For Fred C. Rydholm, author of the book “Michigan Copper, The Untold Story”COPPER AND TIN FROM AMERICA1.   INTRODUCTION2. ...
The Empire of Atlantis existed from 2500 to 1200 BC. During this time period 24.4 milli-on copper ingots and 2.44 million ...
Fig.1 The copper was transported in the shape of “oxe hide ingots”. These handy plates        weighed about 16 kg (35 poun...
The “two ingots” in passage A15 are interesting. These suggest a “tin ingot” and a “cop-per ingot”, respectively. The firs...
turns, confirming the 4 figures of this number. These edges represent the America’s, atthe edge of the then known World.Th...
Fig.2 Front side A of the Phaistos Disc                     (Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.43)               ...
The import of copper will be best shown by passage A18, which has a “stone hammer”and a combination of “boat, ingot, King”...
Next or 2nd passage B15 has a “Queen”, confirming the 2nd number (4), and B17 hasa “palace, bronze saw”, showing the numbe...
ShippingThe “messenger” and the combination of “flower, boat, ingot” in passage B19 indica-tes that 190 people were involv...
shows, one refers to the whole round trip on the Ocean (!), because the center of thedisc symbolizes Crete (or Egypt) in t...
boats used the shorter crossing via Sable Island, just below Newfoundland.(Refs.1-19,65-68)   Fig.4 Chart of the nine isla...
The Phaistos Disc reports an overall quantity of 28.8 thousand tons of tin imported fromSouth America before the year of 1...
The flower in passage A4 deals with the gold trade from Ghana and Ivory Coast in thesouth of West Africa, at 4°N. The “bur...
the King in passage A14, confirming the 14-6= 8 figures. - Note, that the 3 flowers at thefront side, and the single flowe...
End in 1458 BC: t =1042 years, OP(t) = 14.0 tonsDiscussionLet us assume, that a constant import volume of 70 kg of gold pe...
21. Hart, G., A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Routledge, London, 1986 (ISBN 0-7102-0167-2).22. Wallis Budge, ...
53. De Jonge, R.M., “The Bronze Doors of Rekhmire (Thebes, Upper Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty,c.1460 BC)” (2011), Ref.3, to b...
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COPPER AND TIN FROM AMERICA

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For Fred C. Rydholm, author of the book “Michigan Copper, The Untold Story”

COPPER AND TIN FROM AMERICA

1. INTRODUCTION
2. COPPER AND TIN FROM THE WEST
3. AMOUNTS OF IMPORTED METALS
4. PEOPLE
5. SAILING THE OCEAN
6. DISCUSSION
7. GOLD AND SILVER IMPORT

Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com
July, 2012

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COPPER AND TIN FROM AMERICA

  1. 1. For Fred C. Rydholm, author of the book “Michigan Copper, The Untold Story”COPPER AND TIN FROM AMERICA1. INTRODUCTION2. COPPER AND TIN FROM THE WEST3. AMOUNTS OF IMPORTED METALS4. PEOPLE5. SAILING THE OCEAN6. DISCUSSION7. GOLD AND SILVER IMPORTDr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.comJuly, 2012SUMMARYThe Phaistos Disc of Crete dates from 1458 BC, which is in the Middle Bronze Age ofEurope. To make bronze, copper was usually alloyed with 10% tin. These metals werescarce in the Old World. It is shown that both metals were imported from the other side ofthe Atlantic: 400 tons of copper per year from Upper Michigan, and 40 tons of tin peryear from Bolivia. About 40% of the copper was transported via the St. Lawrence Riverto the east, and 60% via the Mississippy River to the south.In total 288 thousand tons of copper were removed from North America and 28.8 thou-sand tons of tin from South America (c.2500-1458 BC). Assuming a constant import vo-lume after this time periode, another 103 thousand tons of copper were removed and 10.3thousand tons of tin were taken away (c.1458-1200 BC). In these days America was a co-lony of Egypt, together forming the Empire of Atlantis.In 1458 BC 1,400 people mined the copper ore in Upper Michigan, 2,400 people extrac-ted the copper, and 1,900 people shipped the copper ingots across the Ocean. At the sametime 1,400 people mined the tin (and other) ore in Bolivia, 1,600 people extracted the tin,and 190 people shipped the tin ingots (and nobel metals) to the Old World. The StandardIngot turns out to have a mass of 80 thousand carats, or 16 kg.The long distance transport was accomplished by 27 seaworthy ships, with a calculatedcrew of c.78 men per ship. The round trip of each ship, with a calculated metal cargo of13 tons on the return route, lasted 290 days (9.5 months). 60% of the people reachedAmerica via the Southern Crossing, and 40% of the ships sailed along the Northern Cros-sing. 60% of the people returned via Bermuda to the Azores, and 40% took the returnroute via Sable Island, just below Newfoundland.In 1458 BC 60 thousand carats, or 12 kg of gold per year was imported from the mouth ofthe Amazone River, in total 8.6 tons; 100 thousand carats, or 20 kg of gold per year fromGhana, Africa, in total 14.3 tons; 190 thousand carats, or 38 kg of gold per year from Bo-livia, in total 27.1 tons; and 100 thousand carats, or 20 kg of silver per year from Bolivia,in total 14.0 tons. - Until 1200 BC and assuming a constant import volume, another 3.1tons of gold was imported from the Amazone River, 5.2 tons of gold from Ghana andIvory Coast, 9.8 tons of gold from Bolivia, and 5.2 tons of silver from Bolivia.
