Deadbody disposal

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Guidelines on Disposal of Dead Bodies of Cattle and other Domestic Animals during Natural Disasters /Calamities (Heavy Rains-Floods-Tsunamis-Earthquakes) as well as Outbreaks of Zoonotic Diseases

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Deadbody disposal

  1. 1. CATTLE MANAGEMENT IN DISASTER DISPOSAL OF DEAD BODIES (24 TH & 25 TH JANUARY 2008) DR. S. J. GANDHI DEPUTY DIRECTOR (EPIDEMIC BRANCH) COMMISSIONER OF HEALTH MEDICAL SERVICES & MEDICAL EDUCATION GANDHINAGAR
  2. 2. ANTHRAX <ul><li>AFTER CONFIRMATION OF BEING A CASE OF ANTHRAX, A CARCASS SHOULD NOT BE OPENED AND SHOULD BE DISPOSED OF BY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INCINERATION OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RENDERING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DEEP BURIAL AFTER DISINFECTION IS A LESS FAVORURED OPTION. </li></ul><ul><li>BLOOD FROM THE DEAD ANIMAL SHOULD BE COLLECTED BY FOLLOWING STRICT ASEPTIC PRECAUTIONS FOR CONFIRMATION OF DIAGNOSIS. </li></ul><ul><li>NECROPSY SHOULD NOT BE DONE, AS THIS HAS THE RISK OF SPREAD OF INFECTION. </li></ul>
  3. 3. EDUCATION <ul><li>EDUCATE EMPLOYEES ABOUT MODES OF ANTHRAX TRANSMISSION. </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROL DUST AND PROPERLY VENTILATE ALL HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIES PARTICULARLY WHICH ARE HANDELING RAW ANIMAL MATERIALS </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT USE /SELL HIDES OF ANIMALS EXPOSED TO ANTHRAX NOR USE THEIR CARACASSES AS FOOD OR FEED SUPPLEMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>TREAT PROPERLY THE EFFLUENTS FROM HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIES HANDELING ANIMALS,ETC. </li></ul>
  4. 4. MEASSURES IN OUTBREAKS <ul><li>INVESTIGATE </li></ul><ul><li>CONFIRM WITH LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>SEARCH FOR THE SOURCE </li></ul><ul><li>IN THE AFFACTED AREA: - </li></ul><ul><li>THE CARACASSES OF INFECTED CATTEL ARE TO BE EITHER BURNT AT THE SITE OF DEATH </li></ul><ul><li>THE ASHES BURIED DEEPLY,OR WRAPPED IN DOUBLE THICKNESS PLASTIC BAG TO PREVENT SPILLING OF BODY FLUIDS AND REMOVED TO A MORE SUITABLE SITE WHERE THEY ARE BURNT AND THE ASHES BURIED </li></ul><ul><li>THE SITE WHERE THE ANIMAL DIED IS TO BE DISINFECTED WITH 5% FORMALDEHYDE AFTERE DISPOSAL OF CARACASS </li></ul><ul><li>ALL OTHER ANIMALS IN THE AFFACTED AREA ARE TO BE VACCINATED </li></ul>
  5. 5. QUARNTINE & OTHER PRECAUTIONS <ul><li>AFFACTED PREMISSES ARE TO BE QUARANTINED FOR AT LEAST 20 DAYS AFTER THE LAST CASE OR 6 WEEKS AFTER VACCINATION, WHICHEVER IS LATER </li></ul><ul><li>ANY MILK COLLECTED FROM A COW, BUFFALO OR GOAT SHOWING SIGNS OF ANTHRAX WITHIN 8 HOURS OF MILKING IS TO BE DESTROYED, ALONG WITH ANY OTHER MILK THAT MAY HAVE BEEN MIXED WITH SUSPECTED MILK </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE ENTERRING INFECTED PREMISES ARE REQUIRRED TO WEAR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, WHICH ARE DISINFECTED BEFORE LEAVING THE PREMISES </li></ul><ul><li>ALL CATTLE ON NEIGHBOURING PREMISES SHOULD ALSO BE VACCINATED </li></ul>
  6. 6. QUARNTINE & OTHER PRECAUTIONS <ul><li>A BUFFER ZONE, 20-30 KM WIDE, IS TO BE ESTABLISHED AROUND THE INFECTED AREA, WITHIN WHICH ALL CATTLE AND EXPOSED SHEEP ARE VACCINATED AND QUARANNTIED </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONS WHO HAVE HANDELED INFECTED ANIMALS OR THEIR CARACASSES SHOULD BE VACCINATED AGAINST ANTHRAX, IF THEIR EXPOSURE IS FREQUENT & IF HUMAN VCCINE IS AVAILABLE </li></ul><ul><li>SUCH PERSONS SHOULD AVOID ANY CONTACT WITH OTHER PERSONS OR ANIMALS WITHOUT FIRST CHANGING CLOTHING, WASHING HANDS AND TAKING APPROPRIATE MEASSURES </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE THERE IS A RISK OF AEROSOLIZATION OF SPORES </li></ul><ul><li>CONSIDER DAMPING DOWN OF MATERIAL WITH 5% FORMALIN, WEARING OF FACE MASKS ETC </li></ul>
