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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
Chapter 1
Corporate
Finance and
the Financial
Manager
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
Chapter Outline
1.1 Why Study Finance?
1.2 The Four Types ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
Learning Objectives
• Grasp the importance of financial in...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
Learning Objectives (cont’d)
• Know how a corporation is m...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.1 Why Study Finance?
• Individuals are taking charge of ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.1 Why Study Finance?
• In your business career, you may ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.1 Why Study Finance?
• Financial Management
w The finan...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.2 The Four Types of Firms
1. Sole Proprietorships
2. Par...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.2 The Four Types of Firms
• Sole Proprietorship
w Sole ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.2 The Four Types of Firms
• Sole Proprietorship
w The o...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.2 The Four Types of Firms
• Partnership
w In a partners...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.2 The Four Types of Firms
• Limited Liability Companies
...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.2 The Four Types of Firms
• Corporations
w A corporatio...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.2 The Four Types of Firms
• Corporations
w Because a co...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
Figure 1.1 

Growth in Number of U.S. Corporations
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.2 The Four Types of Firms
• Formation of a Corporation
w...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.2 The Four Types of Firms
• Ownership of a Corporation
w...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.2 The Four Types of Firms
• Ownership of a Corporation
w...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.2 The Four Types of Firms
• Tax Implications for Corpora...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
Example 1.1 

Taxation of Corporate Earnings
Problem:
• Yo...
You are a shareholder in a corporation. The corporation earns $5 per
share before taxes. After it has paid taxes, it will ...
What we know
• The corporation earns $5 per share before taxes.
• This is dividend income to you
• The corporate tax rate ...
• An effective tax rate is the total tax liability divided by the total
economic base
• As a shareholder you keep $2.55 of...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.2 The Four Types of Firms
• S Corporations
w Must elect...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.2 The Four Types of Firms
• C Corporations
w Must pay c...
You are a shareholder in an S-Corporation. The corporation earns $5
per share before taxes. The tax rate on non-dividend i...
The $1.50 in taxes that you pay is substantially lower than
the $2.45 you paid in Example 1.1. As a result, you are left
w...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
Table 1.1 Characteristics of the
Different Types of Firms
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.3 The Financial Manager
• In the corporation, the financ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.3 The Financial Manager
• Making Investment Decisions
w...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.3 The Financial Manager
• Making Financing Decisions
• T...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.3 The Financial Manager
• Managing Short-Term Cash Needs...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.3 The Financial Manager
• The Goal of the Financial Mana...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.4 The Financial Manager’s Place 

in the Corporation
• S...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
Figure 1.2 

The Corporate Management Team
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.4 The Financial Manager’s Place in
the Corporation
• Eth...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.5 The Stock Market
• The value of the owners’ investment...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
Figure 1.3 Worldwide Stock Markets
Ranked by Volume of Tra...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.5 The Stock Market
• Concepts
w Primary Market
w Secon...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
1.5 The Stock Market
• Awash in Acronyms
w NASDAQ (Nation...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1-
Chapter Quiz
1. What are the advantages and disadvantages ...
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Chapter 1: Corporate Finance and the Financial Manager

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Chapter 1
Corporate Finance and the Financial Manager
• Grasp the importance of financial information in both your personal and business lives
• Understand the important features of the four main types of firms and see why the advantages of the corporation form have led it to dominate economic activity
• Explain the goal of the financial manager and the reasoning behind that goal, as well as understand the three main types of decisions a financial manager makes
• Know how a corporation is managed and controlled, the financial manager’s place in it, and some of the ethical issues financial managers face
• Understand the importance of financial markets, such as stock markets, to a corporation and the financial manager’s role as liaison to those markets

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Transcript of "Chapter 1: Corporate Finance and the Financial Manager"

