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Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
Disorders of speech and language
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Disorders of speech and language

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  • 1. Smile - 6 weeks 2. Laugh- 3-4 months 3. Babble – 4-6 months 4. Copies sound – 6-9 months
  • Transcript

    • 1. Disorders of speech & Language Dr T Balasubramanian
    • 2. Introduction <ul><li>Communication is a fundamental part in the developmental process
    • 3. ENT surgeons are commonly involved in diagnosing and treating patients with communication disorders
    • 4. Speech language therapists play a vital role in managing children with communication problems </li></ul>
    • 5. Normal speech development essentials <ul><li>Sensory stimulation – normal
    • 6. Imitation
    • 7. Experimentation
    • 8. Feedback </li></ul>
    • 9. Sensory stimulation <ul><li>Normal hearing is a must for normal speech
    • 10. Hearing diability is the commonest cause of speech disturbance
    • 11. Earlier hearing disability is identified and corrected chances of normal speech development is bright
    • 12. Augmentation devices should be prescribed at a very early age – under the age of 1 in patients with deafness </li></ul>
    • 13. Imitation <ul><li>Speech is learnt by imitation
    • 14. Child loves to imitate its mother
    • 15. More the mother talks to the child – faster the speech develops </li></ul>
    • 16. Experimentation <ul><li>Child loves to experiment
    • 17. Control and generation of speech is largely gained through experimentation
    • 18. Drooling is one feature of experimentation
    • 19. Drooling stops as soon as the child comes out of this phase </li></ul>
    • 20. Feed back <ul><li>Encouragement
    • 21. Emotions – mother
    • 22. Response to sounds generated by the child </li></ul>
    • 23. Stages of speech development
    • 24. Stages of phonation <ul><li>Phonation stage
    • 25. Primitive articulation stage
    • 26. Expansion phase
    • 27. Canonical babbling phase </li></ul>
    • 28. Phonation stage <ul><li>Occurs during the first 2-3 months
    • 29. Infant raises vowel like sounds
    • 30. Sounds produced are known as cooing </li></ul>
    • 31. Primitive articulation stage <ul><li>This is also referred as gooing
    • 32. Wide variety of sounds are produced by the infant in this stage
    • 33. This phase is a must before the child can migrate to the expansion phase </li></ul>
    • 34. Expansion phase <ul><li>In this phase the infant combines vowels with consonents
    • 35. Infant needs to be encouraged during this stage </li></ul>
    • 36. Canonical babbling phase <ul><li>In this stage the infant learns to string syllables to form complex sounds
    • 37. In this phase child learns to speak works like mamma, dadda etc. </li></ul>
    • 38. Classification of speech disorders <ul><li>Receptive disorders
    • 39. Expressive disorders
    • 40. Mixed disorders </li></ul>
    • 41. Receptive disorders <ul><li>Neurological – secondary to cognitive impairment
    • 42. Sensory – Secondary to hearing / visual impairment
    • 43. Environmental – Poor sensory stimulation </li></ul>
    • 44. Expressive disorders <ul><li>Voice disorders
    • 45. Oropharyngeal structural disorders – cleft palate, rhinolalia
    • 46. Motor nerve and cortical disorders (dysarthria)
    • 47. Fluency disorders (stuttering) </li></ul>
    • 48. Combined disorders <ul><li>Psycological morbidity (Autism)
    • 49. Developmental disorders (cerebral palsy) </li></ul>
    • 50. Speech / language delay <ul><li>Commonest problem
    • 51. Parental anxiety
    • 52. Rescorla criteria – Children at 24 months who speak less than 50 single words and use no two words combination belong to this group
    • 53. Incidence is about 15% of normal population </li></ul>
    • 54. Problems of delayed speech <ul><li>Literacy problems
    • 55. Socializing problems
    • 56. Behavioral problems
    • 57. Learning difficulties
    • 58. Antisocial activities </li></ul>
    • 59. Importance of history in diagnosis of delayed speech <ul><li>Details of pregnancy
    • 60. Details of delivery
    • 61. Developmental milestones
    • 62. Feeding history of the child </li></ul>
    • 63. Normal speech development depends on <ul><li>Respiration
    • 64. Phonation
    • 65. Articulation
    • 66. Resonance
    • 67. Velopharyngeal sphincter </li></ul>
    • 68. Nasal speech <ul><li>Rhinolalia clausa
    • 69. Rhinolalia aperta </li></ul>
    • 70. Thank you

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