CH.8: EARLY HISTORY OF EGYPT

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CHAPTER 8
EARLY HISTORY OF EGYPT

8.1 OLD KINGDOM: 5TH DYNASTY
8.2 4TH DYNASTY
8.3 3RD DYNASTY
8.4 ARCHAIC PERIOD: 2ND DYNASTY
8.5 1ST DYNASTY
8.6 PRE-DYNASTIC PERIOD
8.7 PREHISTORY
8.8 DISCUSSION

Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com

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CH.8: EARLY HISTORY OF EGYPT

  1. 1. CHAPTER 8EARLY HISTORY OF EGYPT8.1 OLD KINGDOM: 5TH DYNASTY8.2 4TH DYNASTY8.3 3RD DYNASTY8.4 ARCHAIC PERIOD: 2ND DYNASTY8.5 1ST DYNASTY8.6 PRE-DYNASTIC PERIOD8.7 PREHISTORY8.8 DISCUSSIONDr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.comSUMMARYThe 5 turns on the front side encode the 5th Dynasty, and the 4 turns on the back sideencode the 4th Dynasty. The passages of the inner parts correspond to the Dynasties inthe history of Egypt. For each dynasty, the disc provides the duration in generations of30.5 years, the number of Kings, the years of reign of each King, the population number,and the number of seaworthy ships. In the 1st Dynasty a comet catastrophe occurred withc.2,600 casualties in Egypt. In the Pre-Dynastic Period, in c.3201, another cometcatastrophe occurred with about 3,000 casualties. New data are now available for Dynas-ties 1, 2, and 3.8.1 OLD KINGDOM: 5TH DYNASTYThe 5 turns on the front side represent the important 5th Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,which officially lasted 140 years, from 2465 till 2325 (Figs.8.4 and 8.5). Passage A5 onthe front side represents the 5th Dynasty. The "branche", having 5 leaves, occurs 5 timeson this side, confirming it (Table 2.2). Passage B5 on the back side also represents thisDynasty. The "glove", having 5 fingers, occurs 5 times on the disc, confirming it(Refs.1-6).KingsOn the front side, passages A19-27 and A1-9 represent the 9 Kings of the 5th Dynasty(compare the previous series, see Ch.7). Both series finish with Kings, and the last seriesfinishes at the end of a paragraph. These series of passages contain together 5+4= 9Rulers, confirming it. The last passages A26 and A27 of the first series contain together4+5= 9 symbols, confirming the 9 Kings. This series of passages finishes in paragraph 9,confirming it. In the inner part all 9 Kings of this Dynasty are shown. On both edges the6+3= 9 Rulers are shown, once again. The 9 paragraphs of the back side confirm them,again (Refs.16-26).DurationOn the back side, the 5 passages B19-23 and B1-5 encode the duration of the period(compare the previous series, see Ch.7), 5 generations, or 5x30.5= 152 years, soaccording to the disc from 2525 to 2373. The last passages B23 (E5) and B5 of the serieshave 5 symbols, confirming the 5 generations of the 5th dynasty. Last passage B23encodes the holy Tropic of Cancer, at 23°N. It symbolizes the cultus of the SunGod Ra,promoted during this Dynasty. Last passage B5 finishes with the sign of “religion”. Note,
  2. 2. that this passage is the first one of a series of almost identical passages B5, B10, and B13.On the front side, the 5 passages A31 plus 19-22, and A31 plus 1-4 confirm the duration,5 generations (see Ch.7). Passage A23 (E5) contains the “falcon”, symbol of the SunGodRa. It is used for separation, again. Last passage A4 finishes at the end of a paragraph.Passages 18 and 15 on both sides determine the duration of the 5th Dynasty, between 18and 15 double generations ago.CrisisPassage B1 of the generation series B1-5 consists of the combination of symbols “headand tail of a comet”, referring to the huge Comet Catastrophe of c.2344 which ended the5th Dynasty (Ch.7). This Catastrophe occurred in the first generation of the 6th Dynasty,represented by passage B30 (Refs.7-9,41-52). That is why B1 became the last generationof the 5th Dynasty.- Passage B19 of the generation series B19-23 contains a “corpse”,referring to the numerous victims of this Catastrophe in Egypt. Almost half of the peoplewere killed. That is why B19 became the last generation of the 5th Dynasty.- A31, thefirst passage of the two generation series on the front side, has a combination of foursymbols, which is equal to passage A6. Due to the Comet, passage A6 became the 6thDynasty of the Catastrophe. That is why A31 became the last generation of the 5thDynasty.PopulationThe huge Comet Catastrophe with 180,000 casualties in Egypt was at the start of the 6thDynasty. Before this Catastrophe, at the end of the 5th Dynasty, the population was190,000+180,000= 370,000 men (Ch.7). Passages A31 plus 19-22 encoded the durationof the dynasty, 5 generations. The first passage A31 contains a “messenger”, suggesting apopulation of 310 thousand men at the start of the 5th Dynasty. The next or 2nd passageA19 does not contain a king, so, the 2nd number (1) is not confirmed. However, passageA23 has a “falcon”, symbol of the SunGod Ra, confirming the number has to be writtendown in 23-18+1= 6 figures. So, the initial population was 300,000 men.Years of reignYears