PSHE Mapping Study


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Eleanor Formby's presentation to the Drug Education Forum about the mapping of PSHE provision in England.

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PSHE Mapping Study

  1. 1. Eleanor Formby Centre for Education and Inclusion Research, Sheffield Hallam University
  2. 2. <ul><li>October 2008 compulsory announcement </li></ul><ul><li>Macdonald Review recommendation: &quot;establish and report on the prevalent models of delivery for PSHE education and their effectiveness&quot; (Macdonald, 2009: 8) </li></ul><ul><li>DCSF contracted SHU November 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Steering group agreed definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Personal wellbeing: - Diet/nutrition and healthy lifestyles </li></ul><ul><li>- Drugs, alcohol and tobacco (DAT) education </li></ul><ul><li>- Emotional health and wellbeing </li></ul><ul><li>- Safety education </li></ul><ul><li>- Sex and relationships education (SRE) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic wellbeing and financial capability: </li></ul><ul><li>- Enterprise education </li></ul><ul><li>- Personal finance/financial capability </li></ul><ul><li>- Careers education (secondary schools only) </li></ul><ul><li>- Work-related learning (secondary schools only) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Is there a prevalent delivery model? </li></ul><ul><li>How are the different strands of PSHE education delivered in primary and secondary schools? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the length of the allocated time in the curriculum? </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent do schools provide coverage of all elements of the subject? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the current skills and qualification levels of the workforce for teaching PSHE education? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the extent of use of external partners to teach certain elements of the subject? </li></ul><ul><li>What are staff perceptions of the professional development currently available? </li></ul><ul><li>Which sources of support are teachers currently using? </li></ul><ul><li>What are schools’ perceptions of the quality and usefulness of existing curriculum materials for PSHE education? </li></ul><ul><li>How prevalent is assessment in PSHE education, and what assessment strategies are used in schools? </li></ul><ul><li>What conclusions can be drawn about the relevant effectiveness of different models, including their cost effectiveness? </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Nationally representative survey: </li></ul><ul><li>- 923 primary schools </li></ul><ul><li>- 617 secondary schools </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth case studies: </li></ul><ul><li>- 14 schools (5 different local authorities across 5 GORs) </li></ul><ul><li>- 260 individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis at three levels: </li></ul><ul><li>- local authority: 4 LA PSHE leads, 5 LA HS leads, 3 'other' LA support staff e.g. SRE </li></ul><ul><li>- school strategic: 16 SLT, 13 PSHE leads, 11 governors, 2 SIPs </li></ul><ul><li>- school delivery: 38 teachers/deliverers, 162 pupils, 6 parents </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Supportive on paper (in the survey)… </li></ul><ul><li>- Most schools had identified lead (P 96%, S 97%), though not all had additional time or pay for these roles </li></ul><ul><li>- Clear school policy in majority of schools (P 93%, S 84%) and part of school plan in around two-thirds of primaries and three-quarters of secondaries </li></ul><ul><li>- Named SLT in most schools (P72%, S 86%); named governor in P 54%, S 47% </li></ul><ul><li>But not always in reality (case studies)... </li></ul><ul><li>- Differing views about the purpose / status of PSHE (we return to this later) </li></ul><ul><li>- Less valued in secondaries: focus on attainment over wellbeing (contrast with primary e.g. SEAL) </li></ul><ul><li>- Importance of supporting personal development rarely mentioned in secondaries – saw PSHE more about future 'life skills' </li></ul><ul><li>- Few links made between PSHE and 'learning' </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Predominant delivery model = discrete PSHE lessons (other most common = SEAL lessons in primaries; drop-down days and tutor/form group time in secondaries; inclusion within other subject lessons and integration across the curriculum in both) </li></ul><ul><li>Most common teaching methods = whole class lessons, facilitated discussions between pupils, theatre in education/drama/role play </li></ul><ul><li>63% - 70% (dependent on year) teaching 'all' elements at secondary, around a third teaching 'some‘; just over 50% of primaries teaching ‘all’, 40-43% (dependent on year) delivering ‘some’ </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency: over half of secondaries providing each element of PSHE just once a year or less (except emotional wellbeing which just over half were teaching more than once a year); primaries also ranged by subject area from weekly (e.g. emotional wellbeing) to yearly or less (e.g. SRE, DAT education) </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies: economic wellbeing elements often seen as separate and rarely or poorly integrated into PSHE planning and delivery e.g. different staff </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Blurred boundaries / overlaps / misunderstandings between PSHE and SEAL at primary level </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers valued SEAL e.g. for managing behaviour, attendance, reward charts: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;we use SEAL unconsciously every day , it's part of the air we breathe&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>“ [SRE is] less easy to follow the thread through the years because it's not built into everyday delivery like SEAL. It's on teachers' plans, but they may opt for a SEAL target in preference for SRE…” </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;PSHE is the thing most likely to drop off the end of the day because of pressure of so many other parts of the curriculum and activities&quot; </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>LA support valued e.g. local networks, specialist delivery, CPD </li></ul><ul><li>Local relevance valued e.g. teenage pregnancy, knife crime </li></ul><ul><li>School lead valued for support , disseminating good practice </li></ul><ul><li>Gaps in support e.g. economic wellbeing, SRE </li></ul><ul><li>'Official' sources e.g. QCDA, Teachernet named less by secondaries </li></ul><ul><li>Greater range of 'ad hoc' sources used by secondary schools (“stumbling across them” ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>School nurses used in: </li></ul><ul><li>- 45% of primaries and 43% of secondaries for SRE </li></ul><ul><li>- 22% of primaries, 19% secondaries for diet/nutrition and healthy lifestyles </li></ul><ul><li>- 17% primaries, 17% secondaries for DAT ed. </li></ul><ul><li>- 6% primaries, 15% secondaries for emotional wellbeing </li></ul><ul><li>Other external partners involved in: </li></ul><ul><li>- 33% of primaries and 54% of secondaries for DAT ed. </li></ul><ul><li>- 22% primaries, 51% secondaries for SRE </li></ul><ul><li>- 29% primaries, 24% secondaries for diet/nutrition and healthy lifestyles </li></ul><ul><li>- 12% primaries, 24% secondaries for emotional wellbeing </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies: can be problematic (quality, timing) </li></ul><ul><li>LAs' vetting / quality assurance important </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Case studies: difficulties measuring impact outside school, long term </li></ul><ul><li>Range of positive outcomes reported (including by pupils)… </li></ul><ul><li>- valuing opportunity to safely express views and ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>- welcoming break in intensity of other subjects </li></ul><ul><li>- having opportunity to learn about key issues affecting future / present lives (the 'real world') </li></ul><ul><li>- improving relationships with others </li></ul><ul><li>- improved attitudes to health </li></ul><ul><li>- dealing with serious personal difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>- improved classroom and playground behaviour </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>In a normal lesson, I'm not very confident to say things, but you know in PSHE no-one's allowed to laugh. (Pupil) </li></ul><ul><li>I really miss circle time at primary school… it could still work at secondary school. Like, some of my friends found out I dance from Facebook, but if we had circle time we would know what matters to each other… except for your really close friends, nobody really knows who you are – that's what PSHE should be about. (Pupil) </li></ul><ul><li>When we did the growing up and sex and relationships it was important to know what was going to happen to us, because when we got older we might not have known and when it was happening we might have thought this is dodgy. (Pupil) </li></ul><ul><li>If what we're doing today helps [them] make an informed decision tomorrow, and therefore takes [them] out of trouble, then today has been worthwhile. (Teacher) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>“ I know maths and literacy and stuff help you get good jobs, but like about [SRE] if you didn’t learn about that and you were growing up and you might think it’s only happening to you and you might think you’re a monster... and the same with drugs, I mean if you didn’t learn about them [drugs] and only learnt about maths, literacy... ICT and stuff then you’d probably be dead” </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Statistical modelling examined associations between perceived effectiveness and 3 (whole-school) Ofsted inspection grades (moral development, healthy lifestyles, workplace/economic skills) and range of potential factors… </li></ul><ul><li>Higher perceived effectiveness related to: </li></ul><ul><li>- use of discrete PSHE lessons </li></ul><ul><li>- delivery by specialist e.g. PSHE coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>- use of assessment e.g. pupil progress records </li></ul><ul><li>- inclusion in school assessment policy </li></ul><ul><li>- discussion at parents’ evenings </li></ul><ul><li>- including parents/carers and external agencies in evaluation </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Successful PSHE linked to: </li></ul><ul><li>- coherent, progressive curriculum across full range of elements </li></ul><ul><li>- core curriculum time </li></ul><ul><li>- well resourced delivery (e.g. external support, materials) </li></ul><ul><li>- CPD opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>- clear support from senior leaders </li></ul><ul><li>- motivated, rewarded PSHE leaders </li></ul><ul><li>- understanding links between 'life skills' and pupil learning (and aligning this to school purpose) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Conversely (where often pupils less favourable)… </li></ul><ul><li>- lack of coherent programme e.g. elements missing or repetition in different years: </li></ul><ul><li>“ [only a] hint of something different [each year] ” (Pupil) </li></ul><ul><li>- core curriculum time missing (e.g. drop-down days only) or easily subsumed by wider curriculum requirements (e.g. exams) </li></ul><ul><li>- not valued by senior leaders </li></ul><ul><li>- untrained / unconfident deliverers </li></ul><ul><li>- not viewed as central to learning (and therefore schooling); understandings not shared </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Differing views about purpose/status of PSHE ed. across schools </li></ul><ul><li>All primary schools emphasised role of PSHE ed. in pupils' current personal and social development (secondaries saw more for future 'life skills'/outside school = less relevant/important?) </li></ul><ul><li>More valued in primaries than in secondaries : relationship to SEAL, pastoral care, carpet / circle time, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>SRE, DAT education, economic well-being often have minor role compared to SEAL subject areas in primaries </li></ul><ul><li>Only minority of teachers made explicit links between PSHE education and ‘learning’ </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Supportive policy agendas e.g. Every Child Matters, Healthy Schools, wellbeing duty, Ofsted? </li></ul><ul><li>LAs support and challenge schools … what about where this is removed, 'free' schools? School networks supporting each other / working together? </li></ul><ul><li>Well-qualified staff … PSHE CPD qualifications: in school provision? </li></ul><ul><li>Differing views on assessment - understanding / support </li></ul><ul><li>Engage pupils (at a minimum) in planning and evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Access to resources and support for curriculum planning and delivery - gaps e.g. economic wellbeing </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>&quot;This research offers strong evidence that for many school staff, pupils and stakeholders PSHE education is important in supporting young people's future social and economic lives. To deliver PSHE education successfully, however, as staff identify, there is a need for continued strategic support from both schools and policy-makers.&quot; (Formby et al, 2011: 7) </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Contact me: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Full report: </li></ul><ul><li>Summary: </li></ul><ul><li>Forthcoming series of articles in Pastoral Care in Education and forthcoming article focussing on schools in challenging circumstances in Every Child Journal </li></ul>