The State Of Rdf In Drupal 7

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  • 1. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie The state of RDF in Drupal 7 - DrupalCon Paris 2009 Stéphane “scor” Corlosquet scorlosquet@gmail.com § Chapter 1 ! Copyright 2008 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved. www.deri.org
  • 2. Presentation outline Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! The current web ! The vision of the Semantic Web ! Semantic Web technologies ! Initiatives and projects " Data portability " Linking Open Data 2
  • 3. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie The current web 3
  • 4. Many web applications Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 4
  • 5. Many information silos Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie * Source: Pidgin Technologies, www.pidgintech.com 5
  • 6. Current Web Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! web pages " 20 billion public pages " 900 billion deep web pages " 62 links per page " = 55 trillion links in the full web http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2007/11/dimensions_of_t.php 6
  • 7. Current Web Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! web storage " 246 exabytes of data (246 billion GB) ! tra!c " 8 terabytes / s " 2 million emails / s http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2007/11/dimensions_of_t.php 7
  • 8. http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2007/11/dimensions_of_t.php Technology, The Movie eplace Humanity by 2100? Civilizations Are Creatures Current Web Machine (one billion from the one billion online PCs) as there transitors in an Itanium chip. The Machine is a super computer where each "transistor" is s on the Future of Science computer. A very rough estimate of the computing power of this Machine The Myth of Leapfrogging then is that it contains a billion times a billion, or one quintillion (10 ^ 18) e Rise and Fall of the Copy Digital Enterprise Researchservers have a billion processors, the transistors. Since only the newest Institute www.deri.ie Asymmetrical Technologies figure is probably an order of magnitude smaller. When we add the who is webchick? - Google Search http://www.google.com/search?q=who+is+webchick%3 o the Fires of Computation mostly text and links transistors for cell phones, handhelds, it calculates out to about 170 ! The Forever Book The Speed of Information quadrillion (10^17) transistors wired into the Machine Atom Versus Net Web Images Maps News Shopping Gmail more ! scorlosquet@gmail.com | My Noteboo e Computational Metaphor There are about 100 billion neurons in the human brain. Today the Machine Singularity Is Always Near has as 5 orders more transistors than you have neurons in your head. And Google xical Nature of Technology the Machine, unlike your brain, is doubling in power every couple of years at Advanced Search Immortal Technologies the minimum. who is webchick? Search Preferences Identity From What-is-Not The Futility of Prohibition In 2003 alone a total one quintillion transistors were produced, but not all of The Seventh Kingdom Web Results 1 - 10 of about 31,600 for who is we on the Change of Change them are wired up into the Machine. Many transistors made their way into r Transitions in Technology cameras, TVs, GPS units and the like, few of which are currently online. One Webchick wins best contributor at Google-O'Reilly Open Source ... Spons Major Transitions in Biology day they will be. Every chip will eventually connect to the web in some ption of being anonymous fashion. That would mean we would be adding as many transistors to the Please comment below if you've received help or have helped webchick help others as a way Innovations in the Method of demonstrating your congratulations. ... Who is Lookup Machine in a year as exist right now. on of the Scientific Method drupal.org/webchick-wins-best-contributor-open-source-awards - 115k - Global Who is Looku The Name of What We Do domain names and t If the Machine has 100 quadrillion transistors, how fast is it running? If we Cached - Similar pages - Note this Only One Machine www.who.is When Answers Are Cheap include spam, there are 196 billion emails sent every day. That's 2.2 million Brains of White Matter per second, or 2 megahertz. Every year 1trillion text messages are sent. Goodbye, World... :( | webchick.net Number of Species We Use That works out to 31,000 per second, or 31 kilohertz. Each day 14 billion I about poo'd myself when it read this in my RSS feed reader, then I realized, ohh yeah. Pffft, What Will Big Brains Do? instant messages are sent, at 162 kilohertz. The number of searches runs at webchick leave the drupal community, hahahaha. ... Cosmic Origins of Extropy webchick.net/goodbye-world - 34k - Cached - Similar pages - Note this 14 kilohertz. Links are clicked at the rate of 520,000 per second, or .5 Inventing Our Humanity ch for the Meaning of Tech megahertz. Uh. Holy crap... | webchick.net There are 20 billion visible, searchable web pages and another 900 billion