Anatomy of larynx and trachea final

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Anatomy of larynx and trachea final

  1. 1. ANATOMY OF LARYNX AND TRACHEA DEPT OF OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY P I M S
  2. 2. DEVELOPMENT OF LARYNX Larynx develops from the tracheobroncheal groove which is ventral midline respiratory diverticulum of the foregut. Epiglottis and the Thyroid cartilage develop from the fourth branchial arch.
  3. 3. SITUATION OF LARYNX Situated in midline of neck from the level of C-3 to C-6 vertebrae lying in front of laryngopharynx.
  4. 4. CONSTITUTION OF LARYNX Formed by a cartilaginous skeleton held together by ligaments. At puberty male larynx increases in size rapidly, and the thyroid cartilage projects to form the Adam’s apple.
  5. 5. CARTILAGES OF LARYNX
  6. 6. CARTILAGES OF LARYNX- EPIGLOTTIS Epiglottis-leaf shaped fibro elastic cartilage and projects behind the base of the tongue. The narrow lower border is attached by the thyro-epiglottic ligament to the posterior surface of thyroid alae below thyroid notch.
  7. 7. CARTILAGES OF LARYNX- THYROID CARTILAGE Largest cartilage of larynx with two wings or alae joined anteriorly in midline. Two alae form a right angle between them in male while in female the angle is obtuse. the alae project backwards and have superior and inferior cornu.
  8. 8. CARTILAGES OF LARYNX- CRICOID It is signet ring shaped with a broad lamina posteriorly and narrow arch in front. cricoid, thyroid and epiglottis are unpaired cartilages of larynx where as arytenoid,corniculate and cuneiform cartilages are paired.
  9. 9. CARTILAGES OF LARYNX- ARYTENOID Shaped like a pyramid Base participates in crico-arytenoid joint. Anterior vocal process gives attachment to vocal cord. The lateral mescular process provides attachment to the posterior and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles
  10. 10. CARTILAGES OF LARYNX- CORNICULATE & CUNEIFORM Corniculate are situated at the apex of the arytenoids cartilages. Cuneiform lie in the aryepiglottic folds, lateral to the Corniculate cartilages.
  11. 11. JOINTS AND LIGAMENTS Two synovial joints on either side1) Cricothyroid joint2) crico-arytenoid joint Intrinsic ligaments1) Quadrangular membrane2) Conus elasticus3) thyro-epiglottic ligament
  12. 12.  Extrinsic ligaments1)Thyrohyoid membrane2)Medial and lateral thyrohyoid ligament3)Cricothyroid membrane4)Cricotracheal membrane
  13. 13. MUSCLES OF LARYNX- INTRINSIC
  14. 14. INTRINSIC MUSCLES OF LARYNX AND THEIR ACTION Posterior crico-arytenoid- Abductor Lateral crico-arytenoid, inter arytenoid, thyro arytenoid, cricothyroid- Adductors Cricothyroid, vocalis and thyro-arytenoid- tensors and adductors Thyro-epiglottic-Opener of laryngeal inlet Interarytenoid, aryepiglottic- Closers of laryngeal inlet
  15. 15. EXTRINSIC MUSCLES Strap muscles Pharyngeal muscles including inferior constrictor muscle
  16. 16. CAVITY OF LARYNX EXTENT- from laryngeal inlet above to lower border of cricoid cartilage. Inlet of larynx communicates with laryngopharynx.
  17. 17. CAVITY OF LARYNX Divided into three parts by 2 folds of mucus membrane: False cords and True vocal cords Parts are Vestibule, ventricle and subglottic space Length of glottis is about 2.5cm in adult male and about 7-9mm in a child
  18. 18. HISTOLOGY OF LARYNX Mucous membrane lines the entire larynx. Stratified squamous epithelium lines true vocal cords and upper parts of vestibule. Columnar ciliated epithelium lines rest of the cavity. Mucous glands preset in all parts except on free edges of vocal cords
  19. 19. BLOOD SUPPLY OF LARYNX Superior thyroid artery Inferior thyroid artery Cricothyroid artery
  20. 20. NERVE SUPPLY OF LARYNX Superior laryngeal nerve-internal branch is sensory supplies larynx above the level of vocal cords and external branch supplies cricothyroid muscle. Recurrent laryngeal nerve-motor branch supplies all muscles of larynx except the cricothyroid and sensory branch supplies subglottis.
  21. 21. LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE SUPRAGLOTTIS-pre-epiglottic and upper deep cervical nodes. GLOTTIS-Lymphatics are practically absent SUBGLOTTIS-prelaryngeal and pretracheal nodes also lower deep cervical nodes
  22. 22. LARYNGEAL SPACES PRE-EPIGLOTTIC SPACE PARAGLOTTIC SPACE REINKE’S SPACE
  23. 23. ANATOMY OF TRACHEA- DEVELOPMENT Tracheobronchial tree develops from median tracheobronchial groove.
  24. 24. ANATOMY OF TRACHEA Tube made up of cartilage and membrane and measures approx 10-11cm in adult Extends from C-6 to T-5 There are 16-20 incomplete cartilaginous rings. In neck 6-7 rings are present.
  25. 25. BLOOD SUPPLY Mainly by inferior thyroid artery
  26. 26. NERVE SUPPLY Vegus, recurrent laryngeal nerve and sympathetic trunk
  27. 27. LYMPHATICS Pretracheal and paratracheal lymph nodes
  28. 28. FUNCTIONS OF TRACHEOBRONCHIAL TREE Respiration Protection to lungs Warming and moistening of inspired air phonation

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