  2. 2. The Empire of Atlantis existed from 2500 to 1200 BC. During this time period 24.4 milli-on copper ingots and 2.44 million tin ingots were shipped to the Old World, together with58 million carats of gold from the Amazone, 97 million carats of gold from Ghana, 184million carats of gold from Bolivia, and 96 million carats of silver from Bolivia.1. INTRODUCTIONIn Europe the Bronze Age lasted from circa 2500 to 900 BC. The start of it coïncidedwith the Egyptian discovery of America via the Atlantic Ocean, c.2500 BC, and the endof it was caused by the introduction of the new metal of iron, which gradually replacedthe bronze in that time period. (Refs.7-19)The Phaistos Disc dates from 1458 BC, which is right in the so-called Middle BronzeAge. To improve the properties of the metal of copper, bronze was made by alloying thecopper with 10% of tin. (The words ‘tin’ and ‘ten’ are even related.) Both metals wererather scarce, tin still the most. In view of the great influence of bronze in daily life, it isprobable the disc contains information about the copper and tin import across the Ocean,especially around this date. (Refs.1-6)On the Phaistos Disc the symbol of the “bronze shield” occurs. On the front side 15“shields” are shown, referring to the Southern Cape Verde islands, at 15°N, which wereat the start of the Southern Crossing of the Ocean. Latitudes were already known in theNe-olithicum, c.4800 BC. The many “bronze shields” show the primary informationabout this long distance transport is indicated on the front side of the disc.On the back side are only 2 “shields”, corresponding to the Northern Cape Verde islands,2° above the southern islands, at 15+2= 17°N. It confirms the role of this archipelago.These 2 “shields” are about 10% of the total number of 17 “shields” and 4 other bronzeobjects on the disc, confirming the 10% tin in the bronze. The total number of 17“shields” suggests a source of the copper near Keweenaw Peninsula, Upper Michigan,17° above the Nile Delta, at 30+17= 47°N. (Refs.41-48)
  3. 3. Fig.1 The copper was transported in the shape of “oxe hide ingots”. These handy plates weighed about 16 kg (35 pounds), and could be carried on the shoulder for loading and unloading the ships (Crete, c.1500 BC).2. COPPER AND TIN FROM THE WESTIntroductionThe equal passages A12 and A18 on the front side are part of the “Circle” A10-18 of 36symbols, which correspond to the circumference of the planet Earth of 36 Moiras, or360°. It shows people had circumnavigated the Earth in order to establish worldwide reli-gious and trade contacts.The back side of the disc has 30 passages. So, passage A12, or A30+A12= A42, might re-fer to Isle Royale, Lake Superior, at the complementary latitude of 90-42= 48°N. In anti-quity the use of complementary latitudes was very common. It may be considered as thecenter of copper mining in North America. – Equal passage A18 might refer to the areaaround the present town of Oruro, Bolivia, at 18°S. It may be considered as the centerof tin mining in South America.Both passages A12 and A18 contain the pair of symbols “boat, corpse”, pointing to thetransport “per boat” of “oxe hide ingots”, because the sign of the “corpse” resembles a“ingot having the shape of an oxe hide”. The 30 or so passages on each side of the disccorrespond with the 30 years of a generation. So, import goods indicated by a passage al-ways refer to yearly quantities.Passage A12 suggests a transport of 1,200 “copper ingots by boat” from Isle Royale peryear. Next or 2nd passage A13 has at the end the important symbols of “shield, King”,which confirm the 2nd number (2). Passage A15 has at the end “two ingots” and a“shield, King”, which indicate the number should be written down in 15-11= 4 figures.The combinations of “shield, King” in A13 and A15 show, the copper ingots are used tomake “bronze products” for the “King”.
  4. 4. The “two ingots” in passage A15 are interesting. These suggest a “tin ingot” and a “cop-per ingot”, respectively. The first symbol is lightly pecked and has a darker colour, so isdifferent, indeed. The two symbols touch each other, which is unusual. It suggests that tinand copper are mixed to obtain bronze, the material of the “shield” which is the next sym-bol. (Refs.49-52)GeographyThe image of the front side of the disc in Fig.2 is correct, also in a geographical sense.Last passage A31 is in the south. This means that the series of passages A12-15 point tothe west. It suggests both metals, copper and tin, were imported from the west. Last pas-sage A15 encodes the Southern Cape Verde islands, at 15°N, again. It confirms the roleof the Southern Crossing of the Ocean to America. The two sides of the disc possess to-gether 31+30= 61 passages, corresponding to the sailing direction of the Southern Cros-sing, 61° SW.The two ingots in passage A15 touch each other, which is unusual. It means the totalquantities of imported copper and tin per year are shown by two consecutive passageswith ingots. These passages have to be the adjacent passages A25 and A26 on the edge atthe left side. Their position confirms both metals were imported from America, in the farwest. In these days America was a colony of Egypt, together forming the Empire of At-lantis. Note, that the round disc symbolizes the spherical Earth. (Refs.20-25)Yearly import of copper and tinPassage A25 suggests an import of 25,000 copper ingots from Upper Michigan per year.A25 contains the unique symbol of the “bronze chopper”, strongly confirming it. It is oneof the few other bronze objects on the disc. Next or 2nd passage A26 has a “waterway, in-got”, confirming the 2nd number (5), and passage A29 has a “cover, waterway”, indica-ting the number has to be written down in 29-24= 5 figures.The sign of the “cover” in A29 represents “time” or “duration”, because the cover is nor-mally used to preserve food. So, the pair of symbols “cover, waterway” indicates, the in-gots are transported via “long sailing routes”. The “shield” in A26 confirms the copper isused to make bronze