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Chapters 7 8

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    • 1. Chapter 7: Survey Research
    • 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • Identify factors to consider when writing questions for interviews and questionnaires, including defining research objectives and question wording
      • Describe different ways to construct questionnaire responses, including closed-ended questions, open-ended questions, and rating scales
      • Describe the ways that samples are evaluated for potential bias, including sampling frame and response rate
    • 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • Compare the two ways to administer surveys: written questionnaire and oral interviews
      • Define interviewer bias
      • Describe a panel study
      • Describe simple random sampling stratified random sampling, and cluster sampling
      • Describe haphazard sampling, purposive sampling, and quota sampling
    • 4. WHY CONDUCT SURVEYS?
      • Provides a methodology for ask people to tell about themselves
      • Way to study relationships among variables and ways that attitudes and behaviors change over time
      • Important complement to experimental research findings
    • 5. CONSTRUCTING QUESTIONS TO ASK
      • Must be tied to your research questions
      • Defining the Research Objectives
        • Attitudes and beliefs: should more money be spent on mental health issues
        • Facts and demographics: personal facts and characteristics
        • Behaviors: current or future behavior
    • 6. CONSTRUCTING QUESTIONS TO ASK
      • Question Wording
        • Potential problems that stem from difficulty understanding the question:
          • Vague or imprecise terms
          • Grammatical sentence structure
            • Phrasing that overloads working memory
            • Embedding the question within misleading information
    • 7. Constructing Questions
      • Important considerations when writing questions:
        • Simplicity (avoid jargon, technical terms)
        • Double-barreled questions (asking two things at once)
        • Loaded questions (remove judgments, modifiers)
        • Negative wording (do you feel the city should not approve the shelter)
        • Yea-saying and nay-saying
    • 8. RESPONSES TO QUESTIONS
      • Closed- Versus Open-Ended Questions
      • Number of Response Alternatives
      • Rating Scales
        • Graphic rating scale
        • Semantic differential scale
        • Nonverbal scale for children   
      • Labeling Response Alternatives
    • 9. Finalizing the Questionnaire
      • Formatting the Questionnaire
        • Should appear attractive and professional
        • Neatly typed and free from errors
        • Use point scales consistently (*)
      • Refining Questions
        • Pilot questions with others
    • 10. ADMINISTERING SURVEYS
      • Questionnaires
        • Personal administration to groups or individuals
        • Mail surveys
        • Internet surveys
        • Other technologies
          • “ Computerized experience-sampling”
    • 11. ADMINISTERING SURVEYS
      • Interviews
        • Face-to-face interviews
        • Telephone interviews
        • Focus group interviews
        • Problem: Interviewer bias
          • Showing approval disapproval of responses
          • Interviewer expectations
    • 12. Survey Designs to Study Change over Time
      • Questions Are the Same Each Time Surveyed
      • Tracks Changes Over Time
      • Panel Study
        • “ Two wave”
        • “ Three wave”
    • 13. SAMPLING FROM A POPULATION
      • Sample Size
        • A larger sample size reduces the size of the confidence interval
      • Two basic techniques for sampling
        • Probability Sampling
          • Each member of the population has a specifiable probability/chance of being chosen
        • Nonprobability sampling
          • Unknown probability/chance of any member being chosen
    • 14. SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
      • Probability sampling
        • Simple random sampling – equal probability
        • Stratified random sampling – divided into subgroups (strata) and random samples are taken from each strata
        • Cluster sampling – identify clusters and sample from three clusters
    • 15. SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
      • Nonprobability Sampling
        • Haphazard sampling – convenience sampling
        • Purposive sampling – sample meets predetermined criterion
        • Quota sampling – sample reflects the numerical composition of various subgroups in the population
    • 16.  
    • 17.  
    • 18. EVALUATING SAMPLES
      • Representative of the population
      • Sampling Frame
        • Actual population from which the sample is drawn
        • Be aware of participant that will be excluded
      • Response Rate
        • - % of respondents who complete
      • Reasons for Using Convenience Samples
        • Less costly
        • Can be representative
    • 19. Chapter 8: Experimental Design
    • 20. LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • Describe the relationship between a confounding variable and the internal validity of an experiment
      • Describe the post-test only design and the pretest-posttest design, including the advantages and disadvantages of each design
      • Contrast and independent groups design with a repeated measures design
      • Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of using a repeated measures design
      • Describe a matched pairs design, including reasons to use this design
    • 21. CONFOUNDING AND INTERNAL VALIDITY
      • Confounding Variable: confounding occurs when the effects of the independent variable and an uncontrolled variable are intertwined so one cannot determine which is responsible for the effect
    • 22. BASIC EXPERIMENTS
      • Posttest-Only Design
      • Obtain two equivalent groups of participants
        • Selection differences
      • Introduce the independent variable
      • Measure the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable
      • Pretest-Posttest Design
      • A pretest is given before the experimental manipulation is introduced to make sure groups are equivalent at the beginning of the experiment
    • 23. POSTTEST-ONLY DESIGN
    • 24. Pretest-Posttest Design
      • Advantages
      • Mortality (dropout factor)
      • Assess equivalency of groups with small sample size
      • Can use to select participants for the experiment
      • Disadvantages
      • Time consuming and awkward to administer
      • Sensitize participants to what is being studied
        • Demand characteristics
        • Reduces external validity
    • 25. ASSIGNING PARTICIPANTS EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS
      • Independent Groups Design
        • Participants participate in only one group
      • Repeated Measures Design
        • Participants Are in All Conditions
    • 26. REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN
      • Advantages and Disadvantages of Repeated Measures Design
        • Advantages
          • Fewer participants
          • Extremely sensitive to statistical differences
          • Conditions are identical because person is own control group
        • Disadvantages
          • - Practice effect
          • - Fatigue effect
          • - Contrast effect

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