start with this assumption, and we will see later that this turns out to be correct (Ch.5).Finally, both sides of the disc consist of two different parts, which is not directly obvious.As can be seen in Figs.2.1&2.2, each side consists of an Inner Part and an Edge. Thisdistinction plays a role in some of the chapters of this book.Fig.2.1Front side A of the Phaistos Disc(Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.1)2.2 ORIGINCreteThe Phaistos Disc was found in the ruins of the Palace of Phaistos in southern Crete,during a local excavation directed by the Italian archaeologist Luigi Pernier, in 1908,about a century ago (Refs.1,3). The excavation took place in the NE corner of the com-plex (Figs.1.1-1.3), close to the northern edge, in Room 8, just in front of an EW-orientedrow of much smaller rooms, separated from each other by partition walls. Room 8 is aco-called “casella”, NS-oriented, having a length of about 3 meters, and a width of c.1meter. While removing earth and debris in its NW corner, co-workers of the team found
the disc some 50 cm above bedrock, the front side of it facing upwards (Refs.25-27).In spite of all these details, which may be very important, there is some doubt about thereal origin of the disc. The artifact is rather small, so there is a chance it has beenimported in Crete from abroad. The problem is complicated, because the script on it isalmost unique. In 1992 a piece of ceramics, containing a few small but identical groupsof symbols, turned up in a cellar of a house in the town of Vladikavkas, North Ossetia(Refs.7,8,28). Obviously, it was a test piece from preliminary attempts in the process ofmaking the Phaistos Disc. Imprints of exactly the same symbols forming another texthave never been found.The numbers of passages on both sides of the disc turn out to have geographic meanings(Refs.4-6,19-24). The number of passages on side A is 31, corresponding to the latitudeof the northern Nile Delta, at 31°N. The number of passages on side B is 30,corresponding to the latitude of the southern Nile Delta, at 30°N. Chapter 5 shows thatthe Phaistos Disc contains an ideographic script. The translated text of it deals withgovernment and religion. The most important passages A3 and A15 on the front side bothread “the Theory of the Holy Kings of Lower and Upper Egypt”.These important facts illustrate the enormous influence of the Egyptian civilization in theEastern Mediterranean, and beyond (Refs.12-18). They might also suggest an Egyptianprovenance of the disc. However, this last statement is not correct, because the Egyptianshad their own hieroglyphic and hieratic scripts. The symbols on the Phaistos Disc do notresemble these at all. The structure of this script is also totally different. The suggestionthat Egyptians created an entirely new, ideographic script on the Phaistos Disc for onespecial occasion, must be entirely excluded.The disc also shows the geographic location of the island of Crete. The numbers of turnsof the spirals on both sides have geographic meanings, too. The 5 and 4 turns twiceencode the latitude of Crete above the Nile Delta, at 30+5= 35°N, or 31+4= 35°N. Closeinspection of the disc reveils there are 45 different symbols (Fig.2.3, Table 2.2). Again,the 5 turns of the front side and the 45 different symbols confirm the location of Crete: ata sailing distance of 5dl= 5 moiras or 300 NM, and at a sailing direction of 45°NW fromthe Nile Delta (1 dl= 1 distance line= 1°= 1 Egyptian moira= 60 Nautical Miles,Refs.4-6,19-24). These calculations strongly confirm our first idea of a Cretanprovenance.The features of the 45 different symbols form another important clue about the origin ofthe disc. Representations of flowers like the "rosettes" (Table 2.2, #38) are very commonon Crete. Parallels for this eight-petalled rosette are the large flowers decorating thefamous Kamares ware krater from Phaistos, dated c.1750 BC (Ref.1). The symbol of the"papyrus" (#37) looks like similar signs on wall paintings on the neighboring island ofThera, c.100km (55 NM) north of Crete. The symbol of the "King’s grave" (#21) alreadydates from the Old Palace Culture in Crete, because Godart (Ref.1) shows a clay sealvery similar to this image, which has been found in Phaistos, dated from this time period.A seal of the shape of the "bulls leg" (#28), made of bronze, has been found inApodoulou (c.1750 BC), at a distance of 25km from Phaistos. Another five seals withbulls leg devices have been found elsewhere in Crete, at Malia and Lenta.A gold ring from Mochlos, eastern Crete, with a representation of a Minoan ship (c.1450BC, Ref.1), resembles the symbol of the "boat" (#25) of the Phaistos Disc. A series of