products. The combination “cover, waterway, ingot” in this passageconfirms the “long sailing routes for these ingots”.Passage A25 with the unique chopper also suggests an import of 2,500 tin ingots fromBolivia per year. This is 10% of the copper ingots. Next or 2nd passage A26 has a “cover,waterway, ingot”, confirming the 2nd number (5), and A27b (of passage A27a/b) has a“shield, King”, confirming the number should be written down in 28-24= 4 figures.The “shield, King” of A27b confirms the tin is used to make bronze products for theKing. Note, that this “shield” is almost cut in half. To make this “bronze shield”, one hasto use also tin, of course. - Next passage A28 is at the end of a paragraph, confirming thenumber is written down in 28-24= 4 figures.Both edges of the disc contain together 13+12= 25 passages, confirming the yearly importof 25,000 copper ingots. The front side has five turns, confirming the 5 figures of thisnumber. It also confirms the yearly import of 2,500 tin ingots. The back side has four
  5. 5. turns, confirming the 4 figures of this number. These edges represent the America’s, atthe edge of the then known World.The Standard Ingot had a mass of 16 kg (see below). It means the import of copper fromUpper Michigan was 25x16= 400 tons per year, and the import of tin from Bolivia was2.5x16= 40 tons per year. (Refs.26-31)Copper transport via two routesCopper was transported from Upper Michigan to the Ocean via two different routes. A12represents a relative quantity of 12 ingots from Isle Royale, at the complementary latitudeof 90-42= 48°N. Equal passage A18 represents a relative quantity of 18 ingots from IsleRoyale, at the same latitude of 30+18= 48°N. A12 has a high position on the disc, so itsymbolizes the northern route. A18 has a low position, so it represents the southern route.So, it appears a fraction of (12/30), or 40% of the copper was shipped from Upper Michi-gan to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in the east, and a fraction of (18/30), or 60% of thecopper was transported along the Mississippi River to the south. These percentages wereapparently valid during the whole time period of the copper import. (Refs.32-40)
  6. 6. Fig.2 Front side A of the Phaistos Disc (Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.43) Fig.3 Back side B of the Phaistos Disc (Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.43)3. AMOUNTS OF IMPORTED METALSAmerica was discovered via the Atlantic c.2500 BC, and the disc dates from 1458 BC.It means the import could have lasted about 1000 years. This statement is confirmedfor the Lake Superior region, where the copper mines were exploited from c.2500 to1200 BC. Information about the tin mines of Bolivia, however, is lacking. (Refs.49-52)If the produced quantity of copper was all the time the same, 25 thousand ingots peryear, it would have resulted in a total import of about 25 million copper ingots fromUpper Michigan, probably best indicated by passage A25 on the front side. However,in reality this will not be true, of course. So, we have to look for an appropriate passa-ge with a lower number.
  7. 7. The import of copper will be best shown by passage A18, which has a “stone hammer”and a combination of “boat, ingot, King”. It indicates a total import of 18 million cop-per ingots, or 18x16= 288 thousand tons of copper. Next or 2nd passage A19 is the lastone of the Inner Part, confirming the 2nd number (8), and A25 has the special combi-nation of “bronze chopper, ingot”, strongly confirming the number has to be writtendown in 25-17= 8 figures (c.2500-1458 BC).The import of tin will be best shown by passage A18, too. It indicates a total import of1.8 million tin ingots, or 1.8x16= 28.8 thousand tons of tin. Next or 2nd passage A19confirms the 2nd number (8), and A24 has the combination of “Queen, bronze shield,King”, confirming the number has to be written down in 24-17= 7 figures. It equals10% of the copper import (c.2500-1458 BC). (Refs.53-55)CalculationsThe Phaistos Disc shows the yearly production of the metals slowly increased becauseof population growth. For an estimation of the yearly production P(t) and the overallproduction OP(t) after the start of the metal transport across the Ocean, c.2500 BC, alinear increase of P(t) is assumed. On this basis the following formula’s can be used:Copper from Upper Michigan, until 1458 BCP(t), yearly Production in tons/year; t, years of ProductionStart in 2500 BC: t = 0 years, P(t) = 152 tons/yEnd in 1458 BC: t =1042 years, P(t) = 400 tons/y (linear increase)General Formula: P(t) = 0.238 x t + 152 (tons/y)Overall Production: OP(t) = 0.5 x 0.238 x t2 + 152 x t (tons)End in 1458 BC: t =1042 years, OP(t) = 288,000 tonsTin from Bolivia, until 1458 BCP(t), yearly Production in tons/year; t, years of ProductionStart in 2500 BC: t = 0 years, P(t) = 15.2 tons/yEnd in 1458 BC: t =1042 years, P(t) = 40.0 tons/y (linear increase)General Formula: P(t) = 0.0238 x t + 15.2 (tons/y)Overall Production: OP(t) = 0.5 x 0.0238 x t2 + 15.2 x t (tons)End in 1458 BC: t =1042 years, OP(t) = 28,800 tons4. PEOPLEMining of copperPassage B23 on the back side encodes the holy Tropic of Cancer and the SouthernEgyptian Empire, at 23°N. It is the center of the Sunreligion. At midsummer day, theSun is there at right angles above. The slow northerly movement of the Sun turns into asoutherly movement. So, one believes in the Egyptian SunGod Ra. (Refs.20-25)Note, that B23 has the unique “bronze mattock” at the end, which refers to the miningof ore. Its handle points to the last separation line of the passage. This piece of line isdifferent from the others, because it extends beyond the spiral-shaped line at the inside.It points to the so-called “messenger” of B14, referring to number of people, which ispart of the special combination “messenger, ingot”. It also has a “King” at the end.Passage B14 indicates that 1,400 people were involved in the mining of copper ore inUpper Michigan, because a factor 10 less or more would be in both cases unprobable.