However, I wonder what will happen when they find out what many of us have suspected for a RSS Feed dark, unsearchable, or deep web pages (for instance pages behind long time now: that webchick is just an alias, ... +My Yahoo! +NewsGator passwords or the kind of dynamic page that Amazon will produce when you webchick.net/node/34 - 26k - Cached - Similar pages - Note this +Rojo query it). The average number of links found on each searchable web page More results from webchick.net » +NewsBurst is 62. Assuming the same count for dynamic pages that means there's 55 +Google Reader trillion links in the full web. We could think of each link as a synapse -- a webchick.net - How popular is webchick.net? (://URLFAN) +Pluck webchick.net. Ranks 249086 out 1515000 sites Mentioned in 4 feeds ... sources +My AOL potential connection waiting to me made. There is roughly between 100 www.webchick.net groups.drupal.org www.chesnok.com www.garfieldtech.com ... +FeedLounge billion and 100 trillion synapses in the human brain, which puts the Machine +NetVibes www.urlfan.com/site/webchick_net/1442668.html - 12k - Cached - Similar pages - Note this in the same neighborhood as our brains. +BlogLines webchick webchick.org. Loading. DOT.ORG - The miscellaneous TLD for organizations that didn't fit anywhere ... WEBCHICK.ORG SPEAKS VALID XHTML. SUPPORT GOOD IDEAS. ... www.webchick.org/ - 31k - Cached - Similar pages - Note this 30/08/2007 13:42 Quicksketch + Webchick = Drupal Love | Rob Loach .Net webchick For those of you who have been living in a rock and don't know who ... The reason I 1 of 2 8
  • 9. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie The vision of the Semantic Web 9
  • 10. Giant Global Graph (2007) Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! Transition " WWW = content+links Tim Berners- Lee " GGG = WWW+relationships +descriptions ! Universal medium for data, information and knowledge exchange http://dig.csail.mit.edu/breadcrumbs/node/215 10
  • 11. The One machine Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! The One machine (Kevin Kelly, 2007) " 1.2 billion personal computers " 27 million data servers " 2.7 billion cell phones " 80 million wireless PDAs " 600 billion RFID tags in use http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2007/11/dimensions_of_t.php 11
  • 12. Evolution of the Web Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 12
  • 13. The Key Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Agree on standards Open your data http://www.flickr.com/photos/11437726@N08/2781739886/ 13
  • 14. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Semantic Web technologies 14
  • 15. Links Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! Let's give a meaning to the hyperlinks page1 -> user1 page1 -hasAuthor-> user1 page1 -> book1 page1 -isPartOf--> book1 page1 -> page24 page1 -refersTo--> page24 page1 -> Cats page1 -isAbout---> Cats triple: subject -property-> object 15
  • 16. Graph Model - RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 16
  • 17. Graph Model - RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 17
  • 18. Resources on the Semantic Web Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! Internet of Things " URI: Uniform Resource Identifier " http://dbpedia.org/resource/Apple " http://dbpedia.org/resource/Apple_Inc " http://dbpedia.org/resource/Apple_River " http://dbpedia.org/resource/Apple_(band) " http://dbpedia.org/resource/Apple_(album) " URIs should be dereferenceable 18
  • 19. RDF - Describe your data Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! Various RDF formats " RDF is not XML! XML is one of the ways to write RDF data, ie. it's a language/syntax " RDF/XML " N-triple " Turtle " RDFa ! shortcut notation for URIs: CURIE (Compact URI) " prefix:id – example: foaf:knows, sioc:User, etc. 19
  • 20. RDF - Describe your data Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! Various languages " scor knows danbri (English) " scor connait danbri (French) " scor danbri (drawing) ! One meaning in RDF " scor foaf:knows danbri scor scor foaf:knows foaf:knows danbri walkah 20
  • 21. RDF - Vocabularies Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! Semantic links are categorized in vocabularies " Dublin Core - DC – title, creator, description, date " Friend of a Friend - FOAF – hasName, knows, homepage " Description of a Project - DOAP " Semantically Interlinked Online Communities - SIOC " Simple Knowledge Organization System - SKOS 21
  • 22. SPARQL - query the GGG data Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie " standardized in January 2008 " Example, return the capital of all the african countries: PREFIX abc: <http://example.com/exampleOntology#> SELECT ?capital ?country WHERE { ?x abc:cityname ?capital ; abc:isCapitalOf ?y . ?y abc:countryname ?country ; abc:isInContinent abc:Africa . } 22
  • 23. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Semantic Web practical applications and initiatives 23