images of a cat, similar to the one on the disc (#29), can be seen on some vases fromMalia. The famous figurine of the Snake Goddess from Knossos has a little feline on herhead, strongly reminding of the cat on our disc, too. According to Pernier (Ref.3), the“mattock” or pick (#15) is a typical Cretan artifact. A similar mattock in bronze wasfound at Phaistos, and a second one elsewhere on the island.The symbol of the "ordinary man" (#3) shows a male head with tattooed or face-paintedcheek. Pernier (Ref.3) shows this practice can be seen on various clay figurines fromPhaistos and Hagia Triada, confirming the origin of the disc. The image of the “glove” orgauntlet (#8) is visible on a vase from Hagia Triada, close to Phaistos, and dated c.1450BC (Refs.1,3). The topless "virgin" or Queen (#6) is a typical Cretan phenomenon. Thelack of any shame in this respect was typical for Crete during the Minoan Culture(Refs.9-11,29). Each of these nine or ten different symbols, about 20% of its totalnumber, is a more or less strong indication that the Phaistos Disc had been made in Crete.However, we consider the combination of the nine symbols together as a proof of it.A beautiful gold ring was found by Sir Arthur Evans near Knossos (Mavro Spilio), in1926. It shows a small disc with a Linear A inscription of 19 signs, definitely from Crete.The ring is interesting, because the inscription is performed in the shape of a spiral,counterclockwise, similar to the Phaistos Disc. We were able to date the ring (Ch.10):c.1611 BC (New Palace Culture). The design of the Phaistos Disc may even have beenbased on this ring. It confirms the Cretan provenance of the disc.A bronze axe from the Arkalochori Cave in eastern Crete, dated c.1500 BC, contains arare inscription of 15 symbols, 10 of which are different. Although not proven, both axeand inscription are considered of Cretan provenance. Two symbols closely resemble theplane (#19) and the branch (#35) of the Phaistos Disc, three other signs are similar. Thesymbols also form a ideographic script, which has been deciphered (Ch.10).
Fig.2.2Back side B of the Phaistos Disc(Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.1)Palace of PhaistosChapter 5 shows the Phaistos Disc describes the religion of Crete. This means the discmust have been designed in one of the religious complexes on the island. The disc itselfshows there were eight of these complexes (Ch.3). However, Chapter 5 also shows thedisc deals with the government of the people of Crete. The symbol of the “King” (#2) isthe most prominent one of the disc, because its frequency of occurence is to the tune of19x (Table 2.2). This means the disc must have been designed in one of the mostimportant complexes. Chapter 3 shows the complexes were devided into two catagories,which we have called the “palaces” (#14), and the less important “temples” (#24). Thesymbol of the “palace” occurs twice on the disc, so there were two major palaces onCrete. These turn out to be Knossos and Phaistos (Ch.3), which is confirmed in theliterature (Refs.9-11,27).Chapter 3 provides detailed information about the population numbers around the palaces
and temples, including the total population of Crete. The disc also gives importantinformation about the territory of the island. Chapter 4 shows the disc gives an incredibleamount of information about daily life on Crete, and Chapter 6 contains a completehistory of the island. All these data form additional proof of the Cretan provenance.When we consider the total information encoded on the disc, we could suppose the dischas been made in Knossos, by far the most important governmental center on the island,twice as big as Phaistos. It appears to be confirmed by the prominent position of thePalace of Knossos on the disc (Ch.3). It is shown in the long passage A9 (symbol #14),on the front side.However, is it really true that the disc was made in Knossos, and subsequentlytransported to Phaistos, where it ultimately was found? This is a difficult question. Let ussee if we can solve this problem. The Palace of Phaistos is shown in passage B17 on theback side (Fig.2.2, Ch.3). The back side has 4 turns, encoding the latitude of Crete, 4°above the Mediterranean coast of the northern Nile Delta, at 31+4= 35°N. This side givesthe latitude of Crete in a better way than the front side with the Palace of Knossos, having5 turns.Figs.2.1&2.2 show the correct orientations of both sides, also from a geographical pointof view. So, the last passages A31 and B30 at the bottom of the disc both finish in thesouth. This means the Palace of Phaistos in passage B17 is indicated in a correct way (seeFigs.1.1&2.2), in the SSW part of the island, near the coast. However, the Palace ofKnossos in A9 on the front side is geographically indicated in a wrong way(Figs.1.1&2.1).Finally, passage B17, with the Palace of Phaistos, contains the symbol of a “saw” (#16),which could be translated by “to make” (the Phaistos Disc). It contains a clue about theorigin of the disc. However, passage A9 with the Palace of Knossos does not contain asimilar symbol, nor any clue. Our conclusion is simple: Knossos is shown on the frontside, because it is the most important palace of Crete. However, in a geographical sensethe Palace of Phaistos is indicated in a better way, and it is accompanied by a hint,because here the famous Phaistos Disc was made!The disc is descended from Crete, and it was designed in the Palace of Phaistos, where itwas also found. However, has it also been fabricated in this Palace? This less importantquestion may also be answered. The above paragraph strongly suggests it is, but there ismore. The Phaistos Disc has been beautifully made, in an extremely accurate way. Thisbook will show that the so-called small errors (Ref.1), like the long separation linebetween passages B23 and B24, and the extra lines in B3 and A27, have been made onpurpose, and not by accident (see Figs.2.1&2.2). It looks like the designer himself wasalso responsible for making the disc. This means that, probably, the disc has been madein the Palace of Phaistos, or may be it its immediate surroundings. However, it cannot betotally excluded the disc has been fabricated somewhere else on the island.