  7. 7. DISPOSAL OF DEAD BODIES PLAGUE <ul><ul><li>RISK SIGNALS TO START IMMEDIATE FIELD INVESTIGATIONS: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EVIDENCE OF RAT FALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUSPECTED HUMAN CASE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FLEA NUISANCE/ HIGH FLEA INDEX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POSITIVE PLAGUE SEROLOGY IN RODENTS / CANNINES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DURING AN OUTBREAK OF BUBONIC PLAGUE ,RODENT CONTROL MEASURES WOULD FURTHER AGGREVATE THE PLAGUE TRANSMISSION BECAUSE LARGE NUMBER OF FLEAS WOULD LEAVE THEIR DEAD RODENT HOST AND WOULD FEED ON MAN AND OTHER DOMESTIC AND PERIDOMESTIC RODENTS AND MAINTAIN DISEASE TRANSMISSION </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. SAFE DISPOSAL OF THE BODIES OF PERSONS DYING DUE TO PLAGUE AND DEAD RODENTS DURING RAT FALL: - <ul><li>IN FATAL CASES OCCURRING DUE TO SUSPECTED PLAGUE POST MORTEM SHOULD BE DISCOURAGED. </li></ul><ul><li>CREMATION OR BURIAL OF THE DEAD BODY AS PER THE LOCAL CUSTOMS SHOULD BE UNDERTAKEN. </li></ul><ul><li>FUNERAL CEREMONIES IN THE HOUSES OF PLAGUE VICTIMS WHICH MAY INVOLVE ASSEMBLY OF PEOPLE SHOULD BE DISCOURAGED. </li></ul><ul><li>THE DEAD BODIES OF PLAGUE VICTIMS SHOULD NOT BE HANDLED AND ENCOFFINED BY THE RELATIVES AND FRIENDS OF THE DECEASED. </li></ul><ul><li>THE BURIAL STAFF SHOULD USE MASKS, PROTECTIVE CLOTHINGS, BOOTS & THICK RUBBER GLOVES. </li></ul>
  9. 9. OTHER NECESSARY PRECAUTIONS <ul><li>PROFESSIONALS HANDLING THE DEAD BODIES SHOULD RECIEVE CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS IN RECOMMENDED DOSAGE AS PER THE ADVICE OF THE DOCTOR. </li></ul><ul><li>A LAYER OF LIME AS AN ABSORBENT MATERIAL TO BE KEPT ON THE COFFINS BEFORE THE DEAD BODIES ARE PUT IN IT. </li></ul><ul><li>THE DEAD BODY SHOULD BE PACKED IN AN IMPERVIOUS BODY BAG FOR TRANSPORT FROM THE PLACE OF DEATH AND SHOULD NOT BE EXTRACTED FROM THE BAG, AND SHOULD NOT BE BATHED BEFORE CREMATION/ BURIAL. </li></ul>
  10. 10. OTHER NECESSARY PRECAUTIONS <ul><li>THE BAGGED BODY SHOULD BE PLACED IN A HERMETICALLY SEALED COFFIN AND BURIED WITHOUT RE-OPENING. </li></ul><ul><li>DEAD BODY SHOULD BE BURIED IN SUFFICIENT DEEP GRAVES TO PREVENT ACCESS TO RODENTS AND OTHER ANIMALS. </li></ul><ul><li>THE GARMENTS AND OTHER BELONGINGS OF A PATIENT DYING DUE TO BUBONIC PLAGUE IN THE HOUSE MUST BE GOT RID OF THE RAT-FLEAS BY THE APPLICATION OF 10% DUST FORMULATION OF MALATHION. </li></ul><ul><li>THE SOILED ARTICLES OF PNEUMONIC –PLAGUE VICTIMS SHOULD BE PACKED IN A BAG, INCINERATED, AUTOCLAVED OR FUMIGARED AND PROPERLY DISPOSED OF BY BURNING </li></ul>
  11. 11. GUIDELINES FOR DISPOSAL OF DEAD RODENTS DURING RAT FALL:- <ul><li>USE DOUBLE FOLDED CLOTH TO COVER YOUR FACE </li></ul><ul><li>DEAD RATS SHOULD NOT BE TOUCHED WITH BARE HANDS </li></ul><ul><li>DISPSABLE HAND GLOVES OR POLYTHENE SHEET SHOULD BE WRAPED AROUND THE HAND TO HANDLE DEAD RATS </li></ul>
  12. 12. GUIDELINES TO DISPOSE OF DEAD RATS <ul><li>SPRAY INSECTICIDE DUST OVER THE DEAD RAT AND SUBSEQUENTLY BURRY IT IN A DEEP PIT. </li></ul><ul><li>PICK UP THE DEAD RAT BY MEANS OF LONG FORCEPS, LONG TONG ETC. AND PUT IT IN A CONTAINER CONTAINING COTTON WOOL SOAKED IN INSECTICIDE FOR FINAL DISPOSAL </li></ul><ul><li>THE DISPOSABLE ITEMS SHOULD BE BURNT OR BURRIED AND OTHER ITEMS SHOULD BE DISINFECTED </li></ul>
