Organ transplantation
Organ transplantation: <ul><li>T he moving of a whole or partial organ from one body to </li></ul><ul><li>another or from ...
Major organs and Tissue transplant <ul><li>Thoracic: heart, lung, En bloc heart/lung </li></ul><ul><li>Abdomen: liver, kid...
History <ul><li>1905: First successful human corneal allograft transplant </li></ul><ul><li>Early 1900’s: The problem of r...
Stem cell transplantation <ul><li>Type of stem cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haemopoietic stem cell: BM, PB, cord blood </li>...
Adult haemopoietic and non-haemopoietec stem cell
Embryonic stem cell
Haemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation <ul><li>Defined by the source of stem cell </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bone marrow tr...
Route of Stem Cell Administration <ul><li>Direct tissue injection </li></ul><ul><li>Transvascular injection (Local circula...
 
Stem cell therapy for MI
Experience in Human <ul><li>The hope of stem cell transplantation is to treatment or </li></ul><ul><li>cure for diseases, ...
Human Genome Project (HGP) <ul><li>A 13 yrs project complete in 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify...
 
 
 
 
Gene testing <ul><li>DNA based test: direct examination of the DNA: DNA probe,  </li></ul><ul><li>DNA sequencing </li></ul...
 
Genetic diseases classification:  into 4 types <ul><li>1. Single-gene: > 6,000 known single gene disorders </li></ul><ul><...
Gene therapy <ul><li>The process by which DNA Sequence are delivered to cell with  </li></ul><ul><li>the goal of preventin...
Gene Delivery system <ul><li>Virus vector: Adenovirus, retrovirus </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic vector: lipid </li></ul>Rout...
Factors that inhibit gene therapy from  becoming an effective treatment for genetic  disease <ul><li>Short-lived nature of...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Organ Transplant

840

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
840
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
58
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Organ Transplant

  1. 1. Organ transplantation
  2. 2. Organ transplantation: <ul><li>T he moving of a whole or partial organ from one body to </li></ul><ul><li>another or from a donor site on the patient’s own body. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of transplants </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autograft </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allograft </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isograft </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xenograft </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Split transplant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domino transplant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Major organs and Tissue transplant <ul><li>Thoracic: heart, lung, En bloc heart/lung </li></ul><ul><li>Abdomen: liver, kidney, pancreas, small bowel </li></ul><ul><li>Others: hands, cornea, skin graft, penis </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues, cells, fluids: Islets of Langerhans, BM/ </li></ul><ul><li>stem cell, blood transfusion, blood vessels, </li></ul><ul><li>heart valve, bone, skin </li></ul>
  4. 4. History <ul><li>1905: First successful human corneal allograft transplant </li></ul><ul><li>Early 1900’s: The problem of rejection was identified </li></ul><ul><li>1951-1959: The immune reaction was identified and </li></ul><ul><li>immuno suppressive drugs (cortisone) and </li></ul><ul><li>azathioprine were used </li></ul><ul><li>1954: First successful kidney transplant between </li></ul><ul><li>identical twin </li></ul><ul><li>1963: First successful lung transplant for </li></ul><ul><li>lung cancer patient </li></ul><ul><li>1967: First successful for heart transplant </li></ul><ul><li>1970: Cyclosporin was discovered that altered, </li></ul><ul><li>transplants from reserched surgery to </li></ul><ul><li>life-saving treatment </li></ul><ul><li>1994: Modern immuno suppression, such as Tacrolimus </li></ul><ul><li>(Prograf) etc. were introduced in conjunction with </li></ul><ul><li>cyclosporin </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stem cell transplantation <ul><li>Type of stem cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haemopoietic stem cell: BM, PB, cord blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-haemopoietic stem cell: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic stem cell (pleuripotent stem cell) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adult stem cell (somatic stem cell) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Adult haemopoietic and non-haemopoietec stem cell
  7. 7. Embryonic stem cell
  8. 8. Haemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation <ul><li>Defined by the source of stem cell </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bone marrow transplantation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cord blood stem cell transplantation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined by type of donors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autologous SCT (Autograft) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allogeic SCT (Allograft) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syngeneic SCT (Isograft) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Route of Stem Cell Administration <ul><li>Direct tissue injection </li></ul><ul><li>Transvascular injection (Local circulation) </li></ul><ul><li>Intravenous injection </li></ul>
  10. 11. Stem cell therapy for MI
  11. 12. Experience in Human <ul><li>The hope of stem cell transplantation is to treatment or </li></ul><ul><li>cure for diseases, such as DM, stroke, spiral injury, </li></ul><ul><li>Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson disease, liver failure, </li></ul><ul><li>heart disease, MS, ESRD, cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Published reports of human stem cell trials </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart disease: Mononuclear BM cell infusion via </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coronary A in patients with MI  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>improve function and perfusion at 4-6 month FU </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal cord injury: direct injection of stem cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>improve motor function in these patients </li></ul>
  12. 13. Human Genome Project (HGP) <ul><li>A 13 yrs project complete in 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify all the approximately 20000-25000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>genes in human DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>base pairs that make up human DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store the information in databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer related technologies to the private sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address the ethical, legal and social issues that </li></ul></ul><ul><li>may arise from the project </li></ul>
  13. 18. Gene testing <ul><li>DNA based test: direct examination of the DNA: DNA probe, </li></ul><ul><li>DNA sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemical test for gene product </li></ul><ul><li>Indication for gene testing </li></ul><ul><li>1. Carrier screening </li></ul><ul><li>2. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>3. Prenatal diagnostic testing </li></ul><ul><li>4. Newborn screening </li></ul><ul><li>5. Presymptomatic testing for predicting adult onset disorders </li></ul><ul><li> such as PCKD </li></ul><ul><li>6. Presymptomatic testing for estimating the risk of developing </li></ul><ul><li>cancers and Alzheimer’s disease </li></ul><ul><li>7. Confirmational Dx of a symptomatic individual </li></ul><ul><li>8. Forensic/identify testing </li></ul>
  14. 20. Genetic diseases classification: into 4 types <ul><li>1. Single-gene: > 6,000 known single gene disorders </li></ul><ul><li>(1:200 every birth): Thalassemia, Marfan syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>2. Multifactorial (complex/polygenic): IHD, HT, Alzheimer’s, </li></ul><ul><li>DM, Cancer, obesity </li></ul><ul><li>3. Chromosomal: Down syndrome (trisomy 21) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Mitochondria: rare </li></ul>
  15. 21. Gene therapy <ul><li>The process by which DNA Sequence are delivered to cell with </li></ul><ul><li>the goal of preventing, treating or curing diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Gene delivery is now being used to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver genes encoding therapeutic proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silence disease-causing genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver viral or bacterial genes as a form of vaccination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace missing or defective genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver genes that promote growth of new tissue or </li></ul></ul><ul><li>stimulate regeneration of damaged tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver genes that catalyze the destruction of cancer cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>or cause cancer cells to revert back to normal tissue </li></ul>
  16. 22. Gene Delivery system <ul><li>Virus vector: Adenovirus, retrovirus </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic vector: lipid </li></ul>Routes of Administration <ul><li>Ex-vivo gene therapy </li></ul><ul><li>In-vivo gene therapy: local delivery to the target organ </li></ul><ul><li>or IV infusion </li></ul>
  17. 23. Factors that inhibit gene therapy from becoming an effective treatment for genetic disease <ul><li>Short-lived nature of gene therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with viral vectors </li></ul><ul><li>Multigenes disorders </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×