• The Middle Ages  (a.k.a. the “Dark  Ages”) began  around 450 with  the  disintegration  and fall of the  Roman Empire.
• For the next thousand  years, all segments of  society were  dominated by the  powerful influence of  the Roman Catholic...
• The church  was also the  center of  musical life.• Liturgical  music was an  important  occupation in  monasteries  and...
• Most medieval  music was vocal,  though musicians  also performed on a  wide variety of  instruments.• The church frowne...
• However, after  1100, organs and  bells became  increasingly  common in  cathedrals and  monastic  churches.
• Organs were  played mainly  on feast days  and other  special  occasions.• Sometimes,  the clergy  complained  about noi...
For over    1,000 years, the   official  music ofthe Roman  Catholicchurch has  been the Gregorian   chant.
• Gregorian chant  consists of melody  set to sacred Latin  texts that is sung  without instrumental  accompaniment.• Its ...
Medieval monks and nuns spent   several  hours of  each day   singing Gregorian   chants    during   church  services, whi...
• Gregorian chant is  named after Pope  Gregory I (“the  Great”), who  reorganized the  Catholic liturgy  during his reign...
• Most of the  several thousand  Gregorian chants  known today  were created  between 600 and  1300 A.D.• Gregorian chant ...
• At first, Gregorian  melodies were passed  along by oral tradition,  but as the number of  chants grew to the  thousands...
• The composers  of Gregorian  chant remain  almost  completely  unknown.
• Males  received  music  education  in schools,  which were  associated  with  churches  and  cathedrals.
• Women were  excluded from  religious music-  making  everywhere but  in convents,  where they  were trained to  sing and...
One of the   earliest    knowncomposers isHildegard of    Bingen(1098-1179),    who is regarded as  one of the     mostcre...
• Hildegard was  born the tenth  child into a  noble German  family.• At the age of  eight, she was  sent as a  novice to ...
• In 1136,  Hildegard  became an  abbess.• Around the  age of 50, she  founded a  nunnery near  Bingen in the  Rhine Valle...
• A visionary and a  mystic, Hildegard  gained a reputation as  a prophetess during  her lifetime.• Popes, emperors,  mona...
• Between 1141 and  1170, Hildegard  recorded her mystical  experiences.• Scivias (Know the  Ways), written between  1141-...
• Though  never  formally  canonized,  she is often  referred to  as a saint.• She has a  feast day  which is  particularl...
Hildegard of Bingen      wrote:• Lyric and dramatic  poetry.• Music.• Treatises on theology,  science, and  medicine.• A m...
• Hildegard is now the  best-known and  most recorded  composer of sacred  medieval music.
Favus Distillans (“DrippingHoneycomb”)Responsory to Saint Ursula
• A responsory is a  sacred musical work  sung with a cantor  or small group  singing verses while  the whole choir or  co...
Ursula was a Romano-  British princess from  south-west England,  who set sail to join her  future husband, the  governor ...
Ursula headed for Rome  with her followers, and  persuaded the Pope  and the Bishop of  Ravenna to join them.After setting...
There weremany different   types of instruments    used insecular musicof the Middle     Ages.
Hurdy-gurdy (a.k.a. “wheel fiddle”)
•   Produces sound by a crank-turned    wheel rubbing against the strings.•   The wheel functions much like a    violin bo...
The vielle,     thepredecessor    of the   modern violin, wasthe principle  medieval    bowed instrument.
Harp, Vielle, Psaltery
Medievalmanuscriptillustration of a rabbit  playing a    harp
A remote ancestor of the   harpsichord and the   piano, the psaltery’sstrings were attached to a frame over a wooden   sou...
Medieval trumpets were straight      and had no valves.
A medieval shawm (far     left)resembled atrumpet butwas made of  wood andhad a single    reed.Also picturedis a bagpipe.
The hammered   dulcimer, an instrument withstrings stretched over a sounding  board that arestruck by mallets.    It was u...
Nakers were the ancestor of modernkettle drums. The gittern (center) was          a medieval guitar.
Lady playing a medieval viol,predecessor of  the modern     viola.