  8. 8. Next or 2nd passage B15 has a “Queen”, confirming the 2nd number (4), and B17 hasa “palace, bronze saw”, showing the number has to be written down in 17-13= 4 figu-res. Note, that last passage B17 encodes Keweenaw Peninsula, Upper Michigan, at30+17= 47°N. It contains the symbol of the Palace of Phaistos, Crete (1458 BC).ProcessingThe handle of the “bronze mattock” in B23 also points to next passage B24, having a“messenger”. B24 indicates 2,400 people were involved in the processing of copperore in Upper Michigan. Next or 2nd passage B25 has a “stone hammer, bronze saw”,confirming the 2nd number (4), and B27 has an “ingot, boat” and the sign of “religi-on”, showing the number has to be written down in 27-23= 4 figures.The “bronze saw” shows people had to cut a lot of trees to heat the ovens in order toextract the copper. Both “ingot” and “boat” in the last passage also occur in B9, enco-ding the density of copper, 9 g/cm3 (nine times heavier than water). The “copper ingot”also occurs in passage A9 on the front side, having a “shield, King”, because these in-gots were meant to make bronze products for the king. This passage contains the Pala-ce of Knossos on Crete!The Phaistos Disc states that 1,400 people mined the copper ore in Upper Michigan toproduce 400 tons of copper per year. It can be calculated that 0.78 kg of raw copperwas produced by the miners per man per day, which sounds reasonable. The Disc sta-tes that 2.400 people processed the raw copper. It can be calculated that 0.46 kg of pu-re copper was extracted in this process per man per day. Together these people were a-ble to produce 0.29 kg of a copper ingot per man per day, which sounds reasonable,too.ShippingPassage B9 on the back side points to B19 on the edge, having a “messenger” and a“boat, ingot”. It encodes 1,900 people who were involved in shipping the copper ingotsacross the Ocean. Next or 2nd passage B20 has a “horn, king”, confirming the 2ndnumber (9), and B22 has a “boat” and the sign of “religion”, showing the number hasto be written down in 22-18= 4 figures. Note, that these symbols were also present inB27, the last passage of the series encoding the number of people making the copperingots.Mining and Processing of tinPassage B14 indicates that 1,400 people were involved in the mining of tin ore (andother metal ores) in Bolivia, the same number as in Upper Michigan. - The “messen-ger” in B16 shows that 1,600 people were involved in the processing of tin ore (andother metal ores). Next or 2nd passage B17 has a “palace, bronze saw”, confirming the2nd number (6), and B19 has a “boat, ingot” at the end, showing the number has to bewritten down in 19-15= 4 figures. The “bronze saw” shows people had to cut a lot oftrees to heat the ovens in order to extract the tin (and other metals) (1458 BC).Passage B7 is shortly underlined above B14 and B15, to indicate this number of peoplewas working for tin, having a density of 7 g/cm3 (seven times heavier than water). Itshows that tin was more difficult to extract than copper, which is a semi-nobel metal.However, the production of copper was ten times higher. So, the number of people ex-tracting it was higher, too.
  9. 9. ShippingThe “messenger” and the combination of “flower, boat, ingot” in passage B19 indica-tes that 190 people were involved in shipping the tin ingots and other metals, which is10% of the number of people needed for shipping the copper ingots. The flower is thesymbol for nobel metals, as will be shown below. - B19 on the edge has a “tin ingot”,also occurring in passage A9 on the front side. A9 has a “shield, King”, because theseingots were meant to make bronze products for the king. This passage contains the Pa-lace of Knossos on Crete, again!Total numberThe Phaistos Disc shows the whole operation of mining, processing and transport ofmetals from Upper Michigan and Bolivia was achieved by 5,700 + 3,200= 8,900 men.This number is confirmed by passage B28, because B28= B30+A31+B28= B89, en-coding 6,100 + 2,800= 8,900 men, indeed.Passage B28 has a “Royal Son, stone hammer” and a “King”. Next or 2nd passage B29has the combination “cover, waterway, ingot”, illustrating the “long sailing routes forthe ingots”, and confirming the 2nd number (9). Last passage B19 shows the numberof people transporting these metals, which confirms the 31-27= 4 figures of the num-ber.Passage A28 on the front side confirms it, too. Next or 2nd passage A29 has a “cover,waterway”, stressing the “long sailing routes”, and confirming the 2nd number (9).Last passage A31 of the side shows the people were working to make bronze productsfor the king, which confirms the 31-28= 4 figures of the number, again. (Refs.46-55)5. SAILING THE OCEANSeaworthy shipsPassage B27 on the back side has the combination of “ingot, boat”, which is a kind ofspecial, because all other similar combinations were of the type “boat, ingot” (the re-verse). It indicates that 27 seaworthy ships were involved in the inter-continental metaltransport. Next passage B28 has a “Royal Son, stone hammer” and a “King”, confir-ming the last number (7). So, it appears each ship needed a crew of 2,100/27= c.78 pe-ople to do the job (1458 BC).Duration of round tripThe 30 or so passages on each side correspond with the 30 days of a month, so the“day” is often an appropriate time unit. Next passage B29 has the combination of “co-ver, waterway, ingot”. As explained previously, the duration of an event is indicatedwith the “cover” on the disc. The “cover” is normally used to keep food fresh, so it in-dicates time.B29 encodes the “duration of the sailing route of the ingots”, which apparently lasted290 days (9.5 months). Next or 2nd passage B30 has a “shield, King”, confirming the2nd number (9), and B19, the next passage on the edge, has a “boat, ingot”, confirmingthe number has to be written down in 31-28= 3 figures.The next passage of the Inner Part can also be chosen, because B1 has a “cover, wa-terway”, confirming the 3 figures. The “duration of the sailing route” in this passage
