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Composition Of Saliva 2010
 

Composition Of Saliva 2010

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    Composition Of Saliva 2010 Composition Of Saliva 2010 Presentation Transcript

    • Biochemistry of saliva
      • Objectives
      • Describe the composition of saliva
      • Mention its functions
      Dr/ Ragaa Salama
    • Clinical Highlights
      • Understanding of salivary mechanisms prerequisite for
        • effective treatment of salivary gland dysfunctions
        • modulation of bacterial colonization
        • development of artificial saliva
      Dr/ Ragaa Salama
    • Saliva Definition : Secretions of salivary glands (parotid and submandibular/sublingual) Composition of Saliva : 4 major components 1-mucus that serves as a lubricant. 2-amylase ->initiates the digestion of starch. 3-lingual lipase -> begins digestion of fat. 4-electrolyte solution (Na+,Cl - , K+, HCO3 - -> moistens food. 5-proteins& enzymes: Statherins, Proline-rich Proteins (PRPs), Histatins, Cystatins, Lysozyme, Salivary peroxidase Dr/ Ragaa Salama
      • saliva is hypotonic to plasma
      • -Na+ and Cl- ↓ in saliva than plasma
      • -K+ and HCO3- ↑in saliva than in plasma.
      • - pH changes from being slightly acidic (pH 6-7 ,at rest) to basic (pH 8) at ultimate stimulation ↑ ↑ HCO3- in the saliva
      • -Amylase and mucus also increase in concentration after stimulation.
      Dr/ Ragaa Salama
    • functions of saliva Dr/ Ragaa Salama Salivary Families Anti- Bacterial Buffering Digestion Mineral- ization Lubricat- ion &Visco- elasticity Tissue Coating Anti- Fungal Anti- Viral Carbonic anhydrases, Histatins Amylases, Mucins, Lipase Cystatins, Histatins, Proline- rich proteins, Statherins Mucins, Statherins Amylases, Cystatins, Mucins, Proline-rich proteins, Statherins Histatins Cystatins, Mucins Amylases, Cystatins, Histatins, Mucins, Peroxidases
    • Mucin Functions
      • Tissue Coating
        • Protective coating about hard and soft tissues
        • Primary role in formation of acquired pellicle
        • Concentrates anti-microbial molecules at mucosal interface
      • Lubrication
        • Increases lubricating qualities (film strength)
      • Aggregation of bacterial cells
        • Bacterial adhere to mucins may result in surface attachment, or
        • Mucin-coated bacteria may be unable to attach to surface
      • Bacterial adhesion
        • React with bacterial adhesins, thereby blocking them
      Dr/ Ragaa Salama
    • Amylases
      • digestive function
      • Hydrolyzes starches -> amylose ,amylopectin,Maltose ,glucose,
      • in tears, serum, bronchial, and male and female urogenital secretions
      • role in modulating bacterial adherence
      Dr/ Ragaa Salama
    • Lingual Lipase
      • Secreted by von Ebner’s glands of tongue
      • Involved in first phase of fat digestion
      • Hydrolyzes medium- to long-chain triglycerides
      • Important in digestion of milk fat in new-born
      • highly hydrophobic enters fat globules
      Dr/ Ragaa Salama
    • Statherins
      • Produced by acinar cells in salivary glands
      • Statherins prevent precipitation or crystallization of supersaturated calcium phosphate in ductal saliva and oral fluid
      • Lubricant.
      Dr/ Ragaa Salama
    • Proline-rich Proteins (PRPs)
      • Inhibitors of calcium phosphate crystal growth
      • Present in the initially formed enamel pellicle and in “mature” pellicles
      • Acquired enamel pellicle is 0.1-1.0 µm thick layer of macromolecular material on the dental mineral surface
      Dr/ Ragaa Salama
    • Histatins
      • A group of small histidine-rich proteins
      • Potent inhibitors of Candida albicans growth
      Dr/ Ragaa Salama Cystatins
      • Are inhibitors of cysteine-proteases
      • protective against unwanted proteolysis (bacterial proteases, lysed leukocytes)
      • inhibit proteases in periodontal tissues
      • effect on calcium phosphate precipitation
    • Lysozyme ( LZ )
      • Present in numerous organs and most body fluids
      • Oral LZ is derived from at least four sources
        • major and minor salivary glands, phagocytic cells and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF)
      • Biological function
      • anti-microbial activity by:
      • Inhibition of bacterial adhesion to tooth surfaces
      • Inhibition of glucose uptake and acid production
      • Muramidase activity (lysis of peptidoglycan layer)
      Dr/ Ragaa Salama
    • Salivary peroxidase systems
      • Sialoperoxidase (SP, salivary peroxidase)
        • Readily adsorbed to various surfaces of mouth
          • enamel, salivary sediment, bacteria, dental plaque
      • Myeloperoxidase (MP)
        • From leukocytes entering via gingival crevice
        • 15-20% of total peroxidase in whole saliva
      Dr/ Ragaa Salama
    • Regulation of oral microorganisms by SP/MP Dr/ Ragaa Salama Food Ingestion carbohydrates Stimulation Metabolism H + Recovery O 2 thiols Inhibition Salivary Glands SCN - + H 2 O 2 OSCN - /HOSCN Autoinhibition spontaneous +SP Unstimulated bacteria Inhibited bacteria Active bacteria
    • Other anti-microbial activities of LZ
      • Muramidase activity (lysis of peptidoglycan layer)
      • Cationic-dependent activation of bacterial autolysins
      • Aggregation of bacteria
      • Inhibition of bacterial adhesion to tooth surfaces
      • Inhibition of glucose uptake and acid production
      Dr/ Ragaa Salama
    • Anti-microbial activities of saliva Dr/ Ragaa Salama
      • thiocyanate ions and another
      • is several proteolytic enzymes— most important,
      • lysozyme— that (a) attack the bacteria, (b) aid the thiocyanate
      • ions in entering the bacteria where these ions
      • in turn become bactericidal, and (c) digest food particles,
      • thus helping further to remove the bacterial metabolic
      • support.
      • protein antibodies that can destroy oral bacteria
      Dr/ Ragaa Salama