Minstrel playing a tabor, which was a portable snare drum                   played with one hand
Dances in the Middle Ages were often accompanied by         instrumental music               .
Nobles dancing to tabor and bagpipes
Shepherds Dancing at a Feast,(14th century), with a musician on       the bagpipes (far left)
Musicians in the Middle Ages• Few records  survive to  document the  professional  musicians of the  Middle Ages.
were traveling entertainers who toldstories and performed tricks in addition to making   music in castles, taverns, and to...
• The modern word  “juggler” is derived  from the French  “jongleur.”• These wandering  minstrels usually  sang songs and ...
Only a lucky fewperformers foundsteady work in the  service of the     nobility.Left: Court jester playing vielle.
and• French aristocrats cultivated courtly song by  poet-composers.• Called troubadours and trouvères, these  courtly comp...
• The central theme of their songs was “         ” (“courtly love” or “refined love”).• This was an idealized form of love...
Guillaumede Mauchat(c.1300-77)
• One of the most important composers of the  14th century.• French-born musician and poet who studied  theology.• Around ...
Puis qu’en oubli sui de vous         (“Since I am forgotten by you”)                    by Mauchat• Secular love song writ...
Puis quen oubli sui de vous, dous      Since I am forgotten by you, sweet               amis,                             ...
Francesco  Landini(c.1325-97)• Most celebrated  Italian composer  of the 14th  century• Blind from  boyhood
• Was a famous organist, poet, scholar, and  the inventor of a new string instrument.• Played many instruments, but was a ...
“Ecco la Primavera” (“Spring has Come”)               by Landini   Ecco la primavera                  Spring is here  che ...
• The renaissance  in music occurred  between 1450  and 1600.• The invention of  the printing press  and movable type  wid...
• Every  educated  person was  expected to  be trained in  music.
• Although the  church remained  an important  patron of music,  musical activity  gradually shifted  from the church to  ...
Josquin   Des Prez(c.1450-1521)
• Most influential composer of his time.• Contemporary of Leondado da Vinci and  Christopher Columbus.• Probably born in n...
“Scaramella” by Josquin  Scaramella va alla guerra     Scaramella is going off to war   colla lancia et la rotella       W...
• In England, the age  of Queen Elizabeth I  (1533-1603) and  William  Shakespeare (1564-  1616) was as much  a golden age...
Thomas Tallis (ca. 1505-1585)
• During his long and  productive lifetime,  the English  composer Thomas  Tallis served four  Tudor Renaissance  monarchs.
Henry VIII
Edward VI
Mary Tudor
Elizabeth I    (1533-1693)  Though born a Catholic, Tallis     managed to survive an   extremely dangerous age of     reli...
• Tallis is chiefly remembered for his church  music; he composed masses and hymns in  Latin as well as English service mu...
“When Shall My Sorrowful Sighing Slack?”                by Tallis   When shall my sorrowful sighing slack?    When shall m...
English Folk Music: “Greensleeves”• Famous and familiar English folk tune.• First entered in English records in 1580.• The...
William Byrd(c. 1540-1623)
A student of Tallis,William Byrd wrote both church and  secular music.
• Byrd was the most important English  composer of the Renaissance.• Although, like Tallis, he was Catholic, Byrd  served ...
Giovanni   Gabrieli(c.1555-1612)• A native of  Venice, Gabrieli  was the most  important  Venetian  composer of the  Renai...
• Became the principal organist and  composer at St. Mark’s Basilica in Rome.• Wrote secular vocal music early in life,  b...
John Dowland(c.1563-1626)• Famous composer  and lutenist.• In 1592, he played  before Queen  Elizabeth.• Traveled  through...
• In 1612, he achieved an  appointment at court in  England.• Wrote many religious  songs in his later years.• Melancholy ...
Michael  Praetorius(c.1571-1621)
• German composer and music  theorist.• Wrote a nine-volume collection  of church music called Musae  Sionae (1605-1610).•...
The madrigal “As Vesta Was Descending” byThomas Weelkes (mid- 1570s to 1623) is themost famous madrigal   in the collectio...
