Pitutary I
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Pitutary I

on

  • 679 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
679
Views on SlideShare
679
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Pitutary I Pitutary I Presentation Transcript

  • Introduced by: Dr/Abousree El-Lethy بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
    • Vitamins K and C
    Block: Head & Neck Structure and Function Biochemistry Lecture: Pitutary hormones
    • Objectives of pituitary hormones
    • Name the hormones synthesized in and secreted from anterior pituitary.
    • Name the hormones synthesized in and secreted from posterior pituitary.
    • Outline the chemical structure and list the main functions of anterior pituitary hormones.
    • Outline the chemical structure and list the main functions of posterior pituitary hormones.
    • The anterior pituitary synthesizes and secretes important endocrine hormones, such as:
    • 1-ACTH: adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • It is a peptide of 39 amino acids
    • Function: ACTH stimulate adrenal cortex to produce:
    • Glucocorticoids, like cortisol
    • Mineralocorticoids, like aldosterone
    • Androgens (male sex hormones, like testosterone
    • Stimulates the adrenal cortex to synthesize a precursor of estrogen called dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
    • 2- TSH: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (thyrotropin).
    • A glycoprotein , with two polypeptide chain (alpha & beta)
    • Function:
    • TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxine (T4).
    • It does this by binding to transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on the surface of the cells of the thyroid.
    • 3- PRL: Prolactin
    • Prolactin is a protein of 198 amino acids.
    • Function:
    • During pregnancy: it helps in the preparation of the breasts for future milk production.
    • After birth: It promotes the synthesis of milk.
    • 4- GH: growth hormone (somatotropin)
    • It is a protein of 191 amino acids
    • Function:
    • GH promotes body growth by:
    • Binding to receptors on the surface of liver cells
    • Then stimulates them to release insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; also known as somatomedin )
    • IGF-1 acts directly on the ends of the long bones promoting their growth
    • 5-FSH: Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
    • A glycoprotein of two polypeptide chain (alpha & beta)
    • Function:
    • In mature females, FSH (assisted by LH) acts on the follicle to stimulate it to release estrogens.
    • In mature males, FSH acts on spermatogonia stimulating (with the aid of testosterone) the production of sperm
    • 6- LH: Luteinizing Hormone
    • It also a heterodimeric glycoprotein consisting of two polypeptide chain (alpha & beta)
    • Function:
    • In females (Ovulation): Stimulates the now-empty follicle to develop into the corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone during the latter half of the menstrual cycle.
    • In males: stimulating testes to synthesize and secrete the male sex hormone, testosterone.
    • 7- Alpha Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone
    • It is a protein of 13 amino acids
    • Function:
    • Effect on melanocytes: skin cells that contain the black pigment
    • Posterior pituitary hormones
    • 1- Vasopressin
    • Vasopressin is a peptide of 9 amino acids (Cys-Tyr-Phe-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Arg-Gly).
    • It is also known as arginine vasopressin (AVP) and the antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
    • Function:
    • it acts to reduce the volume of urine formed (giving it its name of antidiuretic hormone).
    • Oxytocin
    • It is a peptide of 9 amino acids (Cys-Tyr-Ile-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Leu-Gly). Function:
    • It acts on certain smooth muscles:
    • Stimulating contractions of the uterus at the time of birth;
    • Stimulating release of milk when the baby begins to suckle.
    • Oxytocin is often given to prospective mothers to hasten birth.