of reign are always indicated by series of symbols. These series run from the startof a passage to a “King, Queen, or symbol of God” at the end of a passage. If these seriesare joined, it is indicated by (). It means the years of reign of consecutive Kings areshown in a very nice way (Refs.53-59).On the front side, the first King Userkaf is shown in passage 3. The 7 symbols of thepassage are his 7 years of reign, from 2517 till 2510 (officially: c.2563-2556). The year2517 is the last year of reign of the last King of the previous, 4th Dynasty. His successorKing Sahure is also shown in passage 3. The 12 preceding symbols, the first ones on thedisc, are his 12 years of reign, from 2510 till 2498 (2556-2544). In this short time period,America has been discovered via the Atlantic Ocean (Refs.31-33,60-65)! His successorKing Nefererkare is represented by the symbol of God in passage 7. The 20 precedingsymbols, ending in A3’, are his 20 years of reign, from 2498 till 2478 (2544-2524). Hissuccessor King Shepsekare is shown in passage 9. The 7 preceding symbols of thepassage are his 7 years of reign, from 2478 till 2471 (2524-2517). His successor KingNeferefre is shown in passage 10’. The 4 preceding symbols are his 4 (officially 3) yearsof reign, from 2471 till 2468 (2517-2514).His successor King Niuserre is shown in passage 16. The 25 preceding symbols, ending
  3. 3. in A11, are his 25 (officially 24) years of reign, from 2468 till 2444 (2514-2490). Hissuccessor King Menkauhor is shown in passage 18. The 8 preceding symbols, ending inA17, are his 8 (or 9) years of reign, from 2444 till 2435 (2490-2481). His successor KingDjedkare is shown in passage 24. The 32 preceding symbols, ending in A19, are his 32years of reign, from 2435 till 2403 (2481-2449). His successor King Unas, the last Kingof the 5th Dynasty, is shown in passage 20. The 33 preceding symbols, ending in A25,are his 33 years of reign, from 2403 till 2370 (2449-2416).Along the edgeOn the edge of the front side, years of reign are confirmed by series of symbols. The firstKing Userkaf is shown in passage 20. The 7 preceding symbols, ending in A19, are his 7years of reign. His successor King Sahure is represented by the symbol of God in passage23. The 12 preceding symbols, ending in A21, are his 12 years of reign. Passage 23symbolizes the Holy Tropic of Cancer, and the Southern Egyptian Empire, the center ofthe Sunreligion, at 23°N. It also symbolizes the place where the Tropic of Cancer leavesthe coast of Africa, at 23°N. At this latitude people always wanted to cross the Atlantic,in honor of the SunGod. King Sahure succeeded in doing that. The symbols for the"power of God" also occur in passage 16, referring to the Southern Crossing of theAtlantic from the Cape Verde Islands, at 16°N (Refs.34-40,60-65).His successor King Nefererkare is shown in passage 27. The 20 preceding symbols,ending in A23, are his 20 years of reign. His successor King Shepsekare is shown inpassage 20. The 7 preceding symbols, ending in A19’, are his 7 years of reign. Hissuccessor King Neferefre is represented by the symbol of God in passage 23’. The 3symbols are his 3 years of reign. His successor King Niuserre is shown in passage 24.The 24 preceding symbols, ending in A19, are his 24 years of reign. His successor KingMenkauhor is shown in passage 24 or 22. The 8 or 9 preceding symbols, ending in A23’and A21’, are his 8 or 9 years of reign. His successor King Djedkare is shown in passage24. The 32 preceding symbols, ending in A17’, are his 32 years of reign. His successor,the last King Unas, is represented by the symbol of God in passage 23, and shown inpassage 20. The 33 preceding symbols, ending in A28 and A25, are in both cases his 33years of reign.ConfirmationFor the 5th Dynasty, years of reign are confirmed by passages. In passage A7, the firstKing Userkaf is represented by the symbol of God, because of his 7 years of reign. Hissuccessor King Sahure is shown in passage 12, because of his 12 years of reign. Thispassage, part of the important combination, contains a "boat", referring to the firstcrossing of the Atlantic Ocean during his reign. It is unlikely that he ruled for 14 years, assometimes assumed. His successor King Nefererkare is shown in passage 20, because ofhis 20 years of reign. His successor King Shepsekare is represented by the symbol of Godin passage 7, because of his 7 years of reign. His successor King Neferefre is shown inimportant passage 3, because of his 3 years of reign. His successor King Niuserre isshown in passage 24, because of his 24 years of reign. His successor King Menkauhor isshown in passage 8 as a “Queen”, or in passage 9, because of his 8 or 9 years of reign.His successor King Djedkare is shown in passage 20, the first one on the edge, because ofhis 31+1= 32 years of reign. His successor, the last King Unas, is also shown in passage20, which can be considered as the second one on the edge, because of his 31+2= 33years of reign.