: Classical goddess of hearth and home,   (who was honored by the vestal virgins).                      : Queen Elizabeth ...
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
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Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance

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Music Appreciation Topic II: Music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance

  1. 1. • The Middle Ages (a.k.a. the “Dark Ages”) began around 450 with the disintegration and fall of the Roman Empire.
  2. 2. • For the next thousand years, all segments of society were dominated by the powerful influence of the Roman Catholic church.• In this age of widespread faith, the concept of hell was very real.
  3. 3. • The church was also the center of musical life.• Liturgical music was an important occupation in monasteries and convents.• In large medieval churches, sung words were heard more easily than spoken words.
  4. 4. • Most medieval music was vocal, though musicians also performed on a wide variety of instruments.• The church frowned on instruments because of their earlier role in pagan rites.
  5. 5. • However, after 1100, organs and bells became increasingly common in cathedrals and monastic churches.
  6. 6. • Organs were played mainly on feast days and other special occasions.• Sometimes, the clergy complained about noisy organs that distracted worshipers.
  7. 7. For over 1,000 years, the official music ofthe Roman Catholicchurch has been the Gregorian chant.
  8. 8. • Gregorian chant consists of melody set to sacred Latin texts that is sung without instrumental accompaniment.• Its purpose is to enhance specific parts of the religious service and to set the atmosphere for prayers and ritual actions.
  9. 9. Medieval monks and nuns spent several hours of each day singing Gregorian chants during church services, which were comprisedof both sungand spoken texts in Latin.
  10. 10. • Gregorian chant is named after Pope Gregory I (“the Great”), who reorganized the Catholic liturgy during his reign from 590-604.• Gregory, depicted in these two paintings, is also the patron saint of musicians.
  11. 11. • Most of the several thousand Gregorian chants known today were created between 600 and 1300 A.D.• Gregorian chant conveys a calm, otherworldly quality; it represents the voice of the church, rather than that of any single individual.
  12. 12. • At first, Gregorian melodies were passed along by oral tradition, but as the number of chants grew to the thousands, they were notated to ensure musical uniformity throughout the western church.
  13. 13. • The composers of Gregorian chant remain almost completely unknown.
  14. 14. • Males received music education in schools, which were associated with churches and cathedrals.
  15. 15. • Women were excluded from religious music- making everywhere but in convents, where they were trained to sing and even wrote music.
  16. 16. One of the earliest knowncomposers isHildegard of Bingen(1098-1179), who is regarded as one of the mostcreative and many-sidedpersonalitiesof the Middle Ages.
  17. 17. • Hildegard was born the tenth child into a noble German family.• At the age of eight, she was sent as a novice to the Benedictine monastery of Disibodenberg.
  18. 18. • In 1136, Hildegard became an abbess.• Around the age of 50, she founded a nunnery near Bingen in the Rhine Valley.• She died at the advanced age of 81.
  19. 19. • A visionary and a mystic, Hildegard gained a reputation as a prophetess during her lifetime.• Popes, emperors, monarchs, archbishops and clergymen of all kinds flocked to Bingen to consult this “Sibyl of the Rhine.”• She also preached throughout Germany.
  20. 20. • Between 1141 and 1170, Hildegard recorded her mystical experiences.• Scivias (Know the Ways), written between 1141-51 is a book about her visions.• After her death, Hildegard’s name was put forward by several popes as a candidate for canonization.
  21. 21. • Though never formally canonized, she is often referred to as a saint.• She has a feast day which is particularly celebrated in Germany.
  22. 22. Hildegard of Bingen wrote:• Lyric and dramatic poetry.• Music.• Treatises on theology, science, and medicine.• A musical drama, Ordo virtutum (Play of the Virtues), which is the earliest known morality play.
  23. 23. • Hildegard is now the best-known and most recorded composer of sacred medieval music.
  24. 24. Favus Distillans (“DrippingHoneycomb”)Responsory to Saint Ursula
  25. 25. • A responsory is a sacred musical work sung with a cantor or small group singing verses while the whole choir or congregation respond with a refrain.• Hildegard composed many chants in honor of Saint Ursula (depicted at right).