Fig.2.3Table of the signs of the Phaistos Disc(Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.1)2.3 DATEThe front side has 31 passages, corresponding to the northern Nile Delta, at 31°N, and theback side has 30 passages, corresponding to the southern Nile Delta, at 30°N(Figs.2.1&2.2). So, the Phaistos Disc strongly emphasizes the ties of Crete with nearbyEgypt, the greatest civilization on Earth (Refs.12-18). Both sides of the disc have anInner Part and an Edge. The inner part of each side contains 18 passages, twice encodingthe important 18th Dynasty of Egypt, at the start of the New Kingdom, which lastedofficially from 1580 to 1314 BC.On the front side the most important phrase of the disc, "The Theory of the Holy Kingsof Lower and Upper Egypt", occurs in passages A3 and A15, together forming 3+15= 18units, again confirming the 18th Dynasty (Ch.7). On the back side the “Queen” occurs inthe similar passages B3 and B15, together forming 3+15= 18 units, once againconfirming the 18th Dynasty of Queen Hatshepsut. So, it has been indicated four times,
that the disc has been made during this Egyptian dynasty (Table 2.3).The numbers of passages on both sides of the Disc also turn out to represent years ofgenerations. The front side appears to correspond with a first generation of 31 years (31passages), and the back side encodes a second generation of 30 years (30 passages). So,as far as history is concerned, the back side describes a more recent time period (Ch.6).The back side contains 5 “Kings” and 2 “Queens”, both of which are representing QueenHatshepsut (see the above paragraph). So in total this side shows 5+1= 6 Rulers, insteadof 7 Rulers. It suggests the 18th Dynasty had a total of 6 Rulers, when the disc was made.According to the literature of ancient Egypt, the 6th Ruler of the 18th Dynasty was thewell-known King Thutmose III, who reigned from 1485 to 1451 BC. So, it appears thePhaistos Disc has been made in the short time period of 34 years during his reign. Butthere is more. The text of the inner part of 18 passages on this side consists of 6paragraphs (Table 2.1), confirming the total number of 6 Rulers of the 18th Dynasty.The edge of the front side, around the 18 passages inside, contains 5 “Kings” and 1“Queen”, together 5+1= 6 Rulers, once again confirming it. Passage A18 of the inner partrepresents the 18th Dynasty. This passage contains 6 symbols, apparently encoding these6 Rulers. The last symbol is a “King”, confirming for the fourth time the disc has beenmade during the reign of the 6th Ruler, Thutmose III (Table 2.3).The tomb of Rekhmire, the Grand Vizier of Thutmose III, is located in Thebes, Egypt.On its walls gift-bearing Cretans are seen, clad in loincloths, which are very similar tothose worn by the "messenger" (#1) on our disc. Godart (Ref.1) proves these images datebetween 1470 and 1450 BC. The "ordinary man" (#3) has a head with a tattooed or face-painted cheek. Vercoutter (Ref.1) shows an identical figure-eight design under the eye ofa person in the same tomb of Rekhmire, confirming the date (1470-1450 BC).Vercoutter also shows a bold headed man in the tomb of Menkheperraseneb, the secondGrand Vizier of Thutmose III. He precedes all the Aegeans and pays homage to thePharaoh in the name of Crete. Above him is an inscription "Wr n Ktiw", meaning "Kingof the land of Keftiu", or "King of Crete". The bold headed man resembles the symbolsof both the "messenger" and the "ordinary man" on the disc. It confirms the origin of thedisc, as well as the date of it, c.1450 BC. In scenes of contest on a high, narrow vase fromHagia Triada, at a distance of c.3km (2 miles) from Phaistos, boxers are visible with theirhands protected by “gloves” very similar to those shown on the disc (#8, Ref.1). The vasedates from c.1450 BC, which confirms the date of the disc.The unique Disc of Phaistos was found in the ruins of an abandoned Minoan palace.Everything indicates it was a local product of the native Minoan Culture (Refs.1,2). Thetext starts in the center of the front side with a cry of emergency (Fig.2.1, A1-4, Ch.5):"Please, proclaim loudly, and spread by force of law, the Theory of the Holy Kings ofLower and Upper Egypt. Please, proclaim it loudly." This first paragraph shows exactlywhen the Phaistos Disc was made, namely at a severe political crisis, at the beginning ofa civil war. It marks the end of the so-called New Palace Culture of the Cretan Civiliza-tion, which is well-known in the archaeological literature. So, the date can be furthernarrowed down to 1450 ± 10 BC.It explains why this disc is so unique. The people that were involved in the production ofmore copies of the disc, fled or were killed, and in the general confusion the 45 preciousseals were stolen, burnt, or simply lost. It also shows why the characters of the disc were
