Preparing High School Students With Disabilities For College03


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Preparing High School Students With Disabilities For College03

  1. 1. Preparing High School Students with Disabilities for College Online Disability Services Susan Maher
  2. 2. Presentation Objectives <ul><li>Suggest research-based objectives for college bound special needs students </li></ul><ul><li>Present models of memory and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Review learning profiles and self-determination skills </li></ul><ul><li>Review disability law in higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Present skills of successful students with special needs in college </li></ul>
  3. 3. Research-based Objectives <ul><li>Promote effective learning and academic strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Promote skills in self-motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor students’ acquisition of skills in self-determination </li></ul><ul><li>Provide reasonable accommodations </li></ul><ul><li>Advocate for the full participation of students with special needs in the academic programs </li></ul>
  4. 4. Further Along the Road Less Traveled by M. Scott Peck, M.D. <ul><li>“… Confusion leads to a search for clarification and with that search comes a great deal of learning. The people…did not go to bed one night in 1492 thinking the earth was flat only to wake up the next morning knowing it was round. …And for an old idea to die and a new and better idea to take its place, we have to go through “such” periods of confusion.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. A Laboratory of Her Own by David L. Wheeler <ul><li>“ Neuroscientists have long believed that learning and remembering occur in synapses….Repeated activation of a synapse strengthens the connection between the cells and make chemical communication between them easier. Such long-lasting changes are said to form the basis for all forms of learning.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Working Memory Short-Term Memory Decay Interference Rehearsal Information Long-Term Memory
  7. 7. Basic Memory Process Encoding Code and Put Into Memory Storage Maintain in Memory Retrieval Recover from Memory
  8. 8. Model for Sensory, Working, and Long-Term Memory Sensory Memory Temporary Storage of S ensory Information Attention Information Passes Through Attention Gate To Short-Term Memory Working Memory Brief Storage of Current Information Rehearsal Information Subjected to Deep Processing And Transferred to Long-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Relatively Permanent Storage of Information
  9. 9. The PASS Model of Ability
  10. 10. Experiential Learning nd tckl grd cntr hlfbk flbk qrtr bk
  11. 11. Experiential Learning <ul><li>Feature films are the </li></ul><ul><li>result of years of scientific </li></ul><ul><li>study combined with the </li></ul><ul><li>experience of years. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Listen Speak Read Write Reason Math Spelling Average Student Slow Learner Student w/Learning Mentally Challenged Disabilities Adapted from Brinckerhoff, L.C., Shaw, S.F., & McGuire, J.M. (1993). Promoting Postsecondary Education for Students with Learning Disabilities ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
  13. 13. Disabilities and the Law: Rehabilitation Act of 1973 <ul><li>Education for all Handicapped Children Act </li></ul><ul><li>or IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education </li></ul><ul><li>Act </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose to serve children within certain disability groups </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a free and appropriate education </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an individualized education plan </li></ul><ul><li>Provide education in least restrictive environment to meet individual needs </li></ul>
  14. 14. Disabilities and the Law: Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (cont.) <ul><li>Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act or ADA: </li></ul><ul><li>Americans with Disabilities Act </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose is to end discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Serve disability that substantially limits a major life activity </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable accommodations are required </li></ul><ul><li>Should offer examinations and courses in a manner accessible to persons with disabilities </li></ul>
  15. 15. Services in Higher Education Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) <ul><li>Schools may not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit the number of students with special needs admitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make preadmission inquires as to whether or not an applicant has a disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give examinations that do not accurately reflect the student’s achievement levels, but rather measure aspects of the student’s disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute prohibitive rules that may adversely affect students such as prohibiting the use of a quiet room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refuse to modify academic requirements that would afford qualified students with disabilities an opportunity for full participation </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Services in Higher Education Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) <ul><li>A school is obliged to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a person responsible for helping with students request for accommodations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have procedures in place for helping students access the accommodations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide students with clear information regarding policies and procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify non-essential academic requirements to ensure that students have an equal opportunity to participate fully in all programs </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Services in Higher Education Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) <ul><li>School has no obligation to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide accommodations to students who have not identified themselves as disabled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide accommodations that have not been requested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify academic requirements that the school can demonstrate are essential to instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide services of a personal nature such as attendants or tutors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guarantee that a student will be successful even when accommodations are provided </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Extended Time as an Accommodation  1 . 8 .6 .4 .2 ____________________________________ 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 SUBJECTS L.D./Timed L.D./Extra-Time N.A./Extra-Time N.A./Timed Runyan, M.K. (1991 ) The effect of extra time on reading comprehension scores for university students with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities . 104-108.
  19. 19. Successful Students with Disabilities in Higher Education <ul><li>Use their strength to compensate for their disability </li></ul><ul><li>Articulate to others their disability areas </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow failure to discourage them </li></ul><ul><li>Feel that failure prepares them to succeed the next time </li></ul><ul><li>Have a high level of awareness of their own learning abilities and the impact of their disability as well as the best ways to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize support services and accommodations </li></ul><ul><li>Understand their academic endeavors might take longer than their nondisabled peers </li></ul><ul><li>Have a high level of tolerance for frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid waivers for mathematics or foreign language classes and attempt to pass with support and accommodations </li></ul><ul><li>Access study skills courses that have learning strategy instruction </li></ul>
  20. 20. Self-Determination From “Development of a Model for Self-Determination,” S. Field and A. Hoffman, in press, Career Development for Exceptional Individuals ↓ ← ← ← <ul><li>Know Yourself ↔ Value Yourself </li></ul><ul><li>-Dream -Accept yourself ↑ </li></ul><ul><li>-Know your strengths, weaknesses, -Respect needs </li></ul><ul><li>needs and preferences </li></ul><ul><li>-Decide what is important to you ↓ ↑ </li></ul><ul><li>-Know the option </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>-Set goals -Anticipate results </li></ul><ul><li>-Plan actions to meet goals ↓ -Be creative </li></ul><ul><li>-Visually rehearse ↑ </li></ul><ul><li>Act </li></ul><ul><li>-Take risks -Negotiate </li></ul><ul><li>-Communicate ↓ -Deal w/criticism </li></ul><ul><li>-Access support -Be persistent ↑ </li></ul><ul><li>Experience Outcomes & Learn </li></ul><ul><li>-Compare outcome to expected outcome -Realize success </li></ul><ul><li>-Compare performance to expected performance -Make adjustments ↑ </li></ul><ul><li>-> -> -> -> </li></ul>
  21. 21. SQ3R: A Textbook Reading Strategy <ul><li>Survey the Chapter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read preface, table of contents, summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaf through book noting graphs, charts, pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does the title mean? Headings? Subheadings? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do I already know about the subject? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What did my teacher say about this chapter? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read BEFORE class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read to answer questions raised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read all added attractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read 5-10 pages per night </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DO something with information such as note cards, written notes, outlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recite IMMEDIATELY after you read and mark key ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review, Review, Review daily and weekly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan a final review </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. LISAN: A Listening Strategy <ul><li>Lead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read outside assignments BEFORE you come to class so you will be more alert to important words, names, or ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up questions to keep yourself focused while you listen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the point? New idea? Outlining? Explaining? An example? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch for teacher signals of big ideas such as “There are three reasons why….” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support signals may be signaled by “On the other hand…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be an active listener </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit close to teacher and look at her/him </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize your listening around what you already know from reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be selective in what you write down. Search for important core ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized outlined notes are easier to remember </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reread and revise notes as review </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Thank you! For copies of this Power Point please email: Online Disability Services Susan Maher