Presentation of Learning Disabilities by Dr Tarek Elabsy
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Presentation of Learning Disabilities by Dr Tarek Elabsy Presentation of Learning Disabilities by Dr Tarek Elabsy Presentation Transcript

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  • WHAT IS A LEARNING DISABILITY?
    • 1) A learning disability is any of a number of conditions that make the process of learning difficult because of the way the brain processes information.
    • 2) A disorder found in children of normal intelligence who have difficulties in learning specific skills.
    • 3) An extreme difficulty in performing a specific mental skill such as reading or doing mathematical problems. It is inconsistent with the person's overall intelligence and sometimes linked to perceptual or memory problems.
    • 4) A disorder in basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or use mathematical calculations.
    • 5) A variety of disorders, including hyperactivity, dyslexia, and hearing problems, that can interfere with a person's ability to learn
    • 6) A disorder that hinders people's ability to either interpret what they see or what they hear . These limitations are characterized by difficulty in reading, writing, and arithmetic.
    • SYMPTOMS OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
    • Motor difficulties
    • Math difficulties
    • Language difficulties
    • Reading difficulties
    • Writing difficulties
    • Auditory and visual processing difficulties
    • EXPLANATION OF LEARNING DISABILITIES SYMPTOMS
    • Motor Difficulties
    • * m otor skills such cutting or writing
    • * gross motor skills such as climbing or running
    • *motor coordination such as holding a pencil or buttoning a shirt
    • Math Difficulties
    • *memorization and organization of numbers
    • *operation signs, and number “facts”
    • *counting problems or difficulty telling time
    • Language difficulties
    • *understand or produce spoken language
    • *verbal language skills
    • * inability to retell a story or to understand the meaning of words, parts of speech, directions, etc.
    • Reading Difficulties
    • *Basic reading problems
    • recognition of letters , words
    • * Reading Comprehension
    • - reading speed and fluency
    • general vocabulary skills
    • skimming & scanning
    • Writing Difficulties
    • *difficulty forming words and letters
    • *neatness and consistency of writing
    • *spelling consistency
    • *writing organization and coherence
    • Auditory and Visual Processing Difficulties
    • *inability to distinguish distinctive differences in sound
    • *missing distinctive differences in shape
    • * reversing letters or numbers
    • * skipping lines
    • * misperceiving depth or distance
    • * having problems with eye-hand coordination
    • TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
    • Dyslexia
    • language disorders . impairment to interpret spatial relationships . inability to integrate visual and auditory information
    • Problems linking letters with sounds
    • Writing words backwards
    • Reversing the shapes of similar letters ‘d, b’
    • Problems following directions with many steps
    • Problems rhyming
    • Dyscalculia
    • severe difficulty in making simple mathematical calculations
    • Dysgraphia 
    • . severe writing difficulties . inability to write
  • TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
    • Dyspraxia / Apraxia
    • inability to perform conditioned movement
    • problems with fine motor tasks such as:
    • *getting dressed * combing hair*using pens or pencils
    • Aphasia/Dysphasia
    • aphasia is total inability of communication caused by brain damage or tumor
    • dysphasia is impairment in communication
    • fully or partially disabled to understand, speak, read, write or do mathematical calculations
  • TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
    • Auditory / Visual Processing Disorders
    • * inability to distinguish distinctive differences in sound
    • *missing distinctive differences in shape
    • * reversing letters or numbers
    • * skipping lines
    • * misperceiving depth or distance
    • * having problems with eye-hand coordination
    • DIAGNOSIS OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
    • Diagnosis of learning disabilities is highly sophisticated and nobody other than well-trained personnel can diagnose it
    • WHO CAN DIAGNOSE LEARNING DISABILITIES?
    • Clinical psychologist
    • School psychologist
    • Educational psychologist
    • Developmental psychologist
    • Neuropsychologist
    • Psychometrist
    • Occupational therapist
    • LEARNING DIFFICULTIES & LEARNING DISABILITIES
    • They are not the same
    • Learning disabilities are diagnosable
    • Children with learning disabilities are eligible for special education
    • Learning difficulties can be confusing for they have some slightly similar symptoms but not as severe as the symptoms of learning disabilities
    • Some children may have slight problems with reading or mathematics but not for cerebral problems
    • Children with learning difficulties need some different instruction techniques, passionate teachers, caring school staff
    • LEARNING DISABILITIES & PATHOLOGY
    • * Learning disabilities are thought to be attributed to cerebral problems (brain problems)
    • DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY (BOARD OF EDUCATION)
    • A school-age student is eligible for special education services if the student:
    • Meets the criteria for one or more of the FOLLOWING disability classifications and The student requires approved special education services and programs.