  1. 1. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Chapter 1 Corporate Finance and the Financial Manager
  2. 2. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- Chapter Outline 1.1 Why Study Finance? 1.2 The Four Types of Firms 1.3 The Financial Manager 1.4 The Financial Manager’s Place in the Corporation 1.5 The Stock Market
  3. 3. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- Learning Objectives • Grasp the importance of financial information in both your personal and business lives • Understand the important features of the four main types of firms and see why the advantages of the corporate form have led it to dominate economic activity • Explain the goal of the financial manager and the reasoning behind that goal, as well as understand the three main types of decisions a financial manager makes
  4. 4. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- Learning Objectives (cont’d) • Know how a corporation is managed and controlled, the financial manager’s place in it, and some of the ethical issues financial managers face • Understand the importance of financial markets, such as stock markets, to a corporation and the financial manager’s role as liaison to those markets
  5. 5. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.1 Why Study Finance? • Individuals are taking charge of their personal finances with decisions such as: w When to start saving and how much to save for retirement, w Whether a car loan or lease is more advantageous, w Whether a particular stock is a good investment, and w How to evaluate the terms for a home mortgage.
  6. 6. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.1 Why Study Finance? • In your business career, you may face such questions such as: w Should your firm launch a new product? w Which supplier should your firm choose? w Should your firm produce a part or outsource production? w Should your firm issue new stock or borrow money instead? w How can you raise money for your start-up firm?
  7. 7. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.1 Why Study Finance? • Financial Management w The financial manager plays a critical role inside any business enterprise. What products to launch, how to pay to develop those products, what profits to keep and how to return profits to investors—all of these decisions and many more fall within corporate finance. The financial manager does all of this with the goal of maximizing the value of the business, which is determined in the financial markets.
  8. 8. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.2 The Four Types of Firms 1. Sole Proprietorships 2. Partnerships 3. Limited Liability Companies 4. Corporations
  9. 9. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.2 The Four Types of Firms • Sole Proprietorship w Sole proprietorships are straightforward to set up. Consequently, many new businesses use this organizational form. w The principal limitation is that there is no separation between the firm and the owner—the firm can have only one owner. If there are other investors, they cannot hold an ownership stake in the firm.
  10. 10. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.2 The Four Types of Firms • Sole Proprietorship w The owner has unlimited personal liability for any of the firm’s debts. That is, if the firm defaults on any debt payment, the lender can (and will) require the owner to repay the loan from personal assets. An owner who cannot afford to repay a loan for which he or she is personably liable must declare personal bankruptcy. w The life of a sole proprietorship is limited to the life of the owner. It is also difficult to transfer ownership of a sole proprietorship.
  11. 11. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.2 The Four Types of Firms • Partnership w In a partnership, all partners are liable for the firm’s debt. That is, a lender can require any partner to repay all the firm’s outstanding debts. w The partnership ends on the death or withdrawal of any single partner. w Partners can avoid liquidation if the partnership agreement provides for alternatives such as a buyout of a deceased or withdrawn partner. w A limited partnership is a partnership with two kinds of owners, general partners and limited partners.
  12. 12. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.2 The Four Types of Firms • Limited Liability Companies w In a limited liability company (LLC), all the owners have limited liability—but unlike limited partners, they can also run the business. w The LLC is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. The first state to pass a statute allowing the creation of an LLC was Wyoming in 1977; the last was Hawaii in 1997. w Internationally, companies with limited liability are much older and established.
  13. 13. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.2 The Four Types of Firms • Corporations w A corporation is a legally defined, artificial being (a judicial person or legal entity), separate from its owners. As such, it has many of the legal powers that people have. It can enter into contracts, acquire assets, incur obligations, and it enjoys protection under the U.S. Constitution against the seizure of its property.
