• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Chapters 7 8
 

Chapters 7 8

on

  • 4,062 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
4,062
Views on SlideShare
4,054
Embed Views
8

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
69
Comments
0

1 Embed 8

http://www.slideshare.net 8

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Chapters 7 8 Chapters 7 8 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 7: Survey Research
  • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
    • Identify factors to consider when writing questions for interviews and questionnaires, including defining research objectives and question wording
    • Describe different ways to construct questionnaire responses, including closed-ended questions, open-ended questions, and rating scales
    • Describe the ways that samples are evaluated for potential bias, including sampling frame and response rate
  • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
    • Compare the two ways to administer surveys: written questionnaire and oral interviews
    • Define interviewer bias
    • Describe a panel study
    • Describe simple random sampling stratified random sampling, and cluster sampling
    • Describe haphazard sampling, purposive sampling, and quota sampling
  • WHY CONDUCT SURVEYS?
    • Provides a methodology for ask people to tell about themselves
    • Way to study relationships among variables and ways that attitudes and behaviors change over time
    • Important complement to experimental research findings
  • CONSTRUCTING QUESTIONS TO ASK
    • Must be tied to your research questions
    • Defining the Research Objectives
      • Attitudes and beliefs: should more money be spent on mental health issues
      • Facts and demographics: personal facts and characteristics
      • Behaviors: current or future behavior
  • CONSTRUCTING QUESTIONS TO ASK
    • Question Wording
      • Potential problems that stem from difficulty understanding the question:
        • Vague or imprecise terms
        • Grammatical sentence structure
          • Phrasing that overloads working memory
          • Embedding the question within misleading information
  • Constructing Questions
    • Important considerations when writing questions:
      • Simplicity (avoid jargon, technical terms)
      • Double-barreled questions (asking two things at once)
      • Loaded questions (remove judgments, modifiers)
      • Negative wording (do you feel the city should not approve the shelter)
      • Yea-saying and nay-saying
  • RESPONSES TO QUESTIONS
    • Closed- Versus Open-Ended Questions
    • Number of Response Alternatives
    • Rating Scales
      • Graphic rating scale
      • Semantic differential scale
      • Nonverbal scale for children   
    • Labeling Response Alternatives
  • Finalizing the Questionnaire
    • Formatting the Questionnaire
      • Should appear attractive and professional
      • Neatly typed and free from errors
      • Use point scales consistently (*)
    • Refining Questions
      • Pilot questions with others
  • ADMINISTERING SURVEYS
    • Questionnaires
      • Personal administration to groups or individuals
      • Mail surveys
      • Internet surveys
      • Other technologies
        • “ Computerized experience-sampling”
  • ADMINISTERING SURVEYS
    • Interviews
      • Face-to-face interviews
      • Telephone interviews
      • Focus group interviews
      • Problem: Interviewer bias
        • Showing approval disapproval of responses
        • Interviewer expectations
  • Survey Designs to Study Change over Time
    • Questions Are the Same Each Time Surveyed
    • Tracks Changes Over Time
    • Panel Study
      • “ Two wave”
      • “ Three wave”
  • SAMPLING FROM A POPULATION
    • Sample Size
      • A larger sample size reduces the size of the confidence interval
    • Two basic techniques for sampling
      • Probability Sampling
        • Each member of the population has a specifiable probability/chance of being chosen
      • Nonprobability sampling
        • Unknown probability/chance of any member being chosen
  • SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
    • Probability sampling
      • Simple random sampling – equal probability
      • Stratified random sampling – divided into subgroups (strata) and random samples are taken from each strata
      • Cluster sampling – identify clusters and sample from three clusters
  • SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
    • Nonprobability Sampling
      • Haphazard sampling – convenience sampling
      • Purposive sampling – sample meets predetermined criterion
      • Quota sampling – sample reflects the numerical composition of various subgroups in the population
  •  
  •  
  • EVALUATING SAMPLES
    • Representative of the population
    • Sampling Frame
      • Actual population from which the sample is drawn
      • Be aware of participant that will be excluded
    • Response Rate
      • - % of respondents who complete
    • Reasons for Using Convenience Samples
      • Less costly
      • Can be representative
  • Chapter 8: Experimental Design
  • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
    • Describe the relationship between a confounding variable and the internal validity of an experiment
    • Describe the post-test only design and the pretest-posttest design, including the advantages and disadvantages of each design
    • Contrast and independent groups design with a repeated measures design
    • Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of using a repeated measures design
    • Describe a matched pairs design, including reasons to use this design
  • CONFOUNDING AND INTERNAL VALIDITY
    • Confounding Variable: confounding occurs when the effects of the independent variable and an uncontrolled variable are intertwined so one cannot determine which is responsible for the effect
  • BASIC EXPERIMENTS
    • Posttest-Only Design
    • Obtain two equivalent groups of participants
      • Selection differences
    • Introduce the independent variable
    • Measure the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable
    • Pretest-Posttest Design
    • A pretest is given before the experimental manipulation is introduced to make sure groups are equivalent at the beginning of the experiment
  • POSTTEST-ONLY DESIGN
  • Pretest-Posttest Design
    • Advantages
    • Mortality (dropout factor)
    • Assess equivalency of groups with small sample size
    • Can use to select participants for the experiment
    • Disadvantages
    • Time consuming and awkward to administer
    • Sensitize participants to what is being studied
      • Demand characteristics
      • Reduces external validity
  • ASSIGNING PARTICIPANTS EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS
    • Independent Groups Design
      • Participants participate in only one group
    • Repeated Measures Design
      • Participants Are in All Conditions
  • REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN
    • Advantages and Disadvantages of Repeated Measures Design
      • Advantages
        • Fewer participants
        • Extremely sensitive to statistical differences
        • Conditions are identical because person is own control group
      • Disadvantages
        • - Practice effect
        • - Fatigue effect
        • - Contrast effect