imprinted, and not carved. The 45 seals (Fig.2.3) were meant for production of otherceramic artifacts with similar religious texts. The first paragraph of the text, just quoted,confirms this goal. The next paragraph continues with: “Fix it down in writing, andspread by force of law, the sovereignty of the King“ (A5,6, Ch.5). The 45 symbols werethe official tools for starting a new script, but it never got a chance to develop.The end of the New Palace Culture in Crete has not been caused by an eruption of thevulcano of Thera, c.100km (55 NM) north of Crete, nor by an earthquake in the easternMediterranean, and not by a collision of the Earth with extra-terrestial material from outof space (Refs.10,11). The end of the old civilization of Crete has been caused by a civilwar, because of serious political mistakes of the government. The text of the PhaistosDisc clearly points into this direction. The Palace of Knossos was not destroyed duringthis civil war, which, again, excludes the possibility of a catastrophe.After the civil war of c.1450 BC, the power of Crete strongly declined, and theMycenaean Culture started to expand from mainland Greece. In view of the translation ofthe Phaistos Disc (Ch.5), it can be excluded that this script was invented by this newculture, far away from its political center. If the Mycenaeans invented it, the same scriptwould have appeared without doubt later and elsewhere, too. The lack of any such finds,especially from the neighboring area of the Peloponnesus, confirms it (Refs.1,9-11).Pernier (Ref.3) compared the symbol of the "temple" (#24) on the disc with the Punthuts, carved on the walls of the temple of Queen Hatshepsut at Deir-el-Bahari, in Egypt.Passage B18 on the back side contains 5 symbols, two of which are “temples” (#24).These symbolize the famous temples of the 5th Ruler of the 18th Dynasty, QueenHatshepsut. So, the remark of Pernier was quite close to the truth. She was the last ruler(1516-1485 BC), who passed away before Thutmose III. It confirms again the approx-imate date of the Phaistos Disc.The 30 passages of the back side represent the 30 years of the last generation, before thecivil war. The last symbols of passage B3 are a “Queen” and a “King”. Apparently, thepassage represents the end of reign of Queen Hatshepsut, in 1485, and the start of KingThutmose III. After passage B3, there are 27 passages left. So, the Phaistos Disc has beenmade in the 30-3= 27th year of government of Thutmose III. He is shown in the lastpassage B30, which represents the year of 1485-27= 1458 BC.So, at the start of the civil war in Crete, the 18th Dynasty in Egypt, and the NewKingdom, lasted from 1580 to 1458, which is 122 years. Apparently, these years arerepresented by the 122 symbols of side A (dropping the 1st symbol, the “flower”).Passage A24 also contains a “Queen” and a “King”. So, also this passage turns out torepresent the end of reign of Queen Hatshepsut, in 1485, and the start of King ThutmoseIII. After the “Queen” and her “shield” are 27 symbols, confirming the Phaistos Disc hasbeen made in the 27th year of government of Thutmose III. He is shown as the lastsymbol of passage A31, which represents the year of 1485-27= 1458 BC.Passage A27 on the front side shows King Thutmose III, confirming his present, 27thyear of reign. The symbol of the “King” is one of the last 27 symbols on side A, repre-senting his 27 years of government. The “scraper” (#42) in passage B22 on the back sidecontains 27 dots, confirming it. The triangular grater (#43) in passage B25 also has 27dots, confirming it again. Both passages B22 and B25 belong to the last 27 passages onside B, again representing the 27 years of reign of Thutmose III.