  26. 26. Ursula was a Romano- British princess from south-west England, who set sail to join her future husband, the governor of Brittany (in modern northwest France), along with 11,000 virginal handmaidens.A miraculous storm brought them over the sea in a single day, whereupon where Ursula declared that before her marriage she would undertake a pilgrimage across Europe.
  27. 27. Ursula headed for Rome with her followers, and persuaded the Pope and the Bishop of Ravenna to join them.After setting out for Cologne (in Germany), which was being besieged by Huns, all the virgins were beheaded in a dreadful massacre, and the leader of the Huns shot Ursula dead with an arrow.
  28. 28. There weremany different types of instruments used insecular musicof the Middle Ages.
  29. 29. Hurdy-gurdy (a.k.a. “wheel fiddle”)
  30. 30. • Produces sound by a crank-turned wheel rubbing against the strings.• The wheel functions much like a violin bow, and single notes played on the instrument sound similar to a violin.• Melodies are played on a keyboard that presses tangents (small wedges, usually made of wood) against one or more of the strings to change their pitch.
  31. 31. The vielle, thepredecessor of the modern violin, wasthe principle medieval bowed instrument.
  32. 32. Harp, Vielle, Psaltery
  33. 33. Medievalmanuscriptillustration of a rabbit playing a harp
  34. 34. A remote ancestor of the harpsichord and the piano, the psaltery’sstrings were attached to a frame over a wooden sounding board and plucked by the player.
  35. 35. Medieval trumpets were straight and had no valves.
  36. 36. A medieval shawm (far left)resembled atrumpet butwas made of wood andhad a single reed.Also picturedis a bagpipe.
  37. 37. The hammered dulcimer, an instrument withstrings stretched over a sounding board that arestruck by mallets. It was used extensively throughout the Middle Ages in England, France, Italy, Germany,Holland and Spain.
  38. 38. Nakers were the ancestor of modernkettle drums. The gittern (center) was a medieval guitar.
  39. 39. Lady playing a medieval viol,predecessor of the modern viola.
  40. 40. Minstrel playing a tabor, which was a portable snare drum played with one hand
  41. 41. Dances in the Middle Ages were often accompanied by instrumental music .
  42. 42. Nobles dancing to tabor and bagpipes
  43. 43. Shepherds Dancing at a Feast,(14th century), with a musician on the bagpipes (far left)
  44. 44. Musicians in the Middle Ages• Few records survive to document the professional musicians of the Middle Ages.
  45. 45. were traveling entertainers who toldstories and performed tricks in addition to making music in castles, taverns, and town squares.
  46. 46. • The modern word “juggler” is derived from the French “jongleur.”• These wandering minstrels usually sang songs and played instrumental dances on harps, fiddles and lutes.• They were also an important source of information in a time when there were no newspapers.
  47. 47. Only a lucky fewperformers foundsteady work in the service of the nobility.Left: Court jester playing vielle.
  48. 48. and• French aristocrats cultivated courtly song by poet-composers.• Called troubadours and trouvères, these courtly composers wrote the first large body of secular songs in decipherable notation during the 12th-13th centuries.• The term “troubadours” was used in the south of France and “trouvères” in the north.• Some were members of the nobility, while others were born to servants at court.• Others were accepted into aristocratic circles because of their accomplishments.
  49. 49. • The central theme of their songs was “ ” (“courtly love” or “refined love”).• This was an idealized form of love that refined the lover (not sexual).• Love from a distance, with respect and humility.• The object was a real woman, often another man’s wife.• The woman was unattainable, making unrewarded yearning (unrequited love) a major theme.
  50. 50. Guillaumede Mauchat(c.1300-77)
  51. 51. • One of the most important composers of the 14th century.• French-born musician and poet who studied theology.• Around 1323, he became secretary and chaplain to John, king of Bohemia.• Traveled to many courts and presented copies of his music and poetry to noble patrons.• His output is equally divided between sacred and secular music.
