Probiotics

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Probiotics

  1. 1. PROBIOTICS<br />DR SANGEETHA P<br />
  2. 2. Functional foods<br />Functional foods – substances or supplements administered to obtain a specific result in addition to basic nutrition. <br />Also called “nutriceuticals” or “biotherapeutics”<br />Examples:<br />Prebiotics<br />Probiotics<br />
  3. 3. The concept of probiotics<br />Probiotics (Greek) – “for life”<br />WHO definition:Live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host <br />
  4. 4. KEY POINTS<br />Live micro organisms<br />Can affect the intestinal flora<br />Promoted as food supplements<br />Huge market potential<br />Many health claims…<br />
  5. 5. History <br />Fermented foods rich in probiotics are popular since prehistoric era eg: yoghurt,pickled vegetables..<br />Metchnikoff – 1907 – yogurt with Lactobacilli prolongs life<br />Parker – 1974 – 1st to use the term probiotics<br />Fuller – 1989 – defined probiotics<br />
  6. 6. Common organisms<br />Lactobacillus<br />Bifidobacillus<br />Saccharomycescerevaciae..<br />
  7. 7. Criteria for probiotics<br />.<br /><ul><li>Bacteria of human origin
  8. 8. Resist secretions of the upper GI tract
  9. 9. Survive passage through the GI tract
  10. 10. Adhere to human intestinal cells </li></li></ul><li>Criteria for probiotics<br />.<br /><ul><li>Able to colonize the intestine
  11. 11. Protect the cells against invasion by pathogens
  12. 12. Antagonize carcinogenic and pathogenic flora</li></li></ul><li>A few words about the gut microflora..<br />Intesine is a main component of immune system<br />The gut microflora is an important constituent in the intestine's defence barrier.<br />Their number is 10 times the human cells..<br />Have collective metabolic activity equal to a virtual extra organ ! <br />
  13. 13. The gut microflora<br />
  14. 14. Symbiosis of gut flora<br />Specially adapted commensals..<br />Beneficial to the host<br />Stimulates immune function<br />Produces antimicrobial substances<br />Trophic effect on intestinal epithelium<br />Maintains the enterohepatic circulation <br /> Involved in metabolic processes (i.e., fermentation) in the colon<br />
  15. 15. Factors affecting normal flora<br /><ul><li>Any action taken to kill ‘bad’ bacteria essentially kills ‘good’ bacteria as well.
  16. 16. Antibiotics
  17. 17. Infections
  18. 18. Diet (highly processed, low-fiber foods)
  19. 19. Chronic diarrhea
  20. 20. Stress </li></li></ul><li>.<br />.<br />
  21. 21. Actions of probiotics<br />Restore the balance b/w ‘Good’ and ‘bad’ bacteria in gut<br />secrete bactericidal proteins<br /> ↓ses the pH<br /><ul><li>Block the attachment & invasion of epithelium by pathogens
  22. 22. Improve epithelial barrier function</li></ul> ↑ mucus production<br /> ↑ barrier integrity <br />
  23. 23. Actions of probiotics<br />Alter host immune responses<br />stimulate IgA production<br /> ↓ proinflammatory cytokines<br /><ul><li>Produce β-galactosidase,so digest lactose
  24. 24. ↓ production of carcinogenic metabolites</li></li></ul><li>Probiotic Products<br />Wide range of products<br />No legal definition<br />No universal standards<br />
  25. 25. Prebiotics<br /><ul><li>The term prebiotic introduced by Gibson who exchanged “pro” for “pre,” which means “before” or “for.”
  26. 26. Nondigestible substances that provide a beneficial physiological effect for the host by selectively stimulating the favorable growth or activity of a limited number of indigenous bacteria</li></li></ul><li>Prebiotics<br />.<br /><ul><li>The term introduced by Gibson who exchanged “pro” for “pre,” which means “before” or “for.”
  27. 27. Prebiotics: Nondigestible substances that provide a beneficial physiological effect for the host by selectively stimulating the favourable growth or activity of a limited number of indigenous bacteria
  28. 28. Synbiotics : Products that contain both probiotics and prebiotics</li></li></ul><li>
  29. 29. Examples <br /><ul><li>Lactulose
  30. 30. Galactosaccharides
  31. 31. Fructo-oligosaccharides
  32. 32. Isomalto-oligosccharides
  33. 33. Lacto-sucrose
  34. 34. Gentio-oligosaccharides
  35. 35. Xylooligosaccharides</li></li></ul><li>Synbiotics<br />
  36. 36. Summary <br />Microflora of the large intestine protect against pathogenic bacteria and stimulate development of the immune system <br />Probiotics and prebiotics in the diet can modify the composition and some metabolic activities of the microflora<br />Do not extrapolate from one strain to another<br />Many claims for the potential health benefits of prebiotics remain unproved<br />Critically evaluate and use only when data supports<br />
  37. 37. .<br />.<br />

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