  10. 10. shows, one refers to the whole round trip on the Ocean (!), because the center of thedisc symbolizes Crete (or Egypt) in the Old World.Passage A29 on the front side has a “cover, waterway”, confirming the “duration of thesailing route” lasted 290 days. Next or 2nd passage A30 has a “bronze shield”, confir-ming the 2nd number (9), and A31, the last passage of the side, has a “shield, King”,confirming the number has to be written down in 31-28= 3 figures.The 12 months of a year are indicated by the 12 or so passages on the edges of thedisc, so the month may be an appropriate time unit, too. Passage A29 with the “cover,waterway” is at the start of a series of 3+7= 10 passages A29-25, indicating the durati-on of the sailing route to the west, c.10 months (slightly more than 290 days). Last im-portant passage A25 has the special combination of “bronze chopper, ingot”.The series A29-26 (skipping A19) confirms it. Last passage A26 has a “bronze shield,cover, waterway, ingot”, confirming the “duration of the sailing route of the ingots formaking bronze products”, so the whole round trip (1458 BC).Metal cargoIn a year the 27 ships have to transport a total number of 25,000+2,500= 27,500 ingotsacross the Ocean. If the round trip would have lasted a year, or 365 days, the metal car-go of each ship would have been 27,500/27= 1019 ingots. However, the round trip lastshorter, only 290 days. So, on the average, the metal cargo of each ship equals(290/365) x1019= 809 ingots, having a mass of 809x16= 12,940 kg, or c.13 tons.Crossing the OceanPeople from the Old World had a choice for reaching America. The “boat” in passageB27 points to B16, having a “messenger”. It may refer to the Cape Verde Islands, at16°N, at the start of the Southern Crossing. The “boat” in passage B19, or B31, pointsto B10, with the sign of “religion”. B31, having a “messenger”, too, may correspond tothe Orkney Islands, at the complementary latitude of 90-31= 59°N, which is at the startof the Northern Crossing.So, it appears that on the average 16/(16+10) x100= 62% of the people used the South-ern Crossing to reach the New World. This sailing route, with the wind and the current,was longer, but took place in a milder climate. However, 90-62= 38% of the ships pre-ferred the shorter, Northern Crossing.People returning from the New World had a choice for reaching the Azores in the mid-dle of the Ocean. The “boat” in passage B2 touches the “hammer”, referring to B9,which may symbolize the nine islands of the Azores. B2, or B32, encodes the island ofBermuda, at 32°N. - The “boat” in passage A12, or A43, on the front side points to A6,having a “messenger”. A43 may correspond to the south cape of Nova Scotia, at 43°N,and to Cape Race, the SE Cape of Newfoundland, at the complementary latitude of90-43= 47°N.So, it appears that after the discovery of Bermuda (c.2387 BC), on the average 9/(9+6)x100= 60% of the people used the return route via Bermuda to the Azores. This long-er sailing route took place in a slightly milder climate. However, 90-60= 40% of the
  11. 11. boats used the shorter crossing via Sable Island, just below Newfoundland.(Refs.1-19,65-68) Fig.4 Chart of the nine islands of the Azores in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. All ships, loaded with metals, passed these islands between 2500 and 1200 BC.6. DISCUSSIONOne of the greatest enigma’s of American archaeology is the huge amount of copperwhich disappeared from the prehistoric mines in Upper Michigan. These extremely richmines contained (and still contain today) both native copper and high quality copper ore.They were especially in use between c.2500 and 1200 BC. A few scholars have alreadysuggested, that during the Bronze Age an important part of this copper must have beentransported across the Ocean to the Old World. (Refs.49-52)The Phaistos Disc reports an overall quantity of 288 thousand tons of copper importedfrom Upper Michigan before the year of 1458 BC. It further reports an import volume of400 tons of copper per year at this date. For an estimation of the total amount of copper,imported from Upper Michigan between 2500 and 1200 BC, we have to make a reason-able guess.Let us assume a constant import volume of 400 tons of copper per year remained valid af-ter the time of the Phaistos Disc, which is between 1458 and 1200 BC. It would mean,that the additional amount imported from North America was 400x (1458-1200)=c.103,000 tons of copper. It would also mean, that a total amount of 288,000 + 103,000=391,000 tons of copper was removed from Upper Michigan. After inspection of the wholemining area in Upper Michigan, a total amount of disappeared copper between 250 to 500thousand tons was estimated by others in the field. So, our conclusion is that itsdestination can now be understood. (Refs.49-64)
  12. 12. The Phaistos Disc reports an overall quantity of 28.8 thousand tons of tin imported fromSouth America before the year of 1458 BC. If a similar assumption is used, an additionalamount of 40x (1458-1200)= c.10,300 tons of tin was taken away between 1458 and 1200BC. So, in that case a total amount of 28,800 + 10,300= 39,100 tons of tin was removedfrom Bolivia (which is 10% of the copper).People sometimes reject the idea of early metal transport across the Ocean. The usualargument for their position is, that this long distance transport would be far too expen-sive to be realistic. They say: “It simply cannot be true!” – What might be the reasonthat it happened in spite of this strong argument?The main reason is, that during the whole time period involved, America was a colonyof Egypt, together forming the Empire of Atlantis. Both the Old Copper Culture andthe Andes Culture were under Egyptian rule. It meant that law, order and safety wasgarantied by the King of Egypt, back and forth on the Ocean, but also in America itself(political stability). On the long run and when large quantities were shipped, it was de-finitely cheaper than somewhere else! (Refs.20-31)The tomb of Rekhmire, the Grand Vizier of king Thutmosis III, is located in Thebes,Egypt. On the western wall of its chapel is “the Panel with the Two Doors”. This pain-ting shows the casting of these bronze doors for the temple of Amun. It can be shown,that the “Two Doors” encode an overall import of 18 million copper ingots (288 thou-sand tons) from Upper Michigan, and 1.8 million tin ingots (28.8 thousand tons) fromBolivia, until the time of Reckmire (c.1460 BC). It is an independent source confir-ming the metal import at the time of the Phaistos Disc. (Refs.53-55)7. GOLD AND SILVER IMPORTStandard IngotBesides copper and tin there has also been a inter-continental transport of gold and silver.The “flower” is the symbol for the manifacture of ornaments of these metals. So, the “flo-wers” at the front side of the disc will provide information about the gold import, and the“flower” on the back side deals with the less important silver import.For a long time past these metals were weighed in units of carats, corresponding with0.20 gram. The carat is the constant mass of a seed of the St. John’s bread or carob tree(Ceratonia siliqua). Note, that the petals of the “flower” on the disc resemble these seeds.B19 on the edge of the back side is the only passage having both the symbol of the “flow-er” and that of the “ingot”. The “flower” has eight petals of equal size, and the front sidehas five turns, suggesting the mass of the Standard Ingot: 80,000 carats (a number of 5 fi-gures), or 80x0.20= 16 kg. (Refs.1-6,41-45)Gold importThe flower in passage A1 appears to deal with the gold import from the mouth of theAmazon River, Brazil, at 1°S. The “burin” in the passage points to A6, while the head ofthe “messenger” in this passage touches A1. A6 is at the start of a series of 5 passages,corresponding to 60,000 carats, or 60x0.2= 12 kg gold per year. The series finishes withthe King in passage A10, confirming the 10-5= 5 figures.