  4. 4. Fig.8.1 King Sahure (at the right side) as god of the sea (the waves). He discoveredthe two southern crossings of the Atlantic. The sailing distances of 2 Moiras= 20degrees over open sea were the longest crossings ever accomplished. (Pyramid templeof Sahure in Abusir, near Cairo, c.2500 BC)The Egyptian FleetIn 2190, at the end of the 6th Dynasty, Egypt had a population of 230 thousand men, anda fleet of only c.149 seaworthy ships (Ch.7). At the end of the 5th Dynasty, which is thelast one before the Catastrophe, the population was higher: c.370 thousand men. So, wemay expect that around the year of 2370, the Egyptian fleet contained an estimatednumber of at least (37/23)x149= c.240 ships. This estimation is too low, because of theinfluence of the huge Catastrophe at the start of the 6th Dynasty.In 2520, at the end of the 4th Dynasty, Egypt had a population of 300 thousand men, anda fleet of c.209 seaworthy ships (see below). At the end of the 5th Dynasty, thepopulation was 370 thousand men. So, we may expect that around the year of 2370, theEgyptian fleet contained an estimated number of (37/30)x209= c.258 ships (Refs.27-30).This estimation is also too low, because it was 2520-2370= 150 years later in time.The front side has 5 turns, corresponding to the 5th Dynasty. Passage A18 is at the startof a series of 3 passages, finishing with a King. It encodes 180 ships. A12 may form asimilar series of 3 passages, encoding 120 ships. Both passages are situated on the 4thturn, representing Egypt, 4° south of Crete, at 35-4= 31°N. So, it appears there were180+120= 300 ships.- Passage B2 on the back side typically encodes 200 ships. B9 mayencode 90 ships. So, these passages show a total of 200+90= 290 ships.The edge represents Egypt, especially the second part of it. Passage B27 has a “boat”,forming a series of 3 passages, finishing with the “head and tail of a comet” in B29,which determined the year of the Catastrophe which ended the 5th Dynasty (Ch.7). It
  5. 5. encodes 270 ships. B19 typically corresponds with 19 ships, and B22 corresponds withanother 22 ships. So, in total these passages show 270+19+22= 311 ships. So, on theaverage, Egypt appears to have c.300 seaworthy ships at the end of the 5th Dynasty.Pyramids and TemplesThe front side has 5 turns, corresponding to the 5th Dynasty. It also has 11 paragraphs,together encoding the 5+11= 16 pyramids at the end of this dynasty.- The edge symboli-zes Egypt. Passage 30 on the edge has a “temple”, typically encoding 30 temples. The“palace” in A9 may also represent one temple. So, it appears, there were a total of 30+1=31 temples.Passage B18 on the back side has two “temples”. The first one may form a series of 2passages, finishing on the edge. It encodes 18 temples in Egypt. All other relevantpassages with a “palace” or a “temple” may form series of only 1 passage. So, the secondnumber will not be confirmed. So, in total these series encode 6+1+18+1+2+2= 30 Egyp-tian temples at the end of the 5th Dynasty.SchoolsIn 2190, at the end of the 6th Dynasty, Egypt had c.202 schools. Because of the higherpopulation, the country will now have an estimated number of (37/23)x202= c.325schools. The “temples and palaces” on the disc may also represent schools.The front side has 5 turns, corresponding to the 5th Dynasty. Passage A30 on the edgetypically encodes 300 schools in Egypt. A9 has a “palace”. It typically encodes another90 schools. So, the front side shows a total number of 300+90= 390 schools.The edge of the back side represents Egypt. When the passages are counted along theedge, the relevant passages E3 and E8 with “temples” may encode a total of 380 schools.The inner part also has “palaces” and “temples”. The relevant passages may encode atotal of 6+17+180+180= 383 schools at the end of the 5th Dynasty. So, it appears, therewere on the average c.385 schools in Egypt. When the ratio “lower vs. higher schools” isthe same as at the end of the 6th Dynasty, there were (162/202)x385= c.309 “lowerschools”, and (40/202)x385= c.76 “higher schools” (Refs.16-26).TABLE 8.1EARLY EGYPTIAN HISTORYACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC, 1458 BCOLD KINGDOM, 5TH DYNASTYc.2525 Start 5th Dynasty (2465*) Population: 300,000, 9 Kings, 5 generationsc.2517 Userkaf (7)c.2510 Sahura (12), discovery of America via Southern Crossing of the Atlantic, and Azores Crossingc.2498 Nefererkare (20) , discovery of America via Upper North Crossing (Greenland)c.2478 Shepsekare (7)c.2471 Neferefre (3)c.2468 Niuserre (24)
