Acute inflamation


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Acute inflamation

  1. 1. Submitted to:- Dr. B. P. Joshi Professor Dept. of vet. Pathology, Anand Submitted by:- Undhad Vishal M.V.Sc.(scholar) Dept. of vet. Pathology
  2. 2. Inflammation Definition= “Complex reaction to injurious agents such as microbes and damaged, usually necrotic, cells that consists of vascular responses, migration and activation of leukocyte and systemic reactions” The nomenclature of inflammation tissue name + suffix “-itis” e.g.- Pancreatitis, meningitis, pericarditis, arthritis
  3. 3. Advantages Eliminate the initial cause of cell injury (ex. microbes..) as well as the necrotic cells.  Helps heal and repair the sites of injury.  Dilution of toxins - Allowing them to be carried away in the lymphatics  Entry of Antibodies - Increase vascular permability allows antibodies to circulate and neutralise toxins  Transport of drugs - to sites where bacteria are multiplying 
  4. 4. Disadvantages    Digestion of normal tissue - Enzymes digest normal tissue leading to their unnecessary destruction Swelling - In confined areas Inappropriate inflammatory response - allergic reactions - toxic shock syndrome - chronic disease like atherosclerosis & lung fibrosis
  5. 5. Cardinal signs of inflammation Calor Calor rubor tomor dolor Functio-laesa
  6. 6. Types of inflammation i. Acute ii. Chronic Acute inflammation It is rapid, short duration for few minutes to few days & main characteristics are exudation of fluid, plasma proteins & emigration of leukocyte mainly neutrophils Main events: • Vascular changes • Cellular response both are activated by mediators
  7. 7. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Changes in blood vessels Changes in the rate of flow Changes in the bloodstream Exudation of plasma Emigration of leukocytes Diapedesis of erythrocytes
  8. 8. I. Changes in the blood vessels a) Momentary constriction b) Vasodilation II. Changes in the rate of flow a) Increase vascular permeability  The loss of protein from plasma reduce intravascular osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid.  Together with increase hydrostatic pressure due to Vasodilation they cause a marked outflow of fluid & its accumulation in the interstitial tissue
  9. 9. Estimation of increased vascular permeability I. II. Dye technique Colloidal carbon technique b) Slowing of circulation i. ii. iii. iv. This is achieved by Increasing capillary bed in area Swelling of endothelial cells Haemoconcentration Margination of leukocyte c) stasis
  10. 10. IV. Exudation of plasma Vascular changes and fluid leakage during acute inflammation lead to Edema in a process called Exudation Transudate •result of hydrostatic or osmotic imbalance •ultrafiltrate of plasma •Low protein content •specific gravity < 1.015 Exudate •result of inflammation •vascular permeability •high protein content •specific gravity >1.020
  11. 11. V. Emigration of leukocytes Acute inflammation involves: alteration of vascular caliber following very brief vasoconstriction (seconds), vasodilation leads to increased blood flow and blood pooling creating redness and warmth (rubor and calor) changes of microvasculature increased permeability for plasma proteins and cells creating swelling (tumor). Fluid loss leads to concentration of red blood cells and slowed blood flow (stasis) emigration of leukocytes from microcirculation due to stasis and activation leads migration towards offending agent
  12. 12. Acute Inflammation - Exudation aided by Endothelial cell contraction and Vasodilatation 1 3
  13. 13. VI. Diapedesis of erythrocytes Cellular events The sequence of events In journey of leukocyte from the lumen of blood vessels into extravascular space is called extravasation These events can be divided into 1. Margination 2. Adhesion 3. Emigration 4. Phagocytosis 5. Release of leukocyte product
  14. 14. Acute Inflammation – ***Cellular Reactions Leukocyte migration & Phagocytosis
  15. 15. Types Of Acute Inflammation I. Catarrhal or mucous inflammation II. Serous inflammation III.Fibrinous inflammation IV.Suppurative or purulent inflammation V. Haemorragic inflammation