Aesop's Fables in de Grummond Children's Literature Collection

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Aesop's Fables in de Grummond Children's Literature Collection

  1. 1. Teresa S. Welsh, Ph.D. Associate Professor, SLIS teresa.welsh@usm.edu
  2. 2. ‘Shaman’ c. 12,000 BC, Dordogne, France http://www.arthistory.upenn.edu/smr04/101910/Slide18.jpg 2
  3. 3.  Top: wolf carries a table, lion carries two vessels  Middle: donkey plays a bull- harp, bear dances, fox plays a rattle  Bottom: jackel(?) waves rattle Front Panel of Lyre, c. 2600 B. C., wood inlaid with gold, shell, lapis lazuli, Penn Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology 3
  4. 4. Minoan Mural, c. 1800 B.C., Crete http://www.heraklion-crete.org/knossos.html 4
  5. 5.  Animals revered as gods, mummified:  Bastet cat  Thoth ibis  Apis bull  Sobek crocodile Papyrus, c. 1100 BC, Thebes http://www.britishmuseum.org 5
  6. 6. Serpent Tempts Eve Genesis 3: 1-8 Woodcut, “Die Bibel in Bildern” (1860) Balaam’s Talking Donkey Numbers 22: 21-30 Colored Woodcut, Nuremberg Bible (1400s) 6
  7. 7.  In the preface to his 1609 collection of classical fables entitled de Sapientia Veterum (On the Wisdom of the Ancients), Francis Bacon argued that ''beneath no small number of the fables of the ancient poets there lay from the very beginning a mystery and an allegory.''  Through such fables, hidden meanings can be exposed and made understood to unskilled ears and eyes and “the fable serves as a very appropriate expedient for instruction and persuasion, the higher goals of rhetoric beyond simple entertainment and delight." 7
  8. 8.  Parable – from Greek paraballo meaning to place alongside or compare; a story that uses familiar human events to teach a moral or spiritual lesson  Proverb – from Greek proverbium or adage; a wise saying that effectively embodies a useful truth  Fable – from Latin fabula meaning story or tale; a short tale that teaches a moral lesson, often using animals. 8
  9. 9. Stone vessel (photo and drawing), c. 2400 BC, Nippur Museum of the Ancient Orient, Istanbul, Turkey 9
  10. 10. Papyrus, c. 1100 BC, Thebes www.britishmuseum.org Stone ostracon, c. 1200 BC, Thebes www.brooklynmuseum.org 10
  11. 11. • Clever crow • Cruel, ravenous wolf • Greedy dog • Evil snake • Ferocious, proud lion • Quiet mouse • Sly fox • Stubborn ass • Wise owl • Industrious ant • “Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise" (Prov. 6: 6–8) 11
  12. 12. • Greek historian Herodotus claimed ”Aesop the fable-writer” lived c. 620 - 560 B.C. • According to Aristotle, Aesop was: • Slave first owned by Xanthus on Isle of Samos • Later owned by Iadmon who gave him freedom because he was such a skilled storyteller • Became advisor to King Croesus of Lydia • Reportedly thrown from a cliff at Delphi because people took offense at some of his fables. Earliest-Known Depiction of Aesop Greek Red Kylix, 470 BC 12
  13. 13. • Greek name Aisopos is version of Aethiop or Ethiopian • Described as having dark skin, wide nose, stutter that could indicate foreign accent • Many fable animals not Greek but African: apes, lions, crocs, elephants, jackals, lions, monkeys, asps, scarabs, scorpions Aesopi Phrygis Fabvlae, 1623 13
  14. 14.  Two of Aesop’s tales are about Ethiopian (Nubian) slaves  Some tales feature Nile River  Some scholars find Aesop’s fables similar to “Libyan tales” - African moral fables built around talking animals 14 Rock Art, Namibia
  15. 15. • “You are not educated. You never inquire. Of your Aesop you don't know a word” - from The Birds, a comedy by Aristophanes (414 BC) • “Others tell us anecdotes or some comic story from Aesop” - from The Wasps, a comedy by Aristophanes (422 BC) Woodcut from Fabulas de Esopo (Madrid, 1489) 15
  16. 16.  Socrates, while in jail at the end of his life, spent his time turning Aesop's fables "which he knew" into verses - from Phaedo by Plato (360 BC)  “Like those who dine well off the plainest dishes, he made use of humble incidents to teach great truths” - Philosopher Apollonius on Aesop (1st Century AD) Aesop’s Fables (1687) Woodcut by Francis Barlow 16