  13. 13. RABIES <ul><li>THE TREATMENT SHOULD BE STARTED IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE BITE. </li></ul><ul><li>THE TREATMENT MAY BE MODIFIED IF ANIMAL INVOLVED (DOG OR CAT) REMAINS HEALTHY THROUGHOUT THE OBSERVATION PERIOD OF 10 DAYS . </li></ul><ul><li>A HISTORY OF RABIES VACCINATION IN AN ANIMAL IS NOT ALWAYS A GUARANTEE THAT THE BITING ANIMAL IS NOT RABID. </li></ul><ul><li>ONE VACCINE DOSE IN THE ANIMAL DOES NOT ALWAYS PROVIDE LONG LASTING PROTECTION AGAINST INFECTION WITH RABIES. </li></ul><ul><li>THE NATURAL HISTORY OF RABIES IN MAMMALS OTHER THAN DOGS AND CATS IS NOT FULLY UNDERSTOOD AND THEREFORE THE 10 DAY OBSERVATION PERIOD MAY NOT BE APPLICABLE </li></ul>
  14. 14. GUIDELINES FOR TREATMENT <ul><li>BITE BY ALL WILD ANIMALS: TREAT AS CATEGORY 3 EXPOSURE FOR RABIES </li></ul><ul><li>BITE BY RODENTS: BITES BY DOMESTIC RATS, MICE, SQUIRREL, HARE AND RABBITS SELDOM REQUIRE TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>BAT RABIES: BAT RABIES HAS NOT BEEN CONCLUSIVELY PROVED IN INDIA AND HENCE EXPOSURE TO BATS DOES NOT WARRANT TREATMENT </li></ul>
  15. 15. VACCINE SCHEDULES <ul><li>(A) INTRA-MUSCULAR VACCINE SCHEDULE: </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN DIPLOID CELL VACCINE </li></ul><ul><li>PURIFIED CHICK EMBRYO CELL VACCINE </li></ul><ul><li>PURIFIED VERO CELL RABIES VACCINE </li></ul><ul><li>PURIFIED DUCK EMBRYO VACCINE </li></ul><ul><li>SCHEDULE OF DOSAGE: </li></ul><ul><li>0, 3, 7, 14 & 28 DAYS </li></ul><ul><li>SIXTH (D90) INJECTION, OPTIONAL IN-IMMUNOLOGICALLY DEFICIENT, ARE AT THE EXTREMES OF AGE AND ON STEROID THERAPY. </li></ul>
  16. 16. VACCINE SCHEDULES <ul><li>(B) INTRA –DERMAL REGIMENS: </li></ul><ul><li>IN THIS METHOD SMALL AMOUNT OF RABIES VACCINE/ANTIGEN IS DEPOSITED IN THE LAYERS OF THE SKIN AT MULTIPLE SITES </li></ul><ul><li>THIS RESULTS IN A STRONGER IMMUNE RESPONSE </li></ul>
  17. 17. RABIES IN DOGS <ul><li>CLINICAL PICTURE: </li></ul><ul><li>FURIOUS RABIES: CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR, RUNNING AMUCK, CHANGE IN VOICE, EXCESSIVE SALIVATION, PARALYTIC STAGE </li></ul><ul><li>DUMB RABIES </li></ul><ul><li>LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS: </li></ul><ul><li>HEAD OF THE ANIMAL IS CUT OFF </li></ul><ul><li>DULY PACKED IN ICE IN AIR TIGHT CONTAINER </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>BRAIN MAY BE REMOVED WITH ANTI-SEPTIC PRECAUTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>SENT IN 50% GLYCEROL –SALINE FOR EXAMINATION </li></ul>
  18. 18. JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS <ul><li>JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS IS A MOSQUITO BORNE ZOONOTIC VIRAL DISEASE. PIGS AND BIRDS (CATTLE EGRETS, POND HERONS) ARE THE NATURAL HOSTS AND MAN AND HORSE ARE “ DEAD END” HOSTS. </li></ul><ul><li>AFFECTED STATES IN INDIA ARE ANDHRA PRADESH, BIHAR, KARNATAKA, TAMILNADU, UTTAR PRADESH AND WEST BENGAL. </li></ul><ul><li>JE OUTBREAKS USUALLY COINCIDE WITH MONSOON & POST MONSOON PERIOD, WHEN THE VECTOR DENSITY IS HIGH. </li></ul><ul><li>CASE FATALITY IN NEWLY AFFECTED AREAS IS TO THE EXTENT OF 30-40% </li></ul><ul><li>CHILDREN BELOW 15 YEARS OF AGE ARE ESPECIALLY HIGH RISK GROUP. </li></ul>