  6. 6. c.2444 Menkauhor (8/9)c.2435 Djedkare (32)c.2403 Unas (33), discovery of return route via BermudaEgyptian Fleet: c.300 seaworthy shipsPyramids: c.16, Temples: c.31Schools: c.385; lower schools: c.309, higher schools: c.76c.2370 End of Dynasty because of Comet Catastrophe, c.2344c.2373 End of 5th Dynasty, population: 370,000 (2325*)* according to archaeological research(..) years of reign; the names of the Pharaohs are not mentioned on the disc; discoveries:Ch.9 (Refs.31-40).8.2 4TH DYNASTYThe 4 turns on the back side represent the important 4th Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,which lasted officially 160 years, from 2723 to 2563. On the front side, the 4 turns of theinner part confirm it. The 4 paragraphs on the edge confirm it again. Passage A4 on thefront side represents the 4th Dynasty. The "burin" occurs 4 times on the disc, confirmingit. This is the symbol for administration and bureaucracy, which greatly developed duringthis dynasty. Passage B4 on the back side represents this Dynasty, too.KingsOn the front side, passages A28-23, and A28-31 plus A1-5, and A10-18 represent the 9Kings of the 4th Dynasty (compare the previous series). Last passage A23 (E4) of thefirst series symbolizes the holy Tropic of Cancer, at 23°N. Last passage A18 of the lastseries may be considered as the end of the inner part. The first and last series containtogether 3+6= 9 Kings, confirming the 9 Kings. Note the division in passage A27. The 9passages A27b-22 confirm the 9 Kings. The last passages A21 and A22 (E4) of thisseries contain together 4+5= 9 symbols, confirming them, again. In the inner part all 9Kings of this Dynasty are shown. Note, that the third series A10-18 contains two symbolsof the "burin", again. On both edges the 6+3= 9 Rulers are shown. The 9 paragraphs ofthe back side confirm them (Refs.16-26).DurationOn the back side, the 5 passages B24-28 and B6-10 encode the duration of the period, 5generations, or 5x30.5= 153 years, according to the disc from 2678 till 2525 (comparethe previous series). Last passage B28 of the first series has 4 symbols, finishing with aKing, confirming the 4th Dynasty. It is placed in the 9th paragraph, confirming the 9Kings. It contains the "papyrus", symbol of administration and bureaucracy, too. Lastpassage B10 of the other series has 5 symbols, confirming the 5 generations. Note, thatpassage B10 is the second of the series of almost identical passages B5, B10, and B13.On the front side, the 5 passages A23-27 and A5-9 confirm the duration, 5 generations.The first series finishes with a King in paragraph 9, confirming the 9 Kings. Last passageA9 of the other series finishes with a King at the end of a paragraph. It confirms the 9Kings, again.Passages A20 and A17 on the front side determine the duration of the 4th Dynasty,between 20 and 17 double generations ago. The “burin” in passages A18-20 involvedoccurs 4 times on the disc, confirming the 4th Dynasty. Passages B20 and B17 on the
  7. 7. back side confirm the duration of the 4th Dynasty, between 20 and 17 double generationsago. In passages B18-20 involved, the "temple" and the "boat" occur 5 times on one ofthe sides, confirming the 5 generations. B18 and B19 have 5+4= 9 symbols, confirmingthe 9 Kings.PopulationPassage A31 on the front side determined the population at the end of the 4th Dynasty(300 thousand). The back side with its 4 turns symbolizes the 4th Dynasty. Passage B23on this side has a "messenger", encoding a population of 230,000 men at the start of thisDynasty. The next or 2nd passage B24 has also a "messenger", confirming the 2ndnumber (3), and passage B28, already used, has a "King", confirming the number has tobe written down in 28-22= 6 figures.Years of reignYears of reign are indicated by series of symbols, as usual. If these series are joined, it isindicated by (). In passage 8 on the front side, King Snefru is represented by the Queen.The 24 preceding symbols, ending in A3, are his 24 years of reign, from 2661 till 2637(officially: c.2723-2699). The year 2661 is the last year of reign of the last King of theprevious, 3rd Dynasty. His successor King Cheops