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Chap.02.Revised

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  • Transcript

    • 1.
      • “ This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:
        • any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;
        • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, pf any images;
        • any rental, lease, or lending of the program.”
    • 2.
      • The Process of Conception
        • Ovum
        • Sperm
      • The Journey of Sperm toward Ovum
      • Chromosomes
        • 23 pairs
        • DNA
        • Genes
        • X and Y chromosomes
      • Gametes (Ovum & Sperm)
        • Meiosis
        • Only 23 chromosomes
      Conception and Genetics
    • 3. Figure 2.1
    • 4. Conception and Genetics
      • Homozygous pair
        • When the two sets of instruction are the same at any given locus
      • Heterozygous pair
        • When the two sets of instruction are different at any given locus
    • 5.
      • Polygenic Inheritance
        • Many genes blend together to increase
        • the genetic outcomes seen in the phenotype
      • Multifactorial Patterns
        • Expression of traits that are influenced by both genes and environment
      • Genomic Imprinting
        • Some genes are biochemically marked at the time ova and sperm develop
      • Mitochondrial Inheritance
        • Genes passed only from mother to child
      Conception and Genetics
    • 6.
      • Genotype – the genetic blueprint
      • Phenotype – observable characteristics
      • Dominant-recessive pattern
        • Dominant genes always express their characteristics
        • Recessive genes come in pairs to express their characteristics
      Conception and Genetics
    • 7. Figure 2.2
    • 8. Figure 2.3
    • 9.
      • Twins
        • Identical
        • Fraternal
      • Twins in genetic research
      Conception and Genetics
    • 10.
      • 3 Stages of Prenatal Development
        • The Germinal Stage – the zygote
          • From conception to implantation
            • Lasts from 10 days to 2 weeks
          • Blastocyst divides into 2 sections
            • Section that will become the baby
            • Specialization of cells needed to support development –
              • Placenta
              • Umbilical cord
              • Yolk sac
              • Amnion
      Development from Conception to Birth
    • 11. Figure 2. 4
    • 12.
      • 3 Stages of Prenatal Development
        • The Embryonic Stage
          • Forms the foundations of all body organs
          • Neural tube develops
          • All major organs and systems begin to develop
          • By week 7, the Y chromosome directs the development of the penis with the help of testosterone
      Development from Conception to Birth
    • 13.
      • 3 Stages of Prenatal Development
        • The Fetal Stage
          • Growth from 1/4 th ounce and 1 inch to
          • 7 ½ pounds and 20 inches in length
          • Refinement of all organ systems
          • Surfactant
          • Vernix
          • Age of viability - week 24
          • Engagement
      Development from Conception to Birth
    • 14.
      • Nervous System
        • Neural tube develops at week 4
        • Glial Cells
          • Provides the glue that holds the nervous system together
          • Helps remove debris after neuronal death
          • Segregates neurons from each other
        • The Fetal Stage Continued
    • 15. Figure 2.5
    • 16.
      • Nervous System
        • Neurons
          • Dendrites
            • Major receptors of nerve impulses
          • Axons
            • Primary transmitting apparatus
          • Synapses
            • Fluid-filled gap between neurons
            • allow neurotransmitters to pass between neurons
        • Most neurons are born between 10 and 18 weeks
        • The Fetal Stage Continued
    • 17. Figure 2.6
    • 18. Sex Differences in Prenatal Development
      • Between week 4 and 10, males begin to secrete testosterone from primitive testes
          • Necessary to develop male genitalia
          • Lack of testosterone will “demasculinize” the male embryo
          • Too much testosterone will defeminize the female embryo
      • Prenatal hormones may influence sex differences in:
        • Brain development
        • Hormones in adolescence
        • Levels of physical aggression
        • Relative dominance of right and left hemispheres
    • 19. Sex Differences in Prenatal Development
      • Girls
        • Slightly faster skeletal development
      • Boys
        • Slightly heavier and longer at birth
        • More vulnerable to prenatal problems
        • More likely to be aborted spontaneously
        • Have more birth injuries and birth defects
        • X-related problems may be a factor
        • Slightly more active before birth
    • 20. Prenatal Behavior
      • Fetuses respond to sound with body movements as early as 25 weeks
      • Can distinguish between familiar and novel stimuli by 32 weeks
      • Learning may begin prenatally
        • “ The Cat in the Hat” experiment
      • Music played prenatally may lead to advanced motor and cognitive skills at six months
    • 21. Questions to Ponder?
      • How would you deal with a risk of passing on a severe genetic illness to any child that you and your partner might have?