  19. 19. CAUSATIVE AGENT & TRANSMISSION <ul><li>JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS WHICH IS ANTIGENICALLY RELATED TO OTHER FLAVIVIRUSES LIKE DENGUE, WEST NILE AND YELLOW FEVER. </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSMISSION BY: </li></ul><ul><li>MOSQUITO-BORN -CULEX TRITANEORHYNCHUS GROUP </li></ul><ul><li>THE VIRUS DOES NOT CAUSE ANY DISEASE AMONG IT’S NATURAL HOSTS AND THE TRANSMISSION GOES UN-NOTICED THROUGH MOSQUITOES PRIMARILY BELONGING TO THE GENUS CULEX. </li></ul><ul><li>THERE IS NO SPECIFIC TREATMENT. </li></ul>
  20. 20. CLINICAL PICTURE <ul><li>ACUTE ENCEPHALITIS WHICH CAN PROGRESS TO </li></ul><ul><li>PARALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>SEIZURES </li></ul><ul><li>COMA AND DEATH </li></ul><ul><li>MAJORITY OF CASES ARE SUB-CLINICAL. </li></ul><ul><li>SERIOUS NEUROLOGICAL SEQUELAE LIKE MENTAL IMPAIRMENT, SEVERE NEUROLOGICAL INSTABILITY, PERSONALITY CHANGE AND PARALYSIS MAY OCCUR IN AROUND 10-30% OF CASES. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Avian Influenza
  22. 22. Chingmeirong , Imphal
  23. 23. Control Room The Nerve Centre
  24. 24. Quarantine: restrict access to infected premises; village; station and bus-stand
  25. 25. Physical survey of the area of operation To determine nature and scope of operations.
  26. 26. Physical survey of the area of operation
  27. 27. Physical survey of the area of operation
  28. 28. Physical Survey To Know : <ul><li>Cleaning of the farms </li></ul><ul><li>Hygienic conditions on farms </li></ul><ul><li>Quantities of solid, semi-solid, liquid fecal material, </li></ul><ul><li>feathers and other waste material lying unattended </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers participation in Culling </li></ul><ul><li>Number of birds on the Farm </li></ul><ul><li>Demarcation of Surveillance & Infected areas </li></ul>
  29. 29. Demarcation of Surveillance & Infected areas 5 km radius Stamping Out 5 km radius Compulsory Vaccination / Surveillance (High risk poultry areas) 3 km Culling area
  30. 30. Demarcation of Surveillance & Infected areas
  31. 31. Culling: use of sedatives mixed in water to reduce activity level in birds. Sodium Feno Barbital,
  32. 32. Culling : Dislocation & Decapitation
  33. 33. Culling: culled birds on farms were packed in bags for disposal, which were carried to disposal sites
  34. 34. Culling: public announcement not to release birds in morning; Panchayat involved; common disposal ground identified in villages; birds collected by veterinarians in morning; cash for bird; tremendous response Different Strategy For Backyard poultry
  35. 35. Backyard poultry: sites for disposal identified by Panchayat
  36. 36. Disposal <ul><li>Two methods: bury or burn </li></ul><ul><li>Burning: bury ash, remains etc.; burn well; material requirements higher; incinerators </li></ul><ul><li>Burying: dig deep; dumped material be kept below ground level; lime/earth layers; no scavenging. Rodent problem </li></ul><ul><li>Dispose: birds, eggs/trays, sacks, feathers, feed/feed ingredients, fecal material, manure etc. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Safe Disposal: Deep trenches dug by JCB’s
  38. 38. Disposal: more than 40 JCB’s deployed in Navapur & Jalgaon I ; requisitioned from deptts
  39. 39. Burial of Birds
  40. 40. Disposal: material carried out manually for disposal from farms/villages
  41. 41. Disposal: killed birds and infected material dumped into pits dug by JCB’s Materials should be lower than ground level
  42. 42. Disposal: pits covered by earth and ‘limed’ Alternate layers of earth and lime to pack it well
  43. 43. Disposal by Burning PPE burnt on each farm on exit by each person from each farm
  44. 44. Disposal: eggs destroyed and buried with egg trays etc.