  17. 17.  More than 600 fables attributed to Aesop  Earliest-known collection of Aesop's Fables by Demetrius of Phalerum (345-283 BC), a scholar at Great Library of Alexandria. Although the work of Demetrius was mentioned frequently for the next 12 centuries and was considered the official Aesop, no copy now survives.  Earliest-surviving version translated into Latin by Phaedrus (early 1st Century AD)  The Fables of Aesop, first English version by William Caxton (1484). 17
  18. 18.  Twelve languages:  English language – 219  French – 6  Ancient Greek & Latin – 6  Modern Greek – 5  German – 4  Italian – 3  Spanish – 3  Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Welsh – 1 each 18  Publication dates:  1500s – 2  1600s – 1  1700s – 12  1800s – 47  1900s – 141  2000s - 25
  19. 19. 19 Oldest Aesop’s Fables:  Fabvlarvm Qvae hoc libro cõtineñt interpretes, atq[ue] authores (1500s)  Contains Authors & Interpreters of Fables  Aesopi Phrygis Fabellae Graece & Latine (1530/1549)  Aesop the Phrygian’s Fables in Greek and Latin  Fabularum Aesopicarum Delectus (1698)  Selected Fables of Aesop  Greek & Latin with additional fables in Hebrew & Latin, Arabic & Latin Aesopi Phrygis Fabellae Graece & Latine Title page (1530)
  20. 20. 20 • Oldest English version: Fables of Aesop by Roger L'Estrange (1708) • H.G.L. Mag, The Eagle and the Robin. An Apologue (1709) • Jean de La Fontaine, Fables Choisies (1722) • John Locke's Aesop's Fables (1723) • Gabriello Faerno's Fables in English and French Verse (1741) • Robert Dodsley's Select Fables of Esop (1786)
  21. 21. 21 • Aesop's Fables : A New Version, Chiefly from Original Sources, by Thomas James • with more than 100 illustrations by John Tenniel • Published in London by John Murray and in New York by Robt. B. Collins
  22. 22. 22 • Baby's own Æsop: The Fables Condensed in Rhyme by Walter Crane • Illustrated by Edmund Evans • Published in London & New York by Routledge & Sons • Reprinted in 2011 by Pook Press
  23. 23. 23 • The Fables of Aesop: Compiled from the Best Accepted Sources • Sixty illustrations • Published in Philadelphia by Henry Altemus • Altemus Young People’s Library
  24. 24. 24 • The Fables of Aesop • Illustrated by Edward J. Detmold • Published in London by Hodder & Stoughton • Reprinted by Hodder & Stoughton in 1981
  25. 25. 25 • Aesop’s Fables for Children • Illustrated by Milo Winter • Published in Chicago by Rand McNally & Company
  26. 26. 26 • Aesop’s Fables by Munro Leaf • Illustrated by Robert Lawson • Published in New York by Heritage
  27. 27. 27 http://www.yankeeweb.com/library/storytime/fables/fables_38.html
  28. 28. 28 http://www.yankeeweb.com/library/storytime/fables/fables_38.html
  29. 29. • “The Dog and His Reflection” • It is foolish to be greedy. • “The Crow and the Pitcher” • Good use of our wits may help us out. • “The Wolf and the Crane” • Gratitude and greed go not together. • “The Fox and the Grapes” • Many despise and belittle what is beyond their reach. • “The Ant and the Grasshopper” • It is best to prepare for the days of necessity. • “The Tortoise and the Hare” • Slow and steady wins the race. 29
  30. 30. 30 Aesopica: mythfolklore.net/aesopica/ Best-Loved Aesop Fables mmdelrosario.hubpages.com/hub/Best-Loved-Aesop-Fables The Evolution of Aesop’s Fables ryerson.ca/childrenslit/group40.html The Fables of Aesop as First Printed by William Caxton in 1484, by Joseph Jacobs; London: David Nutt, 1889. archive.org/stream/fablesofaesopasf02aesouoft#page/n11/mode/2up Free Aesop’s Fables app for i-phone, i-pad, or android phone read.gov/aesop/index.htm Free Audio of Aesop’s Fables storynory.com/category/aesop/ Online Collection of Aesop’s Fables with Moral of the Story www.aesopfables.com/aesopsel.html Wise Animals: Aesop and His Followers www.library.illinois.edu/rbx/exhibitions/Aesop/aesopica.html
  31. 31. 31 Thank you for your attention… Questions?

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