    • If the student does not meet the criteria for one or more of the disability classifications that follow, the school-age student is not eligible for special education services.
    • Additionally, a student is not eligible even if he or she meets the criteria of one of the classifications listed , but does not require special education services and programs, based on the decision of the IEP team.
    • ELIGIBILITY (NYC DOE)
    • Below is a list of classifiable disabilities:
    • _ Autism
    • _ Deafness
    • _ Deaf-Blindness
    • _ Emotional Disturbance
    • _ Hearing Impairment
    • _ Learning Disability
    • _ Mental Retardation
    • _ Multiple Disabilities
    • _ Orthopedic Impairment
    • _ Other Health Impairment
    • _ Speech or Language Impairment
    • _ Traumatic Brain Injury
    • _ Visual Impairment
    • CRITERIA FOR ELIGIBILITY
    • Learning Disability (Board of Education)
    • Learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved
    • in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which manifests itself in an imperfect
    • ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes
    • such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and
    • developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of
    • visual, hearing or motor disabilities; of mental retardation; of emotional disturbance or of
    • environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage.
    • INCIDENCE OF LEARNING DISABILITY
    • approx 1 in 59 or 1.69% or 4.6 million people in USA [ Source statistic for calcuation: "4.6 million children (NHIS-97)"
    • Nearly 4 million children have learning disabilities (NIMH)
    • 7.7% of children have ever been told they had a learning disability in the US 2001 (Summary Health Statistics for US Adults, National Health Interview Survey, 1999, NCHS, CDC)
    • UNIQUE FEATURES OF THE EVALUATION
    • *Learning problems noticed by parents, relatives, etc
    • *Seeking specialized advice
    • *Intervention through meetings with parents & teachers
    • *Initial referral from licensed specialists
    • *Testing process ( required by federal & state regulations) to determine eligibility for SE
    • *If eligible for SE, learning disability test results used for
    • *Individualized Educational Program (IEP)
    • *Six-day time window ( required by IDEA)
    • COMPONENTS OF LD ELIGIBILITY TEST
    • Review of educational records
    • Observations
    • Review of student work
    • Medical, vision, and hearing and audio-logical examination
    • Developmental and Social History
    • Fine and Gross Motor Evaluation
    • Adaptive Behavior
    • Speech and Language Assessment
    • Intellectual Ability or "IQ" tests
    • Assessment of Academic Skills
    • Social and Emotional Testing
    • Behavioral Testing
    • OTHER VALUABLE DISABILITY SPECIFIC INFORMATION
    • GIFTED CHILDREN & LEARNING DISABILITIES
    • Gifted children can have symptoms for LD’s
    • Gifted may be diagnosed for having LD’s
    • Gifted children have :
    • uncommon learning styles
    • Mistaken symptoms for learning disabilities
    • Learning disorders or difficulties but not LD’s
    • Some problems with instruction styles & techniques
    • PLACEMENT OPTIONS
    • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires that all children with disabilities must be educated in the least restrictive environment (LRE) that is appropriate for them.
    • IEP decides what is the least restrictive environment
    • based on:
    • * child’s learning needs
    • * difference in character qualities
    • * unnecessary movement or isolation
    • * service convenience to children
    • CONTINUUM OF PLACEMENT OPTIONS
    Inside the school Outside the school General education classroom (GE) GE with indirect assistance GE with direct assistance GE with part resource room GE with part time special day class Full time special day class at local school Full time special day class at special school Residential school Special treatment and detention centers Hospital instruction Homebound instruction
    • IEP’S SAMPLES of GOAL AREAS
    • Annual Goals and Short-Term Objectives
    • John will demonstrate improved ability to drink liquids during mealtimes and other activities.
    • • At all times, when presented with a juice box and straw held by an adult, and placed at his mouth, John will demonstrate lip closure and take 2 sips from the straw without spillage, 4/5 opportunities over a 2 week period.