  45. 45. Disposal of feed and feed materials <ul><li>Infected material </li></ul><ul><li>Feed manufacturing units within poultry farm </li></ul><ul><li>GOI to share cost of compensation upto 50% </li></ul>
  46. 46. Disposal of feed and feed materials.
  47. 47. Disposal of feed and feed materials.
  48. 48. Disposal of feed and feed materials.
  49. 49. Major activity. Farms are largely two-tier structures. Clean up:Commercial farms
  50. 50. Clean up:Commercial farms Upper storey has bird cages and support systems
  51. 51. Lower storey is dump ground for fecal matter; ‘slurried’ due to water leakage from bird water systems Clean up:Commercial farms
  52. 52. Clean up:Commercial farms
  53. 53. Clean up:Commercial farms Physically impossible to enter & clean up. Difficult to access lower storey due to low height
  54. 54. Clean up:Commercial farms Jetting & suction machines
  55. 55. Liquid material pumped out Clean up:Commercial farms
  56. 56. Discharged into pits which were covered with thick layer of lime and earth. Continuous watch. Clean up:Commercial farms
  57. 57. Clean up:Commercial farms Covered with plastic sheets
  58. 58. Sheds cleaned manually thereafter Clean up:Commercial farms
  59. 59. Clean up:Commercial farms : Use of labor <ul><li>Specialized labor required. Availability an issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Farm owners: required to be involved; reluctant; </li></ul><ul><li>Reluctance to use PPE; Temiflu </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult work conditions </li></ul>
  60. 60. Feather disposal laborious work; not possible manually
  61. 61. Feather disposal Flame guns purchased and used; operated by LPG
  62. 62. Feather disposal
  63. 63. Cage systems are to be opened up, cleaned and disinfected; water systems to be handled similarly
  64. 64. Disinfecting & Spraying Foggers provided by GOI. Sprayers to be provided by State Govt.
  65. 65. Disinfecting & Spraying
  66. 66. Disinfecting & Spraying
  67. 67. Disinfecting & Spraying
  68. 68. Disinfecting & Spraying: Commercial Poultry <ul><li>Wash floors and walls with calcium hydroxide (3% solution) </li></ul><ul><li>Spray of bleaching powder & lime in floors of sheds and farm area </li></ul><ul><li>White-wash of concrete and bricked area with lime </li></ul><ul><li>Spray 4% formalin over area </li></ul><ul><li>Treat equipment with hypochlorite solution (2%) for 48 hours </li></ul><ul><li>KMnO4 mixed in water tanks etc </li></ul><ul><li>Close chamber fumigated with KMnO4 & formalin </li></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>Different strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily populated villages in Jalgaon </li></ul><ul><li>Complete culling in village before starting clean-up </li></ul><ul><li>Burn baskets/egg trays/litter/feed and all the poultry in 10 km radius </li></ul><ul><li>Bury the eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Remove, burn all litter from permanent cages and clean the cages </li></ul><ul><li>Burn garbage around poultry keeping area </li></ul><ul><li>Whitewash the houses: 3km/10km </li></ul>Disinfecting & Spraying : Backyard Poultry
  70. 70. Disinfecting & Spraying : Backyard Poultry <ul><li>Spray all houses in 0-3 km </li></ul><ul><li>Spray poultry rearing houses and yards in 3-10 km zone </li></ul><ul><li>Spray all damp areas/drains with 4% formalin </li></ul><ul><li>Formalin not to be used in inhabited areas due to irritation to humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives: Trilocid Concentrate, Virkon-S, Sodium hypochlorite. Sprinkle lime on top </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinkle lime on the roads, streets etc in all the villages under the operation </li></ul>
  71. 71. Sanitized farms
  72. 72. Sanitized farms
  73. 73. Sanitized farms
  74. 74. Sanitized farms
  75. 75. Sanitized farms
  76. 76. Sanitized farms
  77. 77. Sealing of farms
  78. 78. Sealing of farms
  79. 79. THANK YOU

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