Eyewall: It consists of the Sclera and the Cornea Closed globe injury :No full-thickness wound of eyewall,but there is intr- ocular damage. Open globe injury:It refers to the full thickness injury of the eye wall and the intra-ocular structures. Contusion:It is a result of direct energy delivary to the eye by a blunt object.injury may be at the site of impact or at a distant site. Lamellar laceration:Partial-thickness wound of the eyewall. Laceration Full-thickness wound of the eyewall, caused by a sharp object. Penetrating injury: is an injury where a foriegn object has been embedded in the eye.It is usually a full thickness wound & it has a site of Entrance. Perforating injury has both an Entrance and exit wounds.Both wounds caused by the same agent.
Penetrating injury Trauma: Usually by a sharp and pointed instruments like needles,sticks,pencils,knives arows,pens,glass and any object with sharp edges. the most common causes of penetrating ocular injuries are due to trauma caused by wood, metal and stone .Most of the injuries occurred during chopping or cutting wood, hammering metals or nails and carving stone. These are associated with professions such as farming, garage work and carpentry in adults. Children, on the other hand, mostly sustain accidental injuries by rubber bands, needles, pencils, sticks while playing with others.
Effects of Penetrating ocular injuries Mechanical effects:such as Laceration of the conjunctiva,corneal lacerations,Vitreous haemorrage,rupture of globe,retinal tears and detachments,scarring which leads to cataract and glaucoma. And Intra ocular foriegn bodies. Introduction of infection:the entrance of the wound may serve as a route of entry for pyogenic bacteria,which may lead to the fromation of abscess of cornea,purulent iridocyclitis or Endophthalmitis Sympathetic opthalmitis:it is a complication of penetrating injury. Visual impairment and Enucleation
Don’ts and do’s DO NOT flush the eye with any liquids other than saline or warm water or even better just do not touch the eye DO NOT remove the object out of the eye DO NOT put any pressure on the eye Do NOT rub your eye. Flush the eye with copious amounts of saline or warm water until symptoms resolve unless severe, penetrating or bleeding injury. Reassure the person and advise against rubbing or moving their eye as this can cause further damage If the injury is severe, place a moist pad and loosely bandage the eye. Transport the patient to the nearest Hospital as fast as possible In the case of small penetrating objects, use a cup to cover the object and keep the person calm and lying down until help arrives.
Common diagnostic procedures for ocular injuries External examination of the eye Measurement of intra ocular pressure using tonometer Ophthalmoscopy: Direct ophthalmoscopy: You will be seated in a darkened room. The health care provider performs this common exam by shining a beam of light through the pupil using an instrument called an ophthalmoscope. An ophthalmoscope is about the size of a flashlight. It allows the examiner to view the back of the eyeball. Indirect ophthalmoscopy: You will either lie or sit in a semi-reclined position. The health care provider holds your eye open while shining a very bright light into the eye using an instrument worn on the headSome pressure may be applied to the eyeball using a small, blunt tool. You will be asked to look in various directions. Slit-lamp examination:The slit-lamp examination looks at structures that are at the front of the eye Visual acuity test Ultrasound :Ultrasound involves the use of high-frequency sound waves to create images of organs and systems within the eye Electroretinogram (a record of the electrical currents in the retina produced by visual stimuli)
Indirect Ophthalmoscope Fundus Examination A dilated pupil makes it easier to see the optic nerve, macula, and retina - 1% tropicamide ( Mydriacyl ) - 2.5% phenylephrine ( Neo-Synephrine ) Direct opthalmoscopy
Intraocular Pressure Measurement Digital palpation Schiotz tonometer
Corneal lacerations A corneal laceration is a partial- or full-thickness injury to the cornea,caused by flying metal fragments, sharp objects, fingernails, air-bag deployment, fireworks, explosions, blunt force trauma, pellets.History of the patient sometimes points to a discrete event after which the patient’s symptoms started. The main symptoms are intense pain initially which may diminish slightly due to corneal desensitization. Patients are photophobic and lacrimate profusely. There is a significant attendant uveitis and the anterior chamber is shallow or even flat in a full thickness laceration. Intraocular pressure generally ranges from 2 to 6 mmHg. Bubbles within the anterior chamber are a key finding. There is significantly reduced visual acuity
Treatment Perform an examination to ascertain the extent of the corneal, anterior chamber, ocular injury. Administer systemic analgesic for pain,and reduce the ontra ocular pressure Use systemic analgesics and antibiotics. Topical anesthetics may be used, if needed, to facilitate visual activity testing and the slit lamp examination. combination of a cephalosporin (eg, cefazolin) or vancomycin and an aminoglycoside (eg, gentamicin).This is used o achieve broad-spectrum coverage. Antibiotics are used in prophylaxis of endophthalmitis If the laceration is >2mm the wound is sutured.
