Au Psy492 M7 A2 Newsom B

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Module 7 Assignment 2

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  • Unfortunately, I do not have a microphone for my computer, so I will be narrating this in the notes.
  • In discussion about Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), I felt that it was important to mention my twenty years of service in the military. There has been a rise in the number of cases of PTSD. I wanted to see if there was a specific reason for this, psychological, physical or otherwise. The problem has been around since war was invented.
  • Defining the disorder was the first order of business. Although, PTSD is noted in both children and adults. Armed conflict seems to really up the ante for those experiencing this disorder. Front line combat is one of the leading causes, no one hears about the person with the desk job suffering from PTSD over a stapler. The personnel who are experience explosions, physical combat and returning fire are prone to be affected. The long hours of not knowing or waiting just twist the psyche in manners not meant to be.
  • Illustrating the most common occurrences helps people associate the key factors that aide in development of this disorder. Personally, I have been shot at and there is really no words to explain the phenomenon and the after thoughts. I remember sitting on watch at 2:00 in the morning and hearing the explosion just twenty five feet away and feeling the shrapnel hit the hull of the ship. Initially, the first response is fight or flight. The ship responds and no one was injured. After the moment has passed, the mind wanders to what if I had been hear or there and if someone could have been injured. The psychological churning is really amazing.
  • Pictures to illustrate what soldiers face on the front lines everyday in conflict.
  • Pictures to illustrate what soldiers face on the front lines everyday in conflict.
  • Pictures to illustrate what soldiers face on the front lines everyday in conflict.
  • Vietnam has been on record as one of the most atrocious conflicts in history. Medical professionals are still finding cases of PTSD that have remained untreated for years. The whole extent of this conflict and other conflicts may never really be known.
  • Pictures to illustrate what soldiers face on the front lines everyday in conflict.
  • Current veterans and active duty attempt to explain the problems with close combat. It is hard to explain to another the effects and fro counselors it is hard to see the extent without being placed within a similar scenario. Urban and jungle warfare seem to be the hardest on the human mind. No one can see 360 degrees at all times, but in war there seems to be activity everywhere. Not knowing is one of the most difficult feeling to get over, everyone wants to be prepared.
  • There are several common themes in the combat related PTSD. Identifying these themes in the service members can help health professionals in obtaining adequate treatment as soon as possible. The longer a person waits the more damage occurs within the individual.
  • There is new research that has identified common physical symptoms that may provide a link to the disorder and treatment. Fraud is still a problem within the veterans affairs system. MMPI has stood up to the test I identifying people who are claiming to have PTSD, without actually having the disorder.
  • Long talks have been in congress discussing whether PTSD is a valid point to retire a person. The answer is no, people can continue to live a productive life.
  • Information supports the diagnosis, treatment and release of personnel suffering from this disorder. The military continues to develop new strategies to deal with this problem and steps to prevent the experience. Proof positive in the whole idea of unmanned missions and combat. In the future the military fighting could just be a video game with no life's actually in combat.
  • Au Psy492 M7 A2 Newsom B

    1. 1. In serving over twenty years in the military, there seems to be a prevailing problem that is growing. The problem is post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in returning veterans. The reality of PTSD is not a new problem, but continues to be a prevalent issue. People joining the military come from several different backgrounds; some from farms and others from the city. Are there potential psychological issues that are associated with PTSD, are some people that are predisposed to contract this disorder. There is another difference that is noted between the current veteran and previous conflict veterans.
    2. 2. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is considered to be a very volatile anxiety disorder that has been prevalent since the first world war. The episodes are initiated by exposure to extraordinary stressful life events. (Bonwick & Morris, 1996). For example: World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam and both Persian Gulf Conflicts. These armed conflicts expose military personnel to front line combat. Experiences differ between each person, branch and location. Front line combat is one of the most arduous duties that a person can experience. Case in point, news stories surface about explosions and attacks on troops stationed around the world. The long term exposure to the uncertainty of daily routine develops deep in a person’s psychological subconscious.
