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SUNFLOWER– Quality and Nutritional Characteristics by Dr V Ramasubba Reddy

SUNFLOWER– Quality and Nutritional Characteristics by Dr V Ramasubba Reddy
Retd Professor, ANGR Agrl UNIV
Rajendranagar, Hyderabad

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  • SUNFLOWER– Quality and Nutritional Characteristics V Ramasubba Reddy # 103 Dwarakamai Apt, Navodaya colony Retd Professor, ANGR Agrl UNIV Yellareddyguda, Hyderabad, 500073 Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030 +914023752023, +914023751859 PRODUCTION IN 2003 Sunflower production in India, during 2004-05, is about 1.58 million mt. SUNFLOWER MEAL Sunflower meal is obtained from sunflower seed after oil extraction. Depending on the extraction method, the meal may be expeller or solvent extracted. Solvent extracted meal can be obtained from expeller processed meal by further extraction of oil. The sunflower meal obtained from solvent extraction of expeller processed sunflower meal appears lumpy and cake type and is the material, the livestock feed manufacturers are familiar with. Sunflower meal obtained by solvent extraction of sunflower seed directly by improved technology appears as flake type. Nutritionally, both the types of meals are similar in nutritional characteristics and result in similar performance when included in livestock diets. The sunflower meal, flake type and cake type, are presented in Fig 1. Fig 1. Sunflower seed and meals Sunflower seed Sunflower meal – Sunflower meal – Flake Type Cake type The nutritional characteristics of sunflower meal and other protein ingredients are given in Table 1 to 4 and Fig 2 and 3. Sunflower meal is low in lysine and better in methionine than soybean meal. Methionine as % of essential amono acids is very high in sunflower meal than in other protein sources (Table 2, 3; Fig 2). Digestibility coefficients of amino acids particularly of methionine is high in sunflower meal than in other meals (Table 4, Fig 3).
  • Sunflower meal is low in energy and protein because the commercial processing methods do not dehull the seed for oil extraction. Sunflower meal is high in fibre. Inclusion of fibre higher than 3-5% in poultry diets depresses the performance of poultry. However, inclusion of sunflower at 48% in broiler starter diets and 43% in broiler finisher diets and 40% in layer diets as sole source of protein did not lower the performance. Higher inclusion levels limit the energy concentration of diets and as such, sunflower meal at high levels cannot be included in high energy diets particularly for broilers. The performance of broilers and layers on diets containing sunflower meal at high level in the diet is given in Table 5. These experiments were conducted at Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad in NATP Project. Table 1. Nutritional characteristics of Soya and other protein meals Feed Name / Description DM TDN- ME CP RUP NDF ADF Lignin Ash % IX Kcal % Digest% % % % % % /kg Canola seed 89.9 127 20.5 50 17.8 11.6 2.7 4.6 Canola Meal, mech. Extr 90.3 70 37.8 75 29.8 20.5 9.5 7.4 Cotton seeds, with lint 90.1 77 23.5 80 50.3 40.1 12.9 4.2 Cotton seed Hulls 89.0 34 6.2 50 85.0 64.9 22.5 2.8 Cotton seed Meal, sol, 90.5 66 2320 44.9 92 30.8 19.9 7.6 6.7 41% CP Peanut meal, solvent 92.3 75 2200 51.8 90 21.4 13.5 4.6 5.8 Safflower Meal, solvent 93.5 53 1193 29.0 75 53.8 39.1 14.5 4.7 SB Hulls 90.9 67 13.9 70 60.3 44.6 2.5 4.8 SB Meal, expellers 45% 89.6 89 2230 46.3 93 21.7 10.4 1.5 20.0 CP SB Meal, solvent, 44% CP 89.1 80 49.9 93 14.9 10.0 0.7 6.6 SB Meal, solvent 48% CP 89.5 81 2440 53.8 93 9.8 6.2 0.5 6.4 SB Seeds, whole 90.0 101 39.2 85 19.5 13.1 1.2 5.9 SB Seeds, whole roasted 91.0 99 3300 43.0 85 22.1 14.7 3.1 5.0 SF Meal, solvent 92.2 60 1543 28.4 90 40.3 30.0 9.5 7.7 SF seeds, whole 91.8 122 19.2 80 24.0 16.7 6.0 5.1