  13. 13. The flower in passage A4 deals with the gold trade from Ghana and Ivory Coast in thesouth of West Africa, at 4°N. The “burin” in de passage points to A10. It is at the start ofa series of 6 passages, corresponding to 100,000 carats, or 100x0.2= 20 kg gold per year.The series finishes with the King in passage A15, confirming the 15-9= 6 figures.The “flower” in passage A20 is situated close to previous passage A19, indicating thesource in the area near the present town of Potosi, Bolivia, at 19°S (Ref.39). It is at thestart of a series of 6 passages, again, corresponding to 190,000 carats, or 190x0.2= 38 kggold per year. The series finishes with the King in passage A24, confirming the 24-18= 6figures. - Note, that A19 corresponds with the density of gold, 19 g/cm3 (nineteen timesheavier than water).The total import to the area around the Mediterranean Sea equals 60+100+190= 350thou-sand carats, or 12+20+38= 70 kg gold per year. This is confirmed with the “flower”in A31+A4= A35. It is at the start of a series of 6 passages, encoding 350,000 carats, or350x0.2= 70 kg gold per year (1458 BC). The series finishes with the King in passageA9, confirming the 9-3= 6 figures.For sure this trade has lasted for a 1000 years. So, perhaps the overall import was 350million carats, which is 70 tons of gold. But this calculated quantity is not realistic, ofcourse. - When the true fraction equals that of copper and tin (see above), then in realitythe import of gold totalled to about 18/25x350= 252 million carats. This quantity is indi-cated by the next passage A25 (!), which contains the special symbol of the bronze or gol-den chopper.So, the overall import of gold to the area around the Mediterranean is indicated by passa-ge A25. It is at the start of a series of 9 passages, corresponding to 250 million carats, or250x0.2= 50 tons of gold (till 1458 BC). The series finishes with the flower, the stonehammer, and the King in passage A19, confirming the 7+2= 9 figures. So, (12/70) x50=8.6 tons came from the mouth of the Amazone River, 14.3 tons from Ghana and IvoryCoast, and 27.1 tons from Bolivia.Silver importThe flower in passage B19 at the back side deals with the silver import from the PacificCoast near Bolivia, South America, at 19°S (Ref.39). The “boat” in the passage, which iscarrying the silver, touches passage B10 above it. It encodes the density of silver, 10g/cm3 (ten times heavier than water). It is at the start of a series of 6 passages, correspon-ding to 100,000 carats, or 100x0.2= 20kg silver per year (1458 BC). The series finisheswith the Queen in passage B15, confirming the 15-9= 6 figures.For sure this trade has lasted for a 1000 years. So, perhaps the overall import equaled 100million carats, which is 20 tons of silver. But this is not realistic, of course. - When thetrue fraction equals that of copper, tin and gold (see above), then in reality the import ofsilver totalled to about 18/25x100= 72 million carats. The “glove” in passage B10, justmentioned, touches the “cover”. So, this quantity is indicated by passage B7, which con-tains to the tune of two “covers”!So, the overall import of silver to te area of the Mediterranean is indicated by passage B7.It is at the start of a series of 8 passages, corresponding with 70 million carats, or 70x0.2=14.0 tons of silver (till 1458 BC). The series finishes with the messenger, the ingot, and
  14. 14. the King in passage A14, confirming the 14-6= 8 figures. - Note, that the 3 flowers at thefront side, and the single flower at the back side affirm, that the import of gold was about3 times as high as the import of silver (250/70= 3.6).In 1458 BC the total import of noble metals (gold and silver) was 350+100= 450 thou-sand carats, or 70+20= 90kg per year. It is confirmed by last passage A31+B14= B45,just mentioned. It is at the start of a series of 6 passages, finishing with the “flower” inB19, confirming the 19-13= 6 figures.Till 1458 BC, the overall import of noble metals (gold and silver) was 250+70= 320million carats, or 50+14= 64 tons. It is confirmed by the first passage A31+A1= A32,having a “flower”, again. It is at the start of a series of 9 passages, finishing with thePalace of Knossos and the King in A9, confirming the 9 figures.CalculationsThe Phaistos Disc shows the yearly production of the metals increased because of po-pulation growth. For an estimation of the yearly production P(t) and the overall pro-duction OP(t) after the start of the metal transport across the Ocean, c.2500 BC, a line-ar increase in P(t) is assumed. On this basis the following formula’s can be used:Gold from Mouth Amazone River, until 1458 BCP(t), yearly Production in kg/year; t, years of ProductionStart in 2500 BC: t = 0 years, P(t) = 4.46 kg/yEnd in 1458 BC: t =1042 years, P(t) = 12.0 kg/y (linear increase)General Formula: P(t) = 0.00724 x t + 4.46 (kg/y)Overall Production: OP(t) = 0.5 x 0.00724 x t2 + 4.46 x t (kg)End in 