    3. 3.  Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is considered to be a very volatile anxiety disorder that has been prevalent since the first world war. The episodes are initiated by exposure to extraordinary stressful life events. (Bonwick & Morris, 1996).  Front line combat is one of the most arduous duties that a person can experience. Case in point, news stories surface about explosions and attacks on troops stationed around the world. The long term exposure to the uncertainty of daily routine develops deep in a person’s psychological subconscious.
    4. 4.  World War II PTSD on the front lines
    5. 5.  Front line PTSD
    6. 6.  PTSD was a daily occurrence
    7. 7.  Day to day conflict, hard on the psyche
    8. 8.  The Vietnam conflict was one such event that continues to develop more people that suffer from PTSD. It is anticipated that up to 1.5 millions service members were in situations that can develop PTSD. Combat research later realized that the constant exposure to life threatening situations formed psychological problems within the troops. (Erlinder, 1983). The legal system is recognizing more cases than previously, but still the extent of the damage is unknown. PTSD has only recently received the acknowledgement that it deserves. Veterans of this conflict continue to suffer from the persecution from both citizens and the government. There is no clear cut formula to determine what specific exposure is tied to this condition.
    9. 9.  Front line PTSD
    10. 10.  Current events indicate the Persian Gulf Region Veterans have been exposed to similar combat situations to those in Vietnam. In some instances, the current service members indicate that the current occupation may be considered worse than those from Vietnam veterans. Urban or jungle warfare is similar in theory, but seems to illustrate different reactions from those who served. It is anticipated that nearly 18% of the service members who served within the confines of Iraq and Afghanistan are affected by PTSD. (Zelenova, Lazebnaia & Tarabrina, 2001). These are alarming numbers based on the numbers of troops in the region. The psychological treatments are more advanced than those of 30 years ago. The media is proof that the damage is building. Daily reports of ambushes and explosions riddle the air waves from the reports in the region. Improved explosive and munitions are forever engrained in the minds of those who are serving in country. The vehicle explosions are a daily reminder to those who serve.
    11. 11.  Examining all of the conflicts throughout history, one notices some similarities in the symptoms. All of the victims of PTSD share common threads. For example: World War, Vietnam and Gulf veterans experience combat situations on a daily basis. The gun rattling overhead, the explosions and fear drown out the calm reasoning of a person. Symptomatic nature of PTSD indicates that personnel suffering from this disorder tend to be very distant and closed natured. This is shared between all of the conflicts. Other symptoms that manifest are temper issues, worthless feelings, suicidal ideation, failing relationships and many other symptoms. (Pearce, Schauer, Garfield, Ohlde & Patterson, 1985). These symptoms appear to be unilateral, not specific to any conflict.
    12. 12.  There are some symptoms of a physical nature that seem to manifest themselves within the victims of PTSD. Symptoms include chronic pain, overly tired and injuries. (Otis, Keane & Kerns, 2003). A majority of the symptoms that have been associated with PTSD are actually symptoms from the injuries that were present when the service member was injured. Even with physical damage, some veterans develop PTSD without actual injury. Though not actually part of the PTSD they are often associated with the disorder.  New research has provided some key issues that are developing around PTSD diagnosis. The Department of Veterans Affairs conducted a study, to determine the validity of MMPI in determining if service members were feigning the symptoms. The results were favorable that the MMPI identified those personnel who were attempting to defraud the system. The study was conducted on two separate occasions to corroborate the data. On both instances the people were identified and removed from the pool of candidates. (Mecaffrey & Bellamy-Camprell, 1989).