  • Table 2. Amino acid content of soya and other protein ingredients Feed Name / CP Arg Ile Lys Met Cys TSAA Thr Trp Val Description % %CP. %CP %CP %CP %CP %CP %CP %CP %CP Canola seed 20.5 7.01 3.83 5.62 1.87 2.54 4.41 4.42 1.46 4.73 Canola Meal, mech. Extr 37.8 7.01 3.83 5.62 1.87 2.54 4.41 4.42 1.46 4.73 Cotton seeds with lint 23.5 11.52 3.20 4.35 1.71 1.76 3.47 3.46 1.27 4.70 Cotton seed Hulls 6.2 11.42 3.39 4.66 1.83 1.62 3.45 3.81 1.42 5.00 Cotton seed Meal, solv, 41% CP 44.9 11.05 3.09 4.13 1.59 1.68 3.27 3.23 1.21 4.24 Peanut Meal, solvent 51.8 11.07 3.27 3.34 1.17 1.38 2.55 2.69 0.98 3.94 Safflower Meal, solvent 29.0 8.72 2.86 3.16 1.45 1.62 3.07 2.78 1.41 5.04 SB Hulls 13.9 5.18 3.86 6.27 1.16 1.76 2.92 3.60 1.08 4.56 SB Meal, expellers 45% CP 46.3 7.40 4.56 6.27 1.45 1.48 2.93 3.98 1.27 4.71 SB Meal, solvent, 44% CP 49.9 7.38 4.56 6.28 1.45 1.52 2.97 3.98 1.27 4.69 SB Meal, solvenet 48% CP 53.8 7.32 4.56 6.29 1.44 1.50 2.94 3.96 1.26 4.64 SB Seeds, whole 39.2 7.52 4.42 5.98 1.47 1.46 2.93 3.96 1.30 4.70 SB Seeds, whole roasted 43.0 6.79 4.22 5.98 1.40 1.44 2.84 3.80 1.13 4.59 SF Meal, solvent 28.4 8.18 4.09 3.56 2.29 1.77 4.06 3.72 1.19 4.95 SF seeds, whole 19.2 8.18 4.09 3.56 2.29 1.77 4.06 3.72 1.19 4.95 Table 2. Amino acid Composition 7 Lys Met TSAA Thr 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Canola CSM PNM Saf SBM SFM L y s M e t T S A T h r 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
  • Table 3. Lysine, methionine and methionine+cystine as per cent of critical amino acids (CEAA) in soya and other protein ingredients Feed Name / CP TEAA Lys Met Description % %CP %EAA %EAA Canola seed 20.5 42.56 13.20 4.39 Canola Meal, mech. Extracted 37.8 42.56 13.20 4.39 Cotton Whole seeds with lint 23.5 44.51 9.77 3.84 Cotton seed Hulls 6.2 47.68 9.77 3.84 Cotton seed Meal, solvent, 41% CP 44.9 42.55 9.71 3.74 Peanut Meal, solvent 51.8 40.13 8.32 2.92 Safflower Meal, solvent 29.0 39.01 8.10 3.72 SB Hulls 13.9 39.43 15.90 2.94 SB Meal, expellers 45% CP 46.3 45.47 13.79 3.19 SB Meal, solvent, 44% CP 49.9 45.43 13.82 3.19 SB Meal, solvenet 48% CP 53.8 45.30 13.89 3.18 SB Seeds, whole 39.2 44.51 13.44 3.30 SB Seeds, whole roasted 43.0 41.98 14.24 3.33 SF Meal, solvent 28.4 41.61 8.56 5.50 SF seeds, whole 19.2 41.61 8.56 5.50 F ig 3. Digestibility coefficients of amino acids % Arg Ile Lys Met Cys Thr Val 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Canola CSM PNM Soy SFM
  • Table 4. Digestibility coefficient of amino acids (NRC, 1994) Arg, % Ile, % Lys, % Met, % Cys, % Thr, % Val,% Canola meal 90 83 80 90 75 78 82 Cotton seed meal 87 75 67 73 73 71 78 Peanut meal 84 91 83 88 78 82 88 Sesame meal 92 92 88 94 82 87 91 Soybean meal 92 93 91 92 82 88 91 Sunflower meal 93 90 84 93 78 85 86 Table 5. Performance of broilers and layers on diets containing sunflower meal (SFM) Broiler Broiler Layers Starter Finisher 22.09 to 03.11-2001 23-10 to 15-01-2001 Cobb 100 males BV 300 Layers 1-42d; 24-40 wk (4 x 28d); Battery Cages 7b X 8/diet 4bX11 feed/diet Maize g/kg 490.200 543.500 500.000 SFM g/kg 480.000 430.000 400.000 L-lysine HCl g/kg 5.600 5.100 2.500 DL-methionine g/kg 1.200 0.900 DCP g/kg 13.000 11.000 5.000 LSP/Stone grit g/kg 7.000 7.000 90.000 Salt g/kg 3.000 2.500 2.500 Trace minerals g/kg 1.000 1.000 1.000 Vitamin AB2D3K g/kg 0.100 0.100 0.100 Vitamin B12 g/kg 0.100 0.100 0.100 Vitamin BE mix g/kg 0.100 0.100 Choline chloride 50% g/kg 0.500 0.500 Coccidiostat g/kg 0.500 0.500 Probiotic g/kg 0.500 0.500 Antioxidant g/kg 0.200 0.200 0.200 ME kcal/kg 2368 2471 2269 Protein % 17.75 16.78 15.32 Crude Fibre % 14.04 12.81 11.90 Calcium % 0.61 0.56 3.16 Nonphytin Phosphorus % 0.30 0.27 0.16 Lysine % 0.89 0.83 0.61 Methionine % 0.44 0.39 0.28 Methionine + cystine % 0.71 0.66 0.53
  • Table 5. Continued Broiler Broiler Layers Starter Finisher Weight gain g 1694 Feed intake g 3812 Feed/gain 2.25 Dressing % 74 Livability % 97 98 Body weight kg 1167 Egg Production % These experiments 93 Feed intake g/b/d were conducted at 115 Egg weight g Acharya N G Ranga 51.5 Feed/12 eggs kg Agricultural University, 1.50 Shell thickness mm Hyderabad in NATP 0.355 Albumen index Project. 0.093 Yolk index 0.410 Haugh unit score 84