  14. 14. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.2 The Four Types of Firms • Corporations w Because a corporation is a legal entity separate and distinct from its owners, it is solely responsible for its own obligations. Consequently, the owners of a corporation (or its employees, customers, etc.) are not liable for any obligations the corporation enters into. Similarly, the corporation is not liable for any personal obligations of its owners
  15. 15. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- Figure 1.1 
 Growth in Number of U.S. Corporations
  16. 16. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.2 The Four Types of Firms • Formation of a Corporation w Corporations must be legally formed. w The state in which it is incorporated must formally give its consent to the incorporation by chartering it. w Setting up a corporation is considerably more costly than setting up a sole proprietorship. w Most firms hire lawyers to create a corporate charter that includes formal articles of incorporation and a set of bylaws. w The corporate charter specifies the initial rules that govern how the corporation is run.
  17. 17. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.2 The Four Types of Firms • Ownership of a Corporation w There is no limit on the number of owners a corporation can have. w The entire ownership stake of a corporation is divided into shares known as stock. w The collection of all the outstanding shares of a corporation is known as the equity of the corporation.
  18. 18. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.2 The Four Types of Firms • Ownership of a Corporation w An owner of a share of stock in the corporation 
 is known as a shareholder, stockholder, or 
 equity holder. w Shareholders are entitled to dividend payments and usually receive a share of the dividend payments that is proportional to the amount of stock they own. w A unique feature of a corporation is that there is no limitation on who can own its stock.
  19. 19. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.2 The Four Types of Firms • Tax Implications for Corporate Entities w A corporation’s profits are subject to taxation separate from its owners’ tax obligations. w Shareholders of a corporation pay taxes twice. First, the corporation pays tax on its profits, and then when the remaining profits are distributed to the shareholders, the shareholders pay their own personal income tax on this income. This is sometimes referred to as double taxation.
  20. 20. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- Example 1.1 
 Taxation of Corporate Earnings Problem: • You are a shareholder in a corporation. The corporation earns $5 per share before taxes. After it has paid taxes, it will distribute the rest of its earnings to you as a dividend (we make this simplifying assumption, but should note that most corporations retain some of their earnings for reinvestment). The dividend is income to you, so you will then pay taxes on these earnings. The corporate tax rate is 40% and your tax rate on dividend income is 15%. How much of the earnings remains after all taxes are paid?
  21. 21. You are a shareholder in a corporation. The corporation earns $5 per share before taxes. After it has paid taxes, it will distribute the rest of its earnings to you as a dividend (we make this simplifying assumption, but should note that most corporations retain some of their earnings for reinvestment). The dividend is income to you, so you will then pay taxes on these earnings. The corporate tax rate is 40% and your tax rate on dividend income is 15%. ! How much of the earnings remains after all taxes are paid? Problem What we know • The corporation earns $5 per share before taxes. • After it has paid taxes, it will distribute the rest of its earnings to you as a dividend • The dividend is income to you, so you will then pay taxes • The corporate tax rate is 40% and your tax rate on dividend income is 15%
  22. 22. What we know • The corporation earns $5 per share before taxes. • This is dividend income to you • The corporate tax rate is 40% How much of the earnings remains after all taxes are paid? $5 per share corporate tax rate is 40%- = dividend income = $3 dividend income = $3 - dividend tax is 15% = earnings after all taxes = $2.55 • Tax rate on dividend income is 15% QUESTION what is your effective total tax rate?
  23. 23. • An effective tax rate is the total tax liability divided by the total economic base • As a shareholder you keep $2.55 of the original $5 in earnings • the remaining $2 + $0.45 = $2.45 is paid as taxes. • Thus, your total effective tax rate is: QUESTION what is your effective total tax rate? $2.45 $5.00 total tax liability total economic base = = 49%
  24. 24. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.2 The Four Types of Firms • S Corporations w Must elect subchapter S tax treatment. w The firm’s profits (and losses) are not subject to corporate taxes, but instead are allocated directly to shareholders based on their ownership share. w The shareholders must include these profits as income on their individual tax returns (even if no money is distributed to them).