    • • At all times, when presented with a juice box and straw held by an adult, and placed at his mouth, John will demonstrate lip closure and take 5 sips from the straw without spillage, 4/5 opportunities over a 2 week period.
    • • At all times, when presented with a juice box and straw held by an adult, and placed at his mouth, John will demonstrate lip closure while drinking the entire contents of the juice box, 4/5 opportunities over a 2 week period.
    • John will demonstrate improved fine motor skills as they relate to reaching for and grasping/holding familiar objects.
    • • During daily activities involving a preferred toy and positioned on a bolster or wedge, John will extend his left arms in the direction of the object, bring his fingers in contact with the object and sustain contact for 5 seconds, 4/5 opportunities over a 2 week period.
    • • During a requested daily activity and positioned on a bolster/wedge or in a seated position, John will grasp a preferred object for at least 10 seconds (with an adult molding his fingers around the object and releasing), 4/5 opportunities over a 2 week period.
    • • During daily activities, and positioned optimally for instruction, John will reach out with his left arm and grasp and hold a preferred object or person’s hand for at least 10-15 seconds, 4/5 opportunities over a 2 week period.
    • John will demonstrate improved ability to communicate his wants, needs and choices during daily activities/routines across all environments.
    • • During daily activities/routines, with 2 single cell voice output communication devices (with picture symbols) spaced 2 feet apart on his laptray, and in response to the question “What do you want?”, John will choose between 2 preferred foods by activating the appropriate switch, 4/5 opportunities over a 2 week period.
    • • During daily activities/routines, with 2 single cell voice output communication devices ( with picture symbols) spaced 3-6 inches apart on his laptray, and in response to the question “What do you want to do?”, John will choose between 2 familiar activities by activating the appropriate switch, 4/5 opportunities over a 2 week period.
    • • During daily activities/routines with a single cell voice output device placed within his reach on his laptray or adaptive equipment, John will request attention from adults in his environment by activating the message “come here”, 4/5 opportunities over a 2 week period.
    • John will demonstrate improved ability to attend to familiar and novel tasks during daily routines/activities across all environments.
    • • During daily activities/routines involving an adult and 1 additional student, John will initiate and maintain eye contact with a speaker and/or object for at least 30 seconds, 4/5 opportunities over a 2 week period.
    • • During preferred daily activities/routines involving an adult and 1 additional student, John will attend to and participate in the activity for at least 2 minutes with 1 redirection to task, 4/5 opportunities over a 2 week period.
    • • During daily activities/routines involving an adult and 2 additional students, John will attend to and participate in the activity for at
    • Referenecs & Resources
    • Dyscalculia: Learning Disabilities in Mathematics – Discusses symptoms, diagnosis, effects, and treatment for the learning disability dyscalculia. (National Center for Learning Disabilities) Retrieved September, 20 from www.dyscalculia.org/Edu502
    • Dysgraphia – Provides a description of the writing problems that are characteristic of the learning disability dysgraphia, with a wealth of solutions. Retrieved September 20 from www.as.wvu.edu/~scidis/learning.html
    • Nonverbal Learning Disorders – Excellent overview of this often–neglected learning disability, which often goes unidentified until adolescence. Retrieved September 21 from www.ldonline.org › LD Topics › Nonverbal LD
    • Auditory Processing Disorder in Children – Clear, detailed description of this learning disability where the child's ears work properly, but the brain has trouble interpreting what the ears hear. www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/auditory
    • Learning program based on brain research – Development of Fast ForWord, a program to help kids with auditory processing disorder learn to read. Retrieved September 21 from www.scilearn.com
    • Understanding Sensory Integration – Provides an overview of the learning disability sensory integration dysfunction, which heightens and confuses the sensory information a child takes in. Retrieved September 21 from www.helpguide.org/mental/learning_disabilities
    • Early acquisition of ASL, an innovative approach to treating ADHD (PDF) – authored by Deborah A. Cutter, Psy.D., MFT, Clinical Director of Creative Behavioral Consultants and Susan M. Zneimer, Ph.D., FACMG , Adjunct Professor at the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine. Retrieved September 22 from www.zoominfo.com/people/Cutter_Deborah
    • Learning Disabilities Basics – Selection of articles on different aspects of learning disabilities including signs and symptoms and brain research. Retrieved September 21 from www.kidsource.com/kidsource/pages/dis.learning