1458 BC: t =1042 years, OP(t) = 8.6 tonsGold from Ghana and Ivory Coast, until 1458 BCP(t), yearly Production in kg/year; t, years of ProductionStart in 2500 BC: t = 0 years, P(t) = 7.44 kg/yEnd in 1458 BC: t =1042 years, P(t) = 20.0 kg/y (linear increase)General Formula: P(t) = 0.0121 x t + 7.44 (kg/y)Overall Production: OP(t) = 0.5 x 0.0121 x t2 + 7.44 x t (kg)End in 1458 BC: t =1042 years, OP(t) = 14.3 tonsGold from Bolivia, until 1458 BCP(t), yearly Production in kg/year; t, years of ProductionStart in 2500 BC: t = 0 years, P(t) = 14.0 kg/yEnd in 1458 BC: t =1042 years, P(t) = 38.0 kg/y (linear increase)General Formula: P(t) = 0.0230 x t + 14.0 (kg/y)Overall Production: OP(t) = 0.5 x 0.0230 x t2 + 14.0 x t (kg)End in 1458 BC: t =1042 years, OP(t) = 27.1 tonsSilver from Bolivia, until 1458 BCP(t), yearly Production in kg/year; t, years of ProductionStart in 2500 BC: t = 0 years, P(t) = 6.80 kg/yEnd in 1458 BC: t =1042 years, P(t) = 20.0 kg/y (linear increase)General Formula: P(t) = 0.0127 x t + 6.80 (kg/y)Overall Production: OP(t) = 0.5 x 0.0127 x t2 + 6.80 x t (kg)
  15. 15. End in 1458 BC: t =1042 years, OP(t) = 14.0 tonsDiscussionLet us assume, that a constant import volume of 70 kg of gold per year, and of 20 kg ofsilver per year, remained valid after the time of the Phaistos Disc, which is between 1458and 1200 BC. It would mean, that the additional amount of imported noble metals was70x (1458-1200) /1000= c.18.1 tons of gold, and 20x (1458-1200) /1000= c.5.2 tons ofsilver. (3.1 tons of gold from the Amazone, 5.2 tons of gold from Ghana, and 9.8 tons ofgold from Bolivia). It would mean, that a total amount of 50+18.1= 68.1 tons of gold, andof 14+5.2= 19.2 tons of silver was imported from abroad, until the year of 1200 BC.The Empire of Atlantis existed from 2500 to 1200 BC. During this time period 24.4million copper ingots and 2.44 million tin ingots were shipped to the Old World, toge-ther with 58 million carats of gold from the Amazone, 97 million carats of gold fromGhana, 184 million carats of gold from Bolivia, and 96 million carats of silver fromBolivia (Phaistos Disc). Compared with other values from the literature these amountsmay be slightly too high, but only by 1.5%. (Refs.49-64)LITERATURE1. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., How the SunGod Reached America c.2500 BC, A Guide toMegalithic Sites, 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083,also on CD. Website: www.howthesungod.com2. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic and theCopper Trade, MCS Inc, 2010 (ISBN 0-917054-20-2). Available: MCS Inc, Box 3392, Kirkland, WaUSA 98083. Website: www.rocksandrows.com3. De Jonge, R.M., Website: www.slideshare.net/rmdejonge4. Pellech, Chr., Website: www.migration-diffusion.info5. De Jonge, R.M., Catastrophes, Webpage: www.barry.warmkessel.com/dejonge.html6. De Jonge, R.M., Phaistos Disc, Website: www.slideshare.net/drsrmdejonge7. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Discovery of the Islands in the Ocean (Cairn T, Loughcrew,Co. Meath, Ireland, c.3200 BC)” (2011), Refs.3,4, to be published.8. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Rings of Stenness, Brodgar & Bookan, Celebrating the Dis-covery of South Greenland, c.3200 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.6, No.24, pgs.20-40 (2005).9. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Greenland, Bridge between the Old and New World, c.2500 BC”,Ancient American, Vol.11, No.67, pgs.12-20 (2006).10. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “A Nautical Center for Crossing the Ocean, America’s Stonehen-ge, New Hampshire, c.2200 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.4, No.15, pgs.60-100 (2003), Ref.4.11. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of Three Continents (Santo Stefano, North Sardinia, Italy, c.2300BC)”, Ancient American, Vol.12, No.76, pgs.28-29 (2007), Refs.3,4.12. De Jonge, R.M., “Houghton’s Petroglyph (Copper Country, Michigan, 2500-1200 BC)” (2009), Ref.3,to be published.13. De Jonge, R.M., “The Mystic Symbol, mark of the Michigan Mound Builders” (2009), Ref.3, to bepublished.14. De Jonge, R.M., “Gold Ring (Grand Canyon, Arizona, c.1450 BC) (2010), Ref.3, to be published.15. De Jonge, R.M., “Tripod Rock, Pyramid Mountain (Morris County, New Jersey, c.1900 BC)”(2011), Refs.3,4, to be published.16. De Jonge, R.M., “Megaliths of Arrowhead Region I (Minnesota, c.1900 BC)” (2012), Ref.3, to bepublished.17. De Jonge, R.M., “Discovery of America and the Flood (c.2300 BC, Ita Letra, Villarrica, Paraguay)”,(2009), Refs.3,5, to be published.18. De Jonge, R.M., “Stonehenge, Monument for the Discovery of America (Salisbury Plain, SouthEngland, c.2000 BC)” (2011), Refs.3,4, to be published.19. De Jonge, R.M., “A Sword for America (Kirkburn, East Yorkshire, England, c.250 BC)” (2009),Ref.3, to be published.20. Siliotti, A., Egypt, Temples, People and Gods, Bergamo, Italy, 1997.