  • 24. Dataportability Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! Merge my social networks between various sites ! Move information from one service to another 24
  • 25. Local communities Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie * Source: Pidgin Technologies, www.pidgintech.com 25
  • 26. Many isolated and disparate communities Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie * Source: Pidgin Technologies, www.pidgintech.com 26
  • 27. (De-)centralized profile Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie http://www.johnbreslin.com/blog/ 27
  • 28. Decentralized profiles Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie http://www.johnbreslin.com/blog/ 28
  • 29. Linking Open Data project Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/ 29
  • 30. Sindice - The Semantic Web index Search results for term “europe” - Sindice http://sindice.com/search?q=europe&qt Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Home About Search Submit Forum Dev europe Search results for term “europe”, found about 54.2 thousand Birds of Europe (RDF) 2008-07-26 – 363 triples in 52.7 kb http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Birds_of_Europe (Search) (Cached) (Ontologies) Europe (RDF) 2008-07-22 – 91 triples in 13.1 kb http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Europe (Search) (Cached) (Ontologies) Europe 1 (RDF) 2008-07-22 – 639 triples in 91.4 kb http://dbpedia.org/resource/Europe_1 (Search) (Cached) (Ontologies) Flora of Europe (RDF) 2008-07-26 – 297 triples in 43.4 kb http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Flora_of_Europe (Search) (Cached) (Ontologies) Europe (Band), Europe (musique), Europe ( ), ( ), Europe (band), Europe (RDF) http://sindice.com/ 2008-07-20 – 1062 triples in 224 kb http://dbpedia.org/resource/Europe_%28band%29 (Search) (Cached) (Ontologies) 30 1 of 2 30/08/2007
  • 31. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie RDF in Drupal 31
  • 32. RDF in Drupal core Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! RDFa only " RDF serialization format recommended by W3C " RDF in xHTML " Yahoo! SearchMonkey and Google parse it " no need to generate another output: human and machine readable document 32
  • 33. DrupalCon DC RDFa video Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! DrupalCon DC RDFa video 33
  • 34. Status of RDF in Drupal 7: architecture Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! Semantics at the module level " Modules can export data along with their semantics in the format they want – Core => RDFa – Contrib => RDF/XML, ntriples and what not. " No duplicate definition of semantics. " Built in semantics can be altered. " The theme layer does not have to worry about the semantics anymore, it simply outputs it along with the data. " Better control on what namespaces are being used for a given page so that only these namespaces are included in the header of the HTML document. 34
  • 35. Status of RDF in Drupal 7 Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! Architecture of the RDF API in core –hook_rdf_mapping() : Allow modules to define their own RDF mappings –hook_rdf_mapping_alter(&$mapping) : Allow modules to override existing mappings –rdf_get_mapping($bundle) : Returns the mapping for the attributes of the given bundle as an associative array 35
  • 36. Status of RDF in Drupal 7 Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! hook_rdf_mapping() 36
  • 37. Status of RDF in Drupal 7 Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! rendered HTML 37
  • 38. Status of RDF in Drupal 7 Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! What’s already committed " RDFa doctype 38
  • 39. Status of RDF in Drupal 7 Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! What’s already committed " Common RDF prefix definitions 39
  • 40. Status of RDF in Drupal 7 Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! What’s pending "The rest! "1 week for the API "6 weeks for testing (code slush) 40
  • 41. Status of RDF in Drupal 7 Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! Theming layer "Hardest part of the work "Many tags are hardcoded in the tpl files –we want to avoid modifing these, themers should not have to care about RDFa "Dilema –centralize everything in the RDF module –distribute the RDF in all modules (and patch these modules) 41
  • 42. Status of RDF in Drupal 7 Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie building block modules beneficiary modules page/block blog node forum field book user openid comment profile taxonomy all contributed modules 42
  • 43. Thank you Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! Credits " Frédéric Marand " Florian Lorétan " John Breslin " John Morahan " Mark Birbeck " Rolf Guescini " Benjamin Doherty " Benjamin Melançon " Stefan Freudenberg " Peter Wolanin " Barry Jaspan " yched " catch " ... 43
  • 44. Contribute Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! IRC: #drupal-rdf ! list of issues to review at http://drupal.org/project/issues/search/drupal? issue_tags=RDF ! Talk to us ! Keynote tomorrow by Dan Brickley ! code sprint on Saturday 44