Fao picture book on avian diseases


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Fao picture book on avian diseases

  2. 2. ContentsAcknowledgements iiIntroduction 1Anatomy of chicken 2Viral disease 3-41. Avian Influenza2. Fowl pox 53. Infectious Bronchitis 6-74. Gumboro 85. Marek`s Disease 9-116. New castle Disease 12-13Bacterial Disease 141. Fowl Cholera 142. Infectious Corzy 15Parasitic Disease 161. Coccidiosis (Eimeria necatrix) 171. Coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) 172. Heterakis 183. Ascarades 18
  3. 3. Produced by FAO ECTAD Southern Africa for training purposes.Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information productfor educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorizedwithout any prior written permission, provided the source is fullyacknowledged.AcknowledgementsECTAD Southern Africa acknowledges the contribution of thefollowing;• Dr. Jenica Lee, DVM from Ceva, Malaysia• Dr. Vincent Turblin DVM from Ceva Asia-Pacific• Paul Selleck, Research Scientist from Australian Animal Health Laboratory.• FAO ECTAD, Regional office for Asia and the PacificThese partners have made available their pictures to the collection aspresented in this training booklet.The financial contribution of USAID, SIDA and CIDA to the production and printing costs of the booklet are gratefully acknowledged.Design: C.K. Marketing, Gaborone, BotswanaPrinted by: Printing and Publishing Company Botswana PPCB©FAO 2010 ii
  4. 4. Introduction : This “Picture book on infectious poultry diseases’’ has been compiled as a training tool for extension personnel involved in avian disease awareness work. The specific objective of collecting pictures of differ- ent but clinically similar diseases was to support training of extension- ists and poultry owners in detecting Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) should it occur in the currently disease free southern African region. The booklet lists all diseases that could be mistaken on clinical appear- ance for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza. We promote the wide usage of this booklet and encourage users to give us feedback on its usefulness and provide us with suggestions for im- provement. The ECTAD Southern Africa team March 20101
  5. 5. Anatomy of Chicken www.freerangeeggs.co.uk www.homepage2.nifiy.com 2
  6. 6. VIRAL DISEASE 1. Avian Influenza (Orthomyxoviridae) Purple discoloration of wattles and combs with swelling caused by abormal accumulation of fluid. Swollen head, accumulation of liquid in eyelids and comb Pinpoint bleeding under the skin (mostly seen on feet and shanks) Bleeding into the ovaries3
  7. 7. Bleeding into the gizzard.Bleeding in the mucosa oftracheaBleeding in the muscle and inthe fat around the heart 4
  8. 8. 2. Fowl Pox (Poxviridae) Dry form: wart –like nodules on the skin (combs, face and wattles) Wet form : Cankers are imbedded in the membranes of the mouth, larynx and trachea. Wet form: Brown nodular le- sions in the mucosa membrane of larynx; when removed, an eroded area is left.5
  9. 9. 3. Infectious Bronchitis (Coronavirus) Respiratory signs: difficulty in breathing (open beak) and swelling of face.Marked drop in eggproduction and increasednumber of poor qualityeggs-soft shelled with waterycontent.Mild to moderate irritation ofrespiratory tract with swellingof trachea. 6
  10. 10. Swollen and pale kidneys with distended urinary tubes7
  11. 11. 4. Gumboro (Birnavirus)Bleeding into skeletal muscles,enlarged bursa of Fabricius.Swollen bursa of Fabricius(may be enlarged, of normalsize or reduced in size, de-pending on the stage)Bleeding and swollen bursa ofFabricius.Bleeding into skeletal muscleof leg. 8
  12. 12. 5. Marek’s Disease (Herpesvirus) Neurological form ( progressive paralysis): Paralysis (loss of muscle func- tion) of wings, characteristic dropping of limb. Twisted neck (torticollis) Lameness. Brachial plexus (nerve) is two or three times the normal thickness, swelling caused by fluid (oedema).9
  13. 13. Visceral form:Enlarged liver with diffusegrayish nodules formed byabnormal growth of tissue.Enlarged spleen with diffusegrayish discolorations Enlarged Normal size 10
  14. 14. Cutaneous form: Solid nodular lesions formed by abnormal growth of skin arround the feather follicles. Nodular skin lesions (abnormal growth of skin)11
  15. 15. 6. Newcastle Disease (Paramyxoviridae)Weakness (no lameness and nostiff neck).Pink eye and swollen eyelidswith abnormal accumulationof liquidFoamy discharge fromrespiratory tractFoamy nasal discharge,accumulation of liquid in thelungs. 12
  16. 16. Acute form: bleeding into the mucosa of the trachea. Bleeding throughout the intestine.13
  17. 17. Bacterial Disease 1. Fowl Cholera (Pasteurella) Blue coloration of wattles, swollen wattles and face. Yellow-brown pus accumulated in a swollen wattle Pus (whitish to yellow) accumulated in a hock joint. Pinpoint bleeding in the muscles of heart 14
  18. 18. 2. Infectious Coryza (Haemophilus) Watery swollen eyes and face, purulent nasal exudates. Eyelids stick together by mucous and exudates.15
  19. 19. Parasitic Disease1. coccidiosiseimeria necatrix :Intestine is distended twiceits diameter, bloody areas areclearly seen without openingthe intestine.Partially clotted blood in thesmall intestine.Intestine contains mucous,fresh blood and its membraneis widely covered with red tinyspots. 16
  20. 20. Eimeria tenella : Caeca distended with blood Large quantity of blood present in the caecal, the caecal walls are thickened. Tiny red spots scattered on caecal wall and bloody content.17
  21. 21. 2. HeterakisSmall white worms foundin the tip or blind ends ofthe caeca (female : 10-15 mm long ; male 7-13 mmlong)3. AscaridesAscarid worms (roundworms) in the largeintestine 18
  22. 22. Picture Book of Infectious Poultry Diseases March 2010 FAO ECTAD P.O Box 80598 Gaborone, Botswana Tel: +267 395 3100, Fax: +267 395 3104 www.fao-ectad-gaborone.org