LSE's PSHE Project
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LSE's PSHE Project



Dan Hale's presentation to the Drug Education Forum about a project to identify an evidence based PSHE curriculum for secondary schools in the UK

Dan Hale's presentation to the Drug Education Forum about a project to identify an evidence based PSHE curriculum for secondary schools in the UK



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  • Mention flexibility
  • Not designed explicitly for PSHE
  • First question:
  • Flexibility vs. fidelity

LSE's PSHE Project LSE's PSHE Project Presentation Transcript

  • PSHE Project Coleman, Hale and Layard
  • Aims and objectives of the project
    • To carry out international review of evidence-based programmes relating to life skills for secondary age pupils
    • To identify the methodological problems involved in evaluating such programmes
    • To highlight the main facilitators/impediments to evidence-based PSHE
    • To establish which programmes could be recommended in the UK
    • To recommend a notional programme of Life Skills education as part of a future PSHE curriculum
    (Secondary, Personal Wellbeing)
  • Background
    • PSHE: Personal Wellbeing Key Concepts
      • Personal Identities
      • Healthy lifestyles
      • Risk
      • Relationships
      • Diversity
  • Background
    • A starting point: Good Childhood Guide, components of successful PSHE (Layard & Dunn, 2009):
      • Understanding and managing your emotions
      • Understanding others and caring for them
      • Love, sex, parenting and child development
      • Healthy living: exercise, diet, alcohol, drugs, smoking
      • Mental Illness
      • Your career and contribution to the world
      • Understanding the media
      • Politics and responsibilities
      • Moral Philosophy
  • Background
    • Health and Wellbeing in Schools: Policy
      • Ofsted Inspections
        • Safety, Emotional Awareness, School Ethos, Health
      • Every Child Matters
        • Being healthy, Staying safe, Enjoying and achieving, Making a positive contribution, Achieving economic stability and wellbeing
      • 2007 education bill
        • Schools have a duty to promote wellbeing
      • Bill to make PSHE statutory
  • Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL)
    • Framework for the delivery of social and emotional skills
    • Implemented in 70% of schools
    • Evidence-based?
    • Humphrey, 2002: “SEAL (as implemented by schools in our sample) failed to impact significantly upon pupils’ social and emotional skills, general mental health difficulties, pro-social behaviour or behaviour problems.”
  • SEAL evaluation concluded: “ Guidance should be produced to enable schools to make informed choices about the adoption of social and emotional learning programmes beyond SEAL; this guidance should have a clear focus on the evidence base to support particular programmes and the contexts in which they are effective.”
  • Three problems in implementing evidence-based PSHE
    • Evidence
    • Content
    • Context
  • Evidence
    • SEAL: “A greater emphasis needs to be given to the rigorous collection and use of evidence to inform developments in policy and practice in this area”
    • Coleman (2009): “It is clear that there is a scarcity of good quality research evaluating the effectiveness of programmes promoting well-being in the school setting”
    • Outcomes variables: Knowledge? Attitudes? Behaviours? Health?
  • Content
    • Formby, 2011: “[There is] a lack of clear or shared understanding on the nature of and rationale for PSHE education amongst teachers and schools.”
    • “ Disaster-driven” PSHE
    • Are evaluated programmes applicable to PSHE available
    • How well do outcomes match main PSHE outcomes?
  • Context
    • “ Teachers know the children they teach, they know their strengths and limitations, their social backgrounds and their aspirations and should be empowered to use their professional judgement to develop PSHE education in ways that are accessible to all the pupils they teach.” (Association for Teachers and Lecturers)
    • “ The flexibility of SEAL actually [emerged] as a barrier” to effective implementation (Humphrey, 2010)
    • Variability of input (training of teachers, fidelity of programme, implementation support)
    • Availability of programme? Cost?
    • Australian/American programmes in the UK? Modifications needed?
  • Areas relevant to PSHE: Systematic reviews suggest effects in following areas:
    • Social and emotional wellbeing (Blank et al., 2009)
    • Substance use (Cuijpers, Jonkers, Weerdt, & Jong, 2002)
    • Bullying and violence (Farringdon & Tfofi, 2009)
    • Sexual health (Shepherd et al., 2010)
    • Media literacy (Bergsma & Carney, 2008)
    • Emotional disorders (Merry & Spence, 2007)
    • Conduct disorders (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011).
  • British Evaluations of Programmes that appear to “Work”
    • Resourceful Adolescent Program (Stallard; Bath)
    • SHARHP (McKay; Belfast)
    • FRIENDS (Liddle; Sterling)
    • UKRP (Challen, Layard; LSE)
  • Our methodology
    • Literature search
    • Review of Programmes
    • Visit US and Australia
  • Constructing an evidence-based syllabus
    • Interpreting PSHE aims
    • Structure of syllabus
    • Interpreting evidence
    • Identifying programmes
  • Selection Criteria
    • Evidence-based
    • Available in UK
    • Practicalities
    • PSHE relevant
    • No strict inclusion/exclusion criteria
  • Evidence-based
    • Comparator
    • Knowledge/attitudes vs. Behaviour and health
    • Replications
    • Quality of evidence
      • Sample size
      • Attrition
      • Baseline comparability
      • Follow-up times
    • Significant programme effects
  • Available to UK
    • Available!
    • Applicability in UK
      • Target audience
      • Transferable
    • Established in UK
      • Training/Ongoing Support
  • Practicalities
    • Delivery format (teachers vs. “outsiders”? Curricular vs. whole school?)
    • Length of programme
      • PSHE: One hour per week
    • Training requirements
    • Cost
  • PSHE Relevant
    • Guided by Good Childhood Guide
    • Categorised by evidence (outcomes), rather than content
  • A model for PSHE
    • Diet/nutrition and Healthy Lifestyle
    • Drugs, Alcohol and Tobacco Education
    • Emotional Health and Wellbeing
    • Safety Education
    • Sex and Relationships Education
  • A Model Curriculum   The package (hours)   Emotional Health and wellbeing Sex and relationships education Healthy and Safety (including Safety, Drugs and Diet Education) Year 7 The UK Resilience programme (18) Life skills training (12) Year 8   Parents Under Construction (14) Media Ready 1 (7) Media Ready 2 (8) Year 9 Friends for Life (9) Science of Mental Illness (5) Safer choices (10) SHAHRP (6) Year 10 Mood Gym (4) Relationship smarts (13) Safer choices (cont.; 10) SHAHRP (cont.; 4)
  • An example FRIENDS for life
    • Originated in Australia
    • CBT-based
    • Multiple evaluations (depression, anxiety)
    • UK providers and trainers
    • Evaluated in UK (Liddle, 2010)
    • Trainers and support available in the UK
    • Teacher-led
  • Limitations
    • Curricular Only (whole-school approaches)
    • Teacher led
    • Dependent on non-British programme
    • Training
    • Limits of evidence-base (variable quality)
    • Too prescriptive
    • Feasibility
    • Outdated?
  • Moving Forward
    • Report
    • Dissemination
      • NCB
      • PSHE Association
    • Pilot/Evaluation?
    • Get evidence-based programmes into schools
  • Comments?