    13. 13.  The larger problem in society at this juncture is whether a person suffering from PTSD should be medically retired or released from service. The answer is an overwhelming yes to releasing them from service, but no to medical retirement. The PTSD diagnosis is legitimate, but a majority of people suffering from PTSD can be treated. The treatment regime is long and arduous. Favorable results indicate that a person who suffers from PTSD can live a productive life and benefit their respective community. There are several outreach groups around the world whose whole purpose is to assist those who have been afflicted by PTSD. (Outram, Hansen, Macdonell, Cockburn & Adams, 2009). The programs are most not for profit or government funded and available to all of those who served.
    14. 14.  Current information corroborates the diagnosis of PTSD and the validity of this in returning veterans. (PTS Increases among Combat-Exposed Military Personnel, 2008). The service members have come from different backgrounds and seen multiple tours of duty. Veteran Affairs is there to assist the service member in transition to civilian life. (Shea-Porter, 2009). The branch of service is capable of finding and helping the members. The Post Traumatic Disorder will continue to be a problem as long as there are combat zones around the world. Personnel need to be trained in identifying the symptoms associated with PTSD, to provide early detection and treatment. Service member who exhibit the symptoms of PTSD should seek help. Current medical research continues to evolve, with new medications like Fluvomine showing promise. (Escalona, Canive, Calais & Davidson, 2002). The armed services continue to develop new strategies to deal with PTSD and training to prevent the initial experience. (Shea-Porter, 2009).
    15. 15. References:  (2008). Post-Traumatic Stress Increases Among Combat-Exposed Military Personnel. O&P Business News, 17(5), 84. Retrieved from SPORTDiscus with Full Text database.  Bonwick, R., & Morris, P. (1996). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Elderly War Veterans. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 11(12), 1071-1076. Retrieved from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database.  Erbes, C., Dikel, T., Eberly, R., Page, W., & Engdahl, B. (2006). A comparative study of posttraumatic stress disorder assessment under standard conditions and in the field. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 15(2), 57- 63. doi:10.1002/mpr.185.  Erlinder, C. (1983). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Vietnam Veterans and the Law: A Challenge to Effective Representation. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 1(3), 25-50. Retrieved from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database.  Escalona, R., Canive, J., Calais, L., & Davidson, J. (2002). Fluvoxamine treatment in veterans with combat-related post- traumatic stress disorder. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 15(1), 29-33. doi:10.1002/da.1082.  Koenigs, M., Huey, E., Raymont, V., Cheon, B., Solomon, J., Wassermann, E., et al. (2008). Focal brain damage protects against post-traumatic stress disorder in combat veterans. Nature Neuroscience, 11(2), 232-237. doi:10.1038/nn2032.  Mecaffrey, R., & Bellamy- Camprell, R. (1989). PSYCHOMETRIC DETECTION OF FABRICATED SYMPTOMS OF COMBAT-RELATED POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: A SYSTEMATIC REPLICATION. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45(1), 76-79. Retrieved from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database.  Otis, J., Keane, T., & Kerns, R. (2003). An Examination of the relationship between chronic pain and post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 40(5), 397-405. Retrieved from SPORTDiscus with Full Text database.  Outram, S., Hansen, V., Macdonell, G., Cockburn, J., & Adams, J. (2009). Still living in a war zone: Perceived health and wellbeing of partners of Vietnam veterans attending partners' support groups in New South Wales, Australia. Australian Psychologist, 44(2), 128-135. doi:10.1080/00050060802630353.  Pearce, K., Schauer, A., Garfield, N., Ohlde, C., & Patterson, T. (1985). A STUDY OF POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN VIETNAM VETERANS. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41(1), 9-14. Retrieved from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database.  Shea-Porter, C. (2009). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Government Initiatives to Relieve It. Health & Social Work, 34(3), 235-236. Retrieved from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database.  Zelenova, M., Lazebnaia, E., & Tarabrina, N. (2001). Psychological Characteristics of Post-traumatic Stress States in Afghan War Veterans. Journal of Russian & East European Psychology, 39(3), 3. Retrieved from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database.

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