2.4 DISCUSSIONDuring the excavation of the Phaistos Disc, a Linear A tablet, known as PH 1, was foundin the same Room 8 (Refs.1,30). This tablet was dated c.1700 BC, which is at the end ofthe Old Palace Culture. The tablet was situated at more or less the same depth, at adistance of only a few centimeters from the disc. Because of this coincidence, thePhaistos Disc has also been dated c.1700 BC, which is the usual date mentioned in theliterature. However, this chapter shows the Phaistos Disc dates from c.1458 BC, which isalmost 250 years later, at the end of the New Palace Culture. It was just before thedestruction of almost all the palaces and temples during the civil war on Crete.TABLE 2.1IMPORTANT DATA OF THE PHAISTOS DISC (c.1458 BC)FRONT SIDE (SIDE A) (Fig.2.1)Inner Part and Edge (IP+E)Number of symbols: 73+(49+1)= 123Number of symbols sideways (deviating): 3Number of symbols upside down (deviating): 3Number of passages: 18+13= 31Number of turns of the spiral: 4+1= 5Number of dots at the end: 5Number of paragraphs: 7+4= 11BACK SIDE (SIDE B) (Fig.2.2)Inner Part and Edge (IP+E)Number of symbols: 70+49= 119Number of symbols sideways (deviating): 2Number of symbols upside down (deviating): 2Number of passages: 18+12= 30Number of turns of the spiral: 3+1= 4Number of dots at the end: 4 (not 5)Number of paragraphs: 6+3= 9BOTH SIDES (A+B)Sight direction to the text: from the edge to the center.Read direction of the text: from the center along the spiral to theEdge (against the daily movement of the Sun).Number of symbols: 123+119= 242Number of symbols sideways (deviating): 3+2= 5Number of symbols upside down (deviating): 3+2= 5Number of passages: 31+30= 61Number of turns of the spiral: 5+4= 9Number of dots at the end: 5+4= 9Number of paragraphs: 11+9= 20
43 Grater 0,0 / 0,1 0 1 144 Chopper 0,1 / 0,0 1 0 145 Waterway 0,2 / 3,1 2 4 6SIDES A/B A+BTotal 123 119 242* Sides A/B: IP= Inner Part, E= EdgeTABLE 2.3THE DATE OF THE PHAISTOS DISC: 1458 BCEGYPT, Nile Delta:Side A: 31 passages= 31°NSide B: 30 passages= 30°NInner part A: 18 passages= 18th DynastyInner part B: 18 passages= 18th DynastyPassages A with King Theory: 3+15= 18 units= 18th DynastyPassages B with Queen Hatshepsut: 3+15= 18 units= 18th DynastyDate: 1580-1314 BC(*)Side B: 5 Kings and 1 Queen= 6 Rulers: Thutmose IIIInner part B : 6 paragraphs= 6 Rulers: Thutmose IIIEdge A: 5 Kings and 1 Queen= 6 Rulers: Thutmose IIIPassage A18 (Dynasty), 6th symbol= King: Thutmose IIIDate: 1485-1451 BC(*)The clothes of the "messenger" and the figure-eight design of the "ordinary man" seen inthe tomb of Rekhmire, in Thebe, Egypt. Date: 1470-1450 BC(*).Bold headed man similar to the “messenger” and the “ordinary man” seen in tomb ofMenkheperraseneb, in Thebe, Egypt, c.1450 BC, and the "gauntlet" seen on vase fromHagia Triada, close to Phaistos, dated c.1450 BC(*).The text of the 1st paragraph of side A prooves the disc has been made at the start of acivil war, at the end of the New Palace Culture in Crete, 1450 ± 10 BC(*).Passage B3 with Queen Hatshepsut and a King shows the disc has been made in the30-3= 27th year of government of King Thutmose III, 1485-27= 1458 BC. After QueenHatshepsut and her shield in passage A24 are 27 symbols, confirming the disc has beenmade in the 27th year of government of King Thutmose III, 1485-27= 1458 BC.* Date according to archaeological researchLITERATURE (Ch.2)1. Godart, L., The Phaistos Disc, The Enigma of an Aegean Script, Editions Itanos, 1995 (ISBN
