r e planned f o r workers who need additional experience and "rounding outn before qualifying f o r promotion, This work oan be completed i n a s h o r t t i m e and requires only b r i e f attent i o n from time t o time t o keep up t o date a s jobs ohCUIge, Descriptions should be oharted and d i s t r i b u t e d t o a11 shop supervisors a s ohanges a r e made, 3. Determine where job r o t a t i o n i s app1ioable.--In those departments where a l l s e employees perfenn work s u b s t a n t i a l l y of l i k e d i f f i o u l t y , and where t h e r e ~ a r e no " l i n e s of p r o m o t i ~ n ,about t h e only upgrading t h a t can be done i s job rotation. The b e n e f i t s of t h i s p r a a t i o e t o employees and t o t h e oompany w i l l vary aocording t o t h e kind of operation. Job r o t a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y useful i n ompanies having frequent rush orders, exaergenoies, rapid expansions or seasonal f l u c t u a t i o n s , engineering, and model changes, To meet these problems promptly and e f f i a i e n t l y , a flexi b l e and v e r s a t i l e work force i s highly desirable. The more jebs each employee oan p e r f o m , the mere useful he i s under a wide 8arieiqr of oonditions. Some workers do not want t o move, do not want t o be nupgraded;w others a r e araeious t o master new s k i l l s . A program of job r o t a t i o n i s a goed ray t o discover those employees who can leaan several Jobs; do so quickly and who have e n t e r p r i s e and i n i t i a t i v e , Assign Responsibility Lime superintendents and foremen, of course, a r e held responsible f o r oarrying out t h e program, The r e s p o n s i b f l i t y f o r helping them c a r r y out t h e upgrading program i s delegated t o the individual who m e most of t h e work i n planning it. This i s a full-time job i n l a r g e plants and pas&-time i n small ones. H i s given authority e and others, advantageous moves of workers, and he m a t be t o suggest, t~ f ~ r e m e n consulted and be i n agreemen$ with any promotions or t r a n s f e r s t o be made. An disagreement b e b e e n t h e upgrading planning man and t h e suprfntendelrts or f o r acmes up the Zing 4 . -review 02 d find deoision by a top exeoukfve. A t o p exeeuti~akeeps personal. to" ~~~ a con-erol of t h e upgrading program during t h e e a r l y weeks* H approves employment of new workers only a f t e r shcp e Superintendents and o t h e r s have a h m him i n d e t a i l t h a t every preaent m r k e r who is q u a l i f i e d f o r a b e t t e r job has been promoted and that a l l other l o g i c a l and reasonable t r a n s f e r s t o round out experience have been made, This personal control i s maintained only f o r suoh time a s i s necessary t o assure t h a t tihe policy i s d e f i n i t e l y understood and c o n s i s t e n t l y c a r r i e d out throughout the organi t a t ion.
    • Select Qualified Employees f o r Upgrading m e n b e t t e r jobs nre open. t h e y should be f i l l e d by t h e b e s t qualifted emp l o p e s . & inventory of t h e working f o r c e w i l l o l a s s i f y t h e employee's p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t y , previous experienoe, education, h i s job preference, and length of s e m c e , Ha matter r h a t form t h i s inventory t a k e s whether through intel-viewa or personnel recorch o r any other lasans such faformation i s e s s e n t i a l t o upgrading. - - Such a u e n t r a l l y oontrolled plan makes a v a i l a b l e , f o r quick reference, info-. t i o n abaut q u a l i f i o a t i o n s of individual workers, job requirements, and paths of upgrading i n order t h a t t h e b e t t e r jobs may be given t o t h e beat q u a l i f i e d employees. Management muat s p e c i f y that; t h o s e who operate t h i s c e n t r a l service be consulted on all upgrading o p p o r t m i t i e s and t h a t f i n a l a c t i o n be approved by them. Any disagreerment; between t h e l i n e organization and t h e o e n t r a l s e r v i c e moves up t h e 19ne f o r review and f i n a l deoision by t o p mnagement. Such a plan can be set up quickly by assigning t h e r e e p o n s i b i l i t y t o a man who has wlde knowledge of jobs and m r k e r s i n t h e p l m t . Inoreased experienos with upgrading c o n s t a n t l y r a i s e s t h e l e v e l of re8~lt8. Sea That Employees Are Instructed on t h e Job mperienoed employees, as w e l l a8 "greenm workera, ahould be given c a r e f u l i n s t r u o t i e n when moved t o new Jobs. Correct work procedures should be taught from e e 8 t h . Typioal i n a t r u a t i o n procedures are o u t l i n e d f n other Training W i t h i I~d~stpy l l e t b ~ b ~ U e P r a s t i o a l Use of Supplementary I n a t m o t i o n Appropriate encouragement ehould be given t o employees t o pursue outside s t u d i e in preparation f o r g r e a t e r usefulness. Looal eohools and o o l l e g e ~o f f e r a wide v a r i e t y of courses. Speoial oourses aan r e a d i l y be o r g a n i ~ ~ t~ e plank, t o be LA h taught by feremen, engineers, inspeotors, or others. Same unions a l s o ccsnduot such o a r m e . Completion of supplementary oourses should be shown on personnel records. (SO@ Training Within Xnduatry B u l l e t i n , *Supplementary Training f o r Upgrading. " ) H a k e Prompt AdJuslanents i n Pay Pay adjustments ahould be made simultaneously with promotion t o the jobs of higher rating. Prompt reaognition i n ocmpensation and s t a t u s a r e t h e meanafbr etimulating and maintaining i n t e r e s t i n t h e l e a r n i n g process. Morale w i l l be high under t h i s polioy of advanocrrment, based on t h e fair and unpreJudloed oonsfderation of mrit. Where m e r i t rind other f a o t o r s a r e equal, preferenoe ehould be given t o length of ssl-vloe. Periodio r e o i w of r a t e s by the appropriate supervisor i s e s s e n t i a l t o s e e t h a t deserving employees a r e n ' t "forgottenn and t h a t e q u i t y and f a i r n e s s ere maintained. Suoh a polloy of upgrading, coordinated by a o e n t r a l p l a a m e n t service, r e s u l t s L rapid and e f f i o t e n t t r a i n i n g of a working f o r o a w i t h g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y and a sffeot3.v.olerr. This i e an important praotice. .