  52. 52. Puis qu’en oubli sui de vous (“Since I am forgotten by you”) by Mauchat• Secular love song written about Peronne, a beautiful young noblewoman whom Mauchat loved.• The relationship ended in disappointment.• Expresses Mauchat’s “farewell to joy,” since he has been forgotten by his beloved.• Is an example of a , one of the main poetic and musical forms in 14th-15th century France.
  53. 53. Puis quen oubli sui de vous, dous Since I am forgotten by you, sweet amis, friend, Vie amoureuse et joie à Dieu I bid farewell to a life of love and joy. commant. Mar vi le jour que mamour en vous Ill-fated was the day I placed my love mis, in you; Puis quen oubli sui de vous, dous Since I am forgotten by you, sweet amis. friend.Mais ce tenray que je vous ay promis, But what I have promised you I will Cest que jamais naray nul autre sustain: amant. That I shall never have any other love. Puis quen oubli sui de vous, dous amis, Since I am forgotten by you, sweet Vie amoureuse et joie à Dieu friend, commant. I bid farewell to a life of love and joy.
  54. 54. Francesco Landini(c.1325-97)• Most celebrated Italian composer of the 14th century• Blind from boyhood
  55. 55. • Was a famous organist, poet, scholar, and the inventor of a new string instrument.• Played many instruments, but was a virtuoso on the small organ (organetto/ portative organ).• Worked for a monastery and a church, but composed mostly secular music.• Music consists exclusively of Italian songs for two or three voices dealing with subjects from nature and love to morality and politics.• His song “Ecco la primavera” is a , an Italian poetic and musical form that originated as a song to accompany dancing.
  56. 56. “Ecco la Primavera” (“Spring has Come”) by Landini Ecco la primavera Spring is here che l cor fa rallegrare; To cheer the heart. tempF da nnamorare Time to fall in love e star con lieta cera. And put on a merry face.No vegiam laria e l tempo The newly fresh airche pur chiama allegreza; Calls us to cheer and in questo vago tempo merrymaking ogni cosa ha vagheza. In this changing time. Everything is quite lovely.Lerbe con gran frescheza e fiori copron prati e gli alberi adornati The greenery is new and fresh, sono in simil manera. And flowers cover the meadow And the trees are adorned with blossoms In the same way.
  57. 57. • The renaissance in music occurred between 1450 and 1600.• The invention of the printing press and movable type widened the circulation of music, and the number of composers and performers increased.
  58. 58. • Every educated person was expected to be trained in music.
  59. 59. • Although the church remained an important patron of music, musical activity gradually shifted from the church to the courts.• Musicians enjoyed a higher status than ever before.
  60. 60. Josquin Des Prez(c.1450-1521)
  61. 61. • Most influential composer of his time.• Contemporary of Leondado da Vinci and Christopher Columbus.• Probably born in northern France.• Was a singer in the private chapels of the Dukes of Anjou (France) and Milan (Italy).• Later became a singer in the Sistine Chapel in Rome.• In his later years, Josquin held several church posts in France under King Louis XII.• Was one of the first musical composers to relate his music closely to the text.
  62. 62. “Scaramella” by Josquin Scaramella va alla guerra Scaramella is going off to war colla lancia et la rotella With lance and bucklerLa zombero boro borombetta, La zombero boro borombetta,
 La boro borombo. La boro borombo Scaramella fa la gala Scaramella is out on a spree colla scharpa et la stivala With boot and shoeLa zombero boro borombetta, La zombero boro borombetta,
 La zombero boro borombo. La boro borombo.
  63. 63. • In England, the age of Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603) and William Shakespeare (1564- 1616) was as much a golden age in music as it was in literature.• The impetus for Renaissance music and drama arose in Italy, but the English treatment exhibited a lighter touch than its Italian models.
  64. 64. Thomas Tallis (ca. 1505-1585)
  65. 65. • During his long and productive lifetime, the English composer Thomas Tallis served four Tudor Renaissance monarchs.
  66. 66. Henry VIII
  67. 67. Edward VI
  68. 68. Mary Tudor
  69. 69. Elizabeth I (1533-1693) Though born a Catholic, Tallis managed to survive an extremely dangerous age of religious upheaval andpersecution, mainly by adapting his musical style to suit thecircumstances, and by keeping a low personal profile.