  25. 25. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.2 The Four Types of Firms • C Corporations w Must pay corporate taxes on its profits. w Since individuals must pay personal income taxes on these dividends, shareholders in a C corporation effectively must pay tax twice.
  26. 26. You are a shareholder in an S-Corporation. The corporation earns $5 per share before taxes. The tax rate on non-dividend income is 30%. How much of the earnings remains after all taxes are paid? Problem What we know • The S-Corporation earns $5 per share before taxes. • The tax rate on non-dividend income (personal) is 30%. $5 per share non-dividend tax rate (personal tax rate) - = personal earnings = $3.5030% In this case, the corporation pays no taxes. It earned $5 per share. In an S corporation, all income is treated as personal income to you, whether or not the corporation chooses to distribute or retain this cash. As a result, you must pay a 30% tax rate on those earnings.
  27. 27. The $1.50 in taxes that you pay is substantially lower than the $2.45 you paid in Example 1.1. As a result, you are left with $3.50 per share after all taxes instead of $2.55. However, note that in a C corporation, you are only taxed when you receive the income as a dividend, whereas in an S corporation, you pay taxes on the income immediately regardless of whether the corporation distributes it as a dividend or reinvests it in the company. SO WHAT?
  28. 28. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- Table 1.1 Characteristics of the Different Types of Firms
  29. 29. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.3 The Financial Manager • In the corporation, the financial manager has three main tasks: 1. Make investment decisions, 2. Make financing decisions, and 3. Manage cash flow from operating activities.
  30. 30. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.3 The Financial Manager • Making Investment Decisions w The financial manager must weigh the costs and benefits of each investment or project and decide which qualify as good uses of the stockholders’ money invested in the firm. These investment decisions fundamentally shape what the firm does and whether it will add value for its owners.
  31. 31. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.3 The Financial Manager • Making Financing Decisions • The financial manager must decide whether to raise more money from new and existing owners by selling more shares of stock (equity) or to borrow the money instead (debt).
  32. 32. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.3 The Financial Manager • Managing Short-Term Cash Needs • The financial manager must ensure that the firm has enough cash on hand to meet its obligations at each point in time. This job is also commonly known as managing working capital.
  33. 33. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.3 The Financial Manager • The Goal of the Financial Manager • All of these decisions by the financial manager are made within the context of the overriding goal of financial management—to maximize the wealth of the owners, the stockholders.
  34. 34. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.4 The Financial Manager’s Place 
 in the Corporation • Stockholders own the corporation but rely on financial managers to actively manage the corporation. The board of directors and the management team headed by the chief executive officer possess direct control of the corporation.
  35. 35. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- Figure 1.2 
 The Corporate Management Team
  36. 36. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.4 The Financial Manager’s Place in the Corporation • Ethics and Incentives in Corporations w Agency Problems w The CEO’s Performance w The hostile takeover
  37. 37. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.5 The Stock Market • The value of the owners’ investments in the corporation is determined by the price of a share of the corporation’s stock. Corporations can be private or public. A private corporation has a limited number of owners and there is no organized market for its shares, making it hard to determine the market price of its shares at any point in time. A public corporation has many owners and its shares trade on an organized market, called a stock market.
  38. 38. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- Figure 1.3 Worldwide Stock Markets Ranked by Volume of Trade
  39. 39. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.5 The Stock Market • Concepts w Primary Market w Secondary Market w Market Makers w Bid-Ask Spread w Transaction Cost
  40. 40. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- 1.5 The Stock Market • Awash in Acronyms w NASDAQ (National Association of Security Dealers Automated Quotation) w NYSE (New York Stock Exchange) w AMEX (American Stock Exchange) w DJIA (Dow Jones Industrial Average) w S&P500 (Standard and Poor’s 500)
  41. 41. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 1- Chapter Quiz 1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of organizing a business as a corporation? 2. What are the main types of decisions that a financial manager makes? 3. How do shareholders control a corporation? 4. What is the importance of a stock market to a financial manager?
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