Conjunctival Laceration Clinical features: May be isolated or part of more severe intraocular injuries. Symptoms: ocular irritation, pain and foreign body sensation. Signs include chemosis, subconjunctival hemorrhage and torn conjunctiva. Work up: Thorough eye examination under topical or general anesthesia includes dilated fundus examination to rule out intraocular foreign body. Seidel test to rule out open globe injury. Ultrasonography. CT scan to rule out intraocular foreign body. Management: Observation. Prophylactic topical antibiotics for small lacerations. Surgical repair(suturing) may be required for large lacerations >2mm
Globe Rupture Globe rupture may occur when a blunt object impacts the orbit, causing anterior-posterior compression of the globe and raising intraocular pressure to a point that the sclera tears. Ruptures from blunt/penetrating trauma usually occur at the sites where the sclera is thinnest, at the insertions of the extraocular muscles, at the limbus, and around the optic nerve. Sharp objects or those traveling at high velocity may penetrate the globe directly. Small foreign bodies may penetrate the eye and remain within the globe. The possibility of globe rupture should be considered and ruled out during the evaluation of all blunt and penetrating orbital traumas as well as in all cases involving high-speed projectiles with potential for ocular penetration.
Globe Rupture Operating microscope view of a globe rupture secondary to blunt trauma by a fist. Notice the dark arc in the bottom of the photo representing the ciliary body visible through the scleral breach. Subconjunctival hemorrhage of this severity should raise suspicion of occult globe rupture
Penetrating / Ruptured Globe Ruptured globe caused by golf ball
Globe rupture in adults may occur after blunt/penetratinginjuries during motor vehicle accidents, sports activity, assault, or other trauma. Globe penetration or perforation may occur with gunshot and stab wounds, workplace accidents, and other accidents involving sharps or projectiles. Be particularly suspicious of eye injuries caused by metal striking metal (eg, hammer and chisel). One third of eye injuries occurring in children and adolescents (<16 y) are sports related.
Symptoms Pain Pain may be difficult to assess in patients with obtundation or distracting injuries. Pain may not be severe initially in sharp injuries, with or without intraocular foreign body. Vision - Usually greatly decreased Diplopia If present, diplopia is usually due to entrapment and dysfunction of extraocular muscles with associated orbital floor blowout fractures. Diplopia may be due to traumatic cranial nerve palsy from associated head injury. Monocular diplopia may be due to associated lens dislocation or subluxation.
Physical examination Globe rupture may be immediately apparent on examination but is frequently occult, as the most frequent sites of rupture are not easily visualized and more superficial injuries may block examination of the posterior segment. Examination of the injured eye should proceed systematically but always with the goal of identifying and protecting a ruptured globe. It is critical to avoid putting pressure on a ruptured globe to minimize potential extrusion of intraocular contents and to avoid further damage. Visual acuity and eye movement Visual acuity should be documented as accurately as possible for the injured and uninjured eye, even if it is limited to "counts fingers at 18 inches" or "light perception only.”
Orbits should be examined for bony deformity, foreign body, and globe displacement. Orbital foreign bodies that may have impaled or perforated the globe should be left undisturbed until surgery. A ruptured globe may present with enophthalmos (recession of the globe within the orbit). An associated retrobulbar hemorrhage may cause exophthalmos, even with an occult scleral rupture. Eyelid Eyelid and lacrimal injuries should be evaluated with the major goal of identifying and protecting possible deep injuries to the globe. Lid repairs should not proceed until globe injury is ruled out. Conjunctival lacerations may overlie more serious scleral injuries. Severe conjunctival hemorrhage (often covering 360 degrees of bulbar conjunctiva) may indicate globe rupture.
