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Voting elections and campaigns
Voting elections and campaigns
Voting elections and campaigns
Voting elections and campaigns
Voting elections and campaigns
Voting elections and campaigns
Voting elections and campaigns
Voting elections and campaigns
Voting elections and campaigns
Voting elections and campaigns
Voting elections and campaigns
Voting elections and campaigns
Voting elections and campaigns
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Voting elections and campaigns

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  • 1. Voting, Elections and Campaigns
  • 2. Patterns in Voter Turnout• turnout - the proportion of the voting- age public that votes• Education and Income – Higher education  more likely to vote – Higher income  more likely to vote• Age – Over 30  more likely to vote
  • 3. Patterns in Voter Turnout• Gender – About the same or women slightly more likely to vote• Race and Ethnicity – Whites tend to vote more regularly; may be education/income effects – Hispanic Americans less likely to vote than African Americans• Interest in Politics – More interested  more likely to vote
  • 4. Why Is Voter Turnout So Low?• Too Busy• Difficulty of Registration – burden of registration on individual• Difficulty of Absentee Voting• Number of Elections – as in too many elections
  • 5. Patterns in Vote Choice• Party Identification• Issues – retrospective judgment – evaluation of party in power – prospective judgment – evaluation of a candidate’s pledge
  • 6. Types of Elections– primary elections – who will represent party in general election– closed primaries – only party’s registered voters can participate– open primaries – anyone is allowed to vote, even from other parties– crossover voting – participation in the other party’s primary– raiding – organized attempt to influence other party results
  • 7. Types of Elections– runoff primary – occurs when there is no majority– general election – election to public office– initiative – citizens propose legislation– referendum – legislature proposes legislation– recall – remove an incumbent from office
  • 8. Nomination Campaign• Begins at candidacy and ends at the party convention – Primaries versus Caucuses • primaries direct election, caucuses party meetings • front-loading – the tendency of states to choose an early date on the primary calendar – The Party Conventions • nomination usually settled well in advance – Delegate Selection • delegates are usually more elite than average Americans
  • 9. The Key Players• The Candidate• The Campaign Staff – volunteers are central to campaigns.• The Candidate’s Professional Staff – campaign manager – coordinates the campaign – finance chair – fund-raising – pollster – public opinion surveys – direct mailer – direct mail fund-raising – communications director – media strategy – press secretary – communicates with journalists – Internet team – web resources
  • 10. The Electoral College• The Electoral College in the Nineteenth Century – confusion in 1800 – modified by the Twelfth Amendment – separate elections for president and vice president• The Electoral College in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries – Bush versus Gore (2000) – reapportionment – the reallocation of the number of seats in the House of Representatives allocated to each state after each decennial census. – shifts in population could alter the political map
  • 11. Congressional Elections• The Incumbency Advantage – people in office tend to remain in office. High rate of re- election, even when approval of Congress remarkably low…why? – Redistricting • redistricting – redrawing congressional districts to reflect increases or decreases in seats allotted to the states as well as population shifts within a state. • gerrymandering – drawing of boundaries to product a particular electoral outcome – The Impact of Scandals • Most incumbents implicated in scandals retire or resign
  • 12. Congressional Elections• Presidential Coattails – Successful presidential candidates carry into office congressional candidates of the same party in the same election• Midterm Elections – elections that take place in the middle of a presidential term – the incumbent party usually loses seats in midterm elections• The 2008 Congressional Elections – Democratic majority in both houses, plus the Presidency
  • 13. The Media’s Role in the Campaign Process• Paid Media – political advertisements – positive ads – negative ads – contrast ads – inoculation ads• Free Media – news stories – controlled by editors, not candidates• The New Media – Internet – more information, more quickly – “rapid response” – first use of internet in 1992 – social networking sites

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