  70. 70. • Tallis is chiefly remembered for his church music; he composed masses and hymns in Latin as well as English service music, depending on the religious climate at the time (Catholic or Protestant) and the vastly different demands of the various monarchs he served under.• “When Shall My Sorrowful Sighing Slack” is one of the most obscure compositions from Tallis’s output: it appears to be secular song.• It may have been written for choirboys to perform for members of the nobility outside their church duties.
  71. 71. “When Shall My Sorrowful Sighing Slack?” by Tallis When shall my sorrowful sighing slack? When shall my woeful wailing cease? When shall my tears and mourning make mercy and pity me to release? When shall the pensive heart find peace? When shall the mind find quiet rest, that hath been long with thought opprest? How long shall I in woe lament? How long shall I in care complain? How long shall danger me torment, augmenting still my deadly pain, till hope and dread between them twain, agree that hope have her request? Till then live I with thought opprest.
  72. 72. English Folk Music: “Greensleeves”• Famous and familiar English folk tune.• First entered in English records in 1580.• There is a persistent belief that it was composed by Henry VIII for his lover and future queen Anne Boleyn, though this is not true.• Mentioned by Shakespeare in his play The Merry Wives of Windsor.• “What Child is This?” is a popular Christmas carol written by William Chatterton Dix in 1865 to the same tune.
  73. 73. William Byrd(c. 1540-1623)
  74. 74. A student of Tallis,William Byrd wrote both church and secular music.
  75. 75. • Byrd was the most important English composer of the Renaissance.• Although, like Tallis, he was Catholic, Byrd served the Church of England as an organist and composer.• His secular music included madrigals, consort pieces for viols, and keyboard music, especially the popular dance music loved by Queen Elizabeth and her court.• “Sing Joyfully unto God” is an anthem for six voices.
  76. 76. Giovanni Gabrieli(c.1555-1612)• A native of Venice, Gabrieli was the most important Venetian composer of the Renaissance.
  77. 77. • Became the principal organist and composer at St. Mark’s Basilica in Rome.• Wrote secular vocal music early in life, but later switched to sacred instrumental music that exploited sonorous sound to maximum effect.• Used the unusual layout of Saint Mark’s Basilica, with its two choir lofts facing each other, to create striking spatial effects with his music.• His “Canzon Prima” is scored for four-five brass instruments.
  78. 78. John Dowland(c.1563-1626)• Famous composer and lutenist.• In 1592, he played before Queen Elizabeth.• Traveled throughout Europe and became court lutenist to King Christian IV of Denmark.
  79. 79. • In 1612, he achieved an appointment at court in England.• Wrote many religious songs in his later years.• Melancholy and sensitive to criticism• Some of his finest songs have a quality of sadness.• Today, Dowland is ranked among the greatest English composers.
  80. 80. Michael Praetorius(c.1571-1621)
  81. 81. • German composer and music theorist.• Wrote a nine-volume collection of church music called Musae Sionae (1605-1610).• Also published a collection of over 300 instrumental dances based on tunes by Parisian dancing masters titled Terpsichore (1612).• As a theorist, Praetorius provided a detailed account of the forms, instruments (with descriptions and illustrations), and performance practices of his day, which is still of great historical significance.• “Ballet des Coqs” (“Dance of the Roosters”) was collected in Praetorius’s Terpsichore.• It is a dance tune keyed for five instruments.
  82. 82. The madrigal “As Vesta Was Descending” byThomas Weelkes (mid- 1570s to 1623) is themost famous madrigal in the collection. An English churchmusician and prolific composer, Weelkesserved variously as asinger and instructor.
  83. 83. : Classical goddess of hearth and home, (who was honored by the vestal virgins). : Queen Elizabeth (a.k.a. the “virgin queen”), arrives, attended by the (young shepherd boys). : young virginal women (whoare represented by Diana, the virgin goddess of chastity). They abandon Vesta’s side and run to join the shepherds. : a nickname for Queen Elizabeth I (meaning the rising or golden sun).

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