  16. 16. 21. Hart, G., A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Routledge, London, 1986 (ISBN 0-7102-0167-2).22. Wallis Budge, E.A., Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection, 2 Vol., Dover Pub., N.Y., 1973 (ISBN0-486-22780-4).23. Breasted, J.H., Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol.2: The Eighteenth Dynasty, London, 1988.24. Kemp, B.J., Ancient Egypt, Anatomy of a Civilization, London, Routledge, 1991.25. Tompkins, P., Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Harper & Row, London, 1971 (ISBN 0-06-090631-6). (Dr.Stecchini)26. Thompson, G., American Discovery, Misty Isles Press, Seattle, 1994.27. Bailey, J., Sailing to Paradise, Simon & Schuster, 1994.28. Fell, B., America BC, Pocket Books, Simon & Schuster, 1994.29. Jairazbhoy, R.A., Ancient Egyptians and Chinese in America, Rowman & Littlefield, Totowa, N.J.,1974 (ISBN 0-87471-571-1).30. Zapp, I., and Erikson, G., Atlantis in America. Navigators of the Ancient World, Adventures UnlimitedPress, 1998 (ISBN 0-932813-52-6).31. New World and Pacific Civilizations. The Illustrated History of Humankind, Weldon Owen Pty Li-mited, McMahons Point, Australia (1995).32. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Disc of Nebra, Germany, c.1600 BC”, Migration & Diffu-sion, Vol.5, No.17, pgs.32-39 (2004).33. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., Ancient American, "Germanys Bronze Age Disc RevealsTransatlantic Seafaring, c.1600 BC", Vol.9, No.55, pgs.18-20 (2004).34. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Stone Rows of Tormsdale: A Voyage to Central America,the Realm of the Dead” (Caithness, NE Scotland, c.1600 BC)”, Ancient American, Vol.11, No.70,pgs.28-34 (2006).35. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “A Return Route Across the Ocean, Encoded at Tormsdale Rows(Caithness, NE Scotland, c.1600 BC)”, Ancient American, Vol.12, No.74, pgs.8-12 (2007).36. Ferryn, P., "5000 Years Before Our Era: The Red Men of the North Atlantic", NEARA Journal, Vol.XXXI, No.2 (1997).37. De Jonge, R.M., “Minoan Pendant (Cleveland, Ohio, c.1690 BC)” (2010), Ref.3, to be published.38. De Jonge, R.M., “Great Circle Mound: An Indiana Temple to the Egyptian Sun-God?”, AncientAmerican, Vol.9, No.60, pgs.31-32 (2004).39. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Three Rivers Petroglyph, A Guidepost for River Travel inAmerica, c.1500 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.3, No.12, pgs.74-100 (2002).40. Gibson, J.L., The Ancient Mounds of Poverty Point, Place of the Rings, University Press of Florida,2001 (ISBN 0-8130-2551-6).41. De Jonge, R.M., The Phaistos Disc Decoded, New Testimony of a Lost Civilization, 300 pgs.,Netherlands (2008). Website: www.slideshare.net/drsrmdejonge42. De Jonge, R.M., The Phaistos Disc Decoded, New Testimony of a Lost Civilization, MidwesternEpigraphic Journal, Vol.20, 111-115 (2006), and Vol.21, 74-80 (2007), to be published.43. Godart, L., The Phaistos Disc, The Enigma of an Aegean Script, Editions Itanos, 1995 (ISBN960-7549-02-3).44. Kofoú, A., Kreta, met alle musea en archeologische opgravingen, Ekdotike Athenon, Athene, 1994(ISBN 960-213-060-1). (Dutch)45. Willetts, R.F., The Civilization of Ancient Crete, Phoenix Press, New York (1976) (ISBN1-84212-746-2).46. Old World Civilizations, The Rise of Cities and States, The Illustrated History of Humankind, WeldonOwen Pty Limited, McMahons Point, Australia (1995).47. Mohen, J.-P., and Eluère, C., The Bronze Age in Europe. Gods, Hero’s and Treasures, Thames and Hud-son, 2000 (ISBN 0-500-30101-8).48. Drews, R., The End of the Bronze Age, Changes of Warfare and the Catastrophe, c.1200 BC, PrincetonPaperbacks, 1993 (ISBN 0-691-02591-6).49. Drier, R.W., and Du Temple, O.J., Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region, ACollection of Reference Articles, published privately, 1961, and reprinted in 2005.50. Rydholm, C.F., Michigan Copper, The Untold Story, Winter Cabin Books, Marquette, 2006 (ISBN0-9744679-2-8).51. Fox, H., Home of the Gods, Galde Press, 2003 (ISBN 193-194-2056)52. Burgess, J., Tiawanaku, Ancient World Center of Sun Worship, MES Newsletter, Vol.24, No.3(2007).
  17. 17. 53. De Jonge, R.M., “The Bronze Doors of Rekhmire (Thebes, Upper Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty,c.1460 BC)” (2011), Ref.3, to be published.54. B. Scheel, Egyptian Metalworking and Tools, Shire Publications, Aylesbury, UK (1989).55. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Embden Dragon Petroglyph, A Copper-Trading Route of theBronze Age (Kennebec River, Embden, Maine, c.1500 BC)”, Midwestern Epigraphic Journal, Vol.18/9,pgs. 56-82, 2004-5 (ISSN 1932-5703).56. De Jonge, R.M., “The Battersea Shield (River Thames, London, c.190 BC)” (2009), Ref.3, to bepublished.57. De Jonge, R.M., “Copper Trade with the Old World (Poverty Point, NE Louisiana)” (2009), Ref.3, to bepublished.58. De Jonge, R.M., “Petroglyph of a Sailing Boat (Copper Harbor, Upper Michigan, c.1640 BC)” (2009),Ref.3, to be published.59. De Jonge, R.M., “Great Serpent Mound (c.2300 BC, Adams County, Ohio)” (2010), Ref.3, to bepublished.60. De Jonge, R.M., “The Myths of Monks Mound (Cahokia, Illinois, 650-1400 AD)” (2010), Ref.3, tobe published.61. De Jonge, R.M., “Cahokia, Capital of Ancient America” (2010), Ref.3, to be published.62. De Jonge, R.M., “Peters Creek Mound (c.715 BC, Clairton, Pennsylvania)” (2010), Ref.3, to bepublished.63. De Jonge, R.M., “Four Ancient Stories (Poverty Point, NE Louisiana, c.700 BC)” (2009), Ref.3, tobe published.64. De Jonge, R.M., “Megaliths of Arrowhead Region II (Minnesota, c.1900 and c.770 BC BC)” (2012),Ref.3, to be published.65. Casson, L., Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times, British Museum Press, 1994 (ISBN 0-525-47545-1).66. Wachsmann, S., Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age, Levant, College Station, Texas,1998.67. Heyerdahl, T., The Ra Expeditions, George Allen & Unwin, London, 1971.68. Robin Mueller, Website: Old Copper Complex and Ancient Waterways America

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