960-7549-02-3).2. Duhoux, Y., Le disque de Phaistos, Louvain-le-Neuve 1978. (French)3. Pernier, L., Il disco di Phaestos con caratteri pittografici, Ausonia III (1908), 255-302. (Italian)4. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S, How the Sungod Reached America, A Guide to Megalithic Sites,MCS Inc., 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083-33-92,also on CD.5. De Jonge, R.M., and IJzereef, G.F., Exhibition: The Megalithic Inscriptions of Western Europe, 1996.6. De Jonge, R.M., and IJzereef, G.F., De Stenen Spreken, Kosmos Z&K, Utrecht/Antwerpen, 1996(ISBN 90-215-2846-0). (Dutch)7. The Tablet of Vladikavkaz, Journal Larcheologue, Nr.55, Aout-Septembre 2001, "Une enigmearcheolo-gique du Caucase Septentrional". (French)8. DOssetie et dalentour nr.9, Paris, 2001, par V.A. Kouznetsov traduit du russe par Iaroslav Lebedynsky.(French)9. People of the Stone Age: Hunter-gatherers and Early Farmers, Weldon Owen Pty Limited, McMahonsPoint, Australia (1995).10. Old World Civilizations, The Rise of Cities and States, The Illustrated History of Humankind, WeldonOwen Pty Limited, McMahons Point, Australia (1995).11. Zwart, A.H. e.a., De Oude Grieken, 7000 Jaar Wereldgeschiedenis, Lekturama, Rotterdam, 1977.(Dutch)12. Siliotti, A., Egypt, Temples, People and Gods, Bergamo, Italy, 1997.13. Kemp, B.J., Ancient Egypt, Anatomy of a Civilization, London, Routledge, 1991.14. Ancient Egypt, National Geographic Maps, Supplement to the National Geographic Magazine, April,2001.15. Adams, B., and Cialowicz, K., Protodynastic Egypt, Shire Egyptology, Princes Risborough, 1997.16. Tompkins, P., Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Harper & Row, London, 1971 (ISBN 0-06-090631-6)(Dr.Stecchini).17. Hart, G., A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddes ses, Routledge, London, 1986 (ISBN0-7102-0167-2).18. Breasted, J.H., Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol.2: The Eighteenth Dynasty, London, 1988.19. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., The Discovery of the Atlantic Islands, Migration & Diffusion,Vol.3, No.11, pgs.69-109 (2002).20. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., The Three Rivers Petroglyph, A Guidepost for River Travel inAmerica, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.3, No.12, pgs.74-100 (2002).21. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., A Nautical Center for Crossing the Ocean, America’sStonehenge, New Hampshire, c.2200 BC, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.4, No.15, pgs.60-100 (2002).22. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., Ancient American, Germany’s Bronze Age Disc Reveals Trans-atlantic Seafaring, Vol.9, No.55, pgs.18-20 (2004).23. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., The Disc of Nebra, Germany, c.1600 BC, Migration &Diffusion, Vol.5, No.17, pgs.32-39 (2004).24. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., The Monument of Ales Stenar, A Sunship to the Realm of theDead, Sweden, c.500 BC, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.5, No.19, pgs.94-109 (2004).25. Miller, J., The Phaistos Disk, Ancient American, March/April 1994, p.37.26. Grimes, J.P., Ancient American, Nr.12, p.35.27. Bayley, H., The Lost Language of Symbolism, Citadel Press 1990, reprint (ISBN 0-8065-1100-1).28. Kousnetzov,V.A., "Disque de Vladikavkaz", LArcheologue no.52, Fevrier-Mars, pgs.26,27(2001). (French)29. Willetts, R.F., The Civilization of Ancient Crete, Phoenix Press, New York (1976) (ISBN1-84212-746-2).30. Covey, C., Fischer vs. Fell Phaistos Disk Decipherments, Midw. Epigr. Newsl., Vol.19, Nr.4 (2002).