Cornea and sclera A full-thickness laceration to the cornea or sclera constitutes a globe perforation, and it should be repaired in the operating room. Prolapse of the iris through a full-thickness corneal laceration may be visible as a dark discoloration at the site of injury. Intraocular pressure will likely be low, but measurement is contraindicated to avoid pressure on the globe. Pupils should be examined for shape, size, light reflex, A peaked, teardrop-shaped, or otherwise irregular pupil may indicate globe rupture. Slit lamp examination in the cooperative patient may show associated injuries such as iris transillumination defect (red reflex obscured by vitreous hemorrhage); corneal lacerations; iris prolapse; hyphema from ciliary body disruption; and lens injuries, including dislocation or subluxation. A shallow anterior chamber may be the only sign of occult globe rupture and is associated with a worse prognosis. A posterior rupture may present with a deeper anterior chamber due to extrusion of vitreous from the posterior segment. Vitreous hemorrhage after trauma suggests retinal or choroidal tear, optic nerve avulsion, or foreign body. Retinal tears, edema, detachments, and hemorrhage may accompany globe rupture.
treatment Prehospital Care A suspected or obvious ruptured globe should be protected from any pressure or inadvertent contact with a rigid shield during transport. Impaled foreign bodies should be left undisturbed. Emergency Department Care Avoid all pressure on or around the injured eye to prevent extrusion of intraocular contents. Continue to protect the eye with a rigid shield. If a shield is not available, the bottom of a cup works well. Administer analgesics as indicated. Administer prophylactic antibiotics, ideally within 6 hours of the injury, to prevent endophthalmitis. This potentially devastating complication occurs in about 5% of penetrating trauma cases and in as many as 10% of trauma cases from a foreign body. Skin organisms, such as Streptococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis are most frequently involved
Prophylactic systemic antibiotics are indicated in all cases of globe rupture. The risk of posttraumatic endophthalmitis is greatest when a penetrating injury exists, particularly with a retained intraorbital foreign body. Skin flora are the most common organisms, but contamination with soil, farm or animal flora, human saliva, or nonsterile water may introduce gram-negative organisms, anaerobes, and fungi. Cefazolin-First-generation semisynthetic cephalosporin that by binding to 1 or more penicillin-binding proteins arrests bacterial cell wall synthesis and inhibits bacterial replication. Ciprofloxacin -Provides excellent coverage against staphylococcal organisms and Pseudomonas, but it is not a good antibiotic for streptococci or anaerobes. Has excellent penetration of the eye in IV form. Anaerobic coverage can be achieved with addition of clindamycin, which also covers streptococci, except for enterococci.
Intra ocular foreign bodies(IOFB) The seriousness of the injury depends upon the retention of the intraocular frreign body Common foreign bodies maybe chips of iron or steel,particles of glass,stone,lead pellets,wood chips,plastic The symptoms of a foreign body may range from irritation to intense, excruciating pain. This is dependent on the location, material, and type of injury. Mild to extreme irritation Scratching Burning Soreness Intense pain Redness Tearing Light sensitivity Decreased vision Difficulty opening the eye
Conjunctival Foreign Bodies
Corneal foreignBodies Rust ring Corneal foreign body with rust ring
Anterior chamber:the IOFB usually sinks to the bottom and may be concealed at the angle of the anterior chamber.It is usually seen using a gonoscope. Treatment: A corneal incision is mad directed towards the foreign body.it is usually nade 3mm internal to the limbus and in the quadrant of the cornea lying over it. Magnetic IOFB is removed using a magnet. Non magnetic IOFb are removed using a needle or forceps.
Foreign body entangled in the iris tissue (magnetic and non magnetic) is removed By performing sector iridectomy of the part Containing the FB.
Foreign body in lens: An extra capsular cataract extraction with intra ocular lens implantation should be performed.The foreign body should be removed along with the lens or maybe removed with the help of forceps
Foreign body in vitreous and retina: Magnetic removal :This technique is used to rmove magnetic foreign bodies that can be well localized and removed using a powerful magnet without causing much intra ocular damage. Intravitreal foreign bodyis removed using pars plana sclerotomy.An incision is made 5mm from the limbus,a preplaced suture is made and the lips of the wound are retracted.using a powerful hand held electro magnet the foreign object is removed,and the incision is sutured . Intra retinal foreign body:The site of incision is made as close to the FB as possible.A scleral flap is created,the choroid is incised and the FB is removed using forceps. Non Magnetic Foreign bodies:Pars Plana viterectomy is usually performed.In this method the FB is removed using a vitreous forceps after performing a 3 pore pars plana viterectomy under direct visualization using an operating microscope.