      • If you are having a baby, would you add music and reading to your child prenatally to your pregnancy routine? Why or why not?
    • 22.
      • Genetic Disorders
      • Autosomal Disorders
        • Caused by recessive genes
          • Phenylketonuria (PKU)
          • Sickle-cell disease
          • Tay-Sachs disease
        • Caused by dominant genes
          • Huntington’s disease
          • Schizophrenia
          • Migraine headaches
          • Extra fingers
      Problems in Prenatal Development
    • 23.
      • Genetic Disorders
      • Sex-linked Disorders
        • Red-green colorblindness
        • Hemophilia
        • Fragile-X syndrome
        • Caused by recessive gene on X chromosome
        • Boys suffer more often than girls
      Problems in Prenatal Development
    • 24. Figure 2.7 – Sex Linked Transmission of a Recessive Disease
    • 25.
      • Chromosomal Errors
      • Trisomies
        • Trisomy 21 – Down Syndrome
          • Mental retardation
          • Distinctive facial features
          • Physical abnormalities
        • Maternal age is a major factor
      Problems in Prenatal Development
    • 26.
      • Chromosomal Errors
      • Sex Chromosome Anomalies
        • XXY – Klinefelter’s syndrome
        • XO – Turner’s syndrome
        • XXX – girls with an extra X
        • XYY – boys with an extra Y
      Problems in Prenatal Development
    • 27.
      • Teratogens: Maternal Diseases
      • Rubella
        • Vaccinations should be given to all children
      • HIV
      • Other sexually transmitted diseases
        • Syphilis
        • Genital herpes
        • Gonorrhea
        • Cytomegalovirus
      Problems in Prenatal Development
    • 28. Figure 2.8
    • 29.
      • Other Maternal Influences
      • Chronic Illnesses
        • Heart disease, diabetes, lupus, hormone imbalances can all lead to developmental delays
      • Fetal-maternal medicine helps to manage the effects of long-term illnesses
      Problems in Prenatal Development
    • 30.
      • Environmental Hazards
      • Limiting exposure to mercury
      • Avoiding possible harmful chemicals
        • Lead
        • Arsenic
        • Anesthetic gasses
        • Solvents
        • Parasite-bearing substances
      Problems in Prenatal Development
    • 31.
      • Teratogens:
        • Substances that cause damage to an embryo
        • Each organ system is most vulnerable to harm when its development is most rapid
        • (Figure 2.8)
        • The first 8 weeks are the most dangerous
      Problems in Prenatal Development
    • 32.
      • Teratogens: Drugs
      • Smoking
      • Drinking
        • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
      • Cocaine
      • Marijuana and Heroin
      Problems in Prenatal Development
    • 33.
      • Other Teratogens and Maternal Factors
      • Vitamin A – large doses may cause malformations of head, face, heart
      • Aspirin
      • Lead – may lead to lower IQ
        • 3–6% infants and young children have high levels of lead
        • Most are black or Hispanic children in inner cities
      Problems in Prenatal Development
    • 34.
      • Other Maternal Influences
      • Diet
        • Both general adequacy and the presence of certain key nutrients are essential in a pregnant woman’s diet
          • Subnutrition – a diet that is barely adequate and lacking in some essential nutrients
          • Folic acid deficiencies – risk in neural tube defects
        • Malnutrition (Especially before 3 months prenatally)
          • Low birth weight
          • Brain stunting
          • Fetal death
        • A woman’s caloric needs go up 10-20% during pregnancy
      Problems in Prenatal Development
    • 35.
      • Other Maternal Influences
      • Age
        • First pregnancies occurring later – 25.1 years
        • Women over 35 have higher risks for pregnancy complications
        • Teenage mothers
          • May suffer from poverty and poor prenatal care
          • Children may exhibit learning and behavior problems in school
          • Both preterm and low birth weight babies were twice as common in preteen mothers
      Problems in Prenatal Development
    • 36.
      • Maternal Emotions
      • Stress
        • Can change hormone levels
      • Stressful life events, emotional distress, and physical stress are linked to slight increases in problem pregnancies
      • Severely distressed mothers produce infants who grow slowly
      • Social support and counseling may help
      Problems in Prenatal Development
    • 37. Problems in Prenatal Development
      • Poverty
        • Low birth weight or stillborn babies are more common in poor mothers
        • More likely to have earlier pregnancies
        • Good prenatal care may help overcome difficulties
    • 38. End Show 2
      • “ This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:
        • any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;
        • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, pf any images;
        • any rental, lease, or lending of the program.”