is shown in passage 13. The 23 prece-ding symbols, ending in A9, are his 23 years of reign, from 2637 till 2614 (2699-2676).His successor King Djedefre is shown in passage 12. The 8 preceding symbols, ending inA9’, are his 8 years of reign, from 2614 till 2606 (2676-2668). His successor KingChephren is represented by the symbol of God in passage 10. The 26 preceding symbols,ending in A4, are his 26 years of reign, from 2606 till 2580 (2668-2642).His successor King Menkaure is also shown in passage 10. The 18 preceding symbols,ending in A7, are his 18 years of reign, from 2580 till 2562 (2642-2624). A10 is the firstpassage of the group 10-12 about the voyages of discovery of King Menkaure to the east,resulting in the discovery of America. His 18 years of reign correspond to the latitude ofthe south point of the Gulf of Campeche, Central America, at 18°N (Refs.31-40,60-65).His successor King Ratoisis is shown in important passage 15. The 25 precedingsymbols, ending in A11, are his 25 years of reign, from 2562 till 2537 (2624-2599). Hissuccessor King Bikka is shown in the next passage 16. The 4 preceding symbols are his 4years of reign, from 2537 till 2533 (2599-2595). His successor King Shepseskaf is shownin passage 20. The 7 preceding symbols, ending in A19, are his 7 years of reign, from2533 till 2526 (2595-2588). His successor, the last King Thamphitis, is shown in passage22. The 9 preceding symbols, ending in A21’, are his 9 years of reign, from 2526 till2517 (2588-2579).ConfirmationFor the 4th Dynasty, years of reign are confirmed by passages. The first King Snefru isshown in passage A24 on the front side, because of his 24 years of reign. His successorKing Cheops is represented by the symbol of God in passage 23, because of his 23 yearsof reign. His successor King Djedefre is represented by the Queen in passage 8, becauseof his 8 years of reign. His successor King Chephren is shown by the inner part, and inpassage 8 on the edge, because of his 18+8= 26 years of reign.His successor King Menkaure is shown in passage 18, because of his 18 years of reign.A18 with a "boat" is the last passage of the important combination encoding boat voyagesto the south point of the Gulf of Campeche, at 18°N. It also symbolizes the back side of
  8. 8. the planet Earth, 18 Moiras, or 180°, west of the Nile Delta. His successor King Ratoisisis shown by the edge and in passage 12, because of his 13+12= 25 years of reign. Hissuccessor King Bikka is represented by the symbol of God in passage 4 of the edge,because of his 4 years of reign. His successor King Shespeskaf is represented by thesymbol of God in passage 7, because of his 7 years of reign. Finally, his successor, thelast King Thamphitis, is shown in passage 9, because of his 9 years of reign (Refs.53-59). Fig.8.2 Statue of the 5th king Menkaure (c.2580-2562 BC) of the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, who discovered America via the Aleutian Islands at the south side of the Bering Sea.The Egyptian FleetIn 2370, at the end of the 5th Dynasty, Egypt had a population of 370 thousand men, anda fleet of c.300 seaworthy ships. At the end of the 4th Dynasty, the population was onlyc.300 thousand men. So, we may expect that around the year of 2520, the Egyptian fleetcontained an estimated number of (30/37)x300= c.243 ships. This estimation is too high,because it was 2520-2370= 150 years earlier in time.In 2660, at the end of the 3rd Dynasty, Egypt had a population of 230 thousand men, anda fleet of c.149 seaworthy ships (see below). At the end of the 4th Dynasty, thepopulation was 300 thousand men. So, we may expect that around the year of 2520, theEgyptian fleet contained an estimated number of (30/23)x149= c.194 ships. Thisestimation is a bit too low, because it was 2660-2520= 140 years later in time.The back side has 4 turns, corresponding to the 4th Dynasty. Passage B2 in the inner partmay encode 200 ships. B9 may encode another 9 ships. So, in total these passages may
  9. 9. represent 200+9= 209 ships.- However, B2 may also encode 20 ships, and B9 90 ships.The edge symbolizes Egypt. If all “boats” form series of 2 passages, these represent 19,22, and 27 ships, respectively. Passage A18 on the front side typically corresponds to 18ships, and A12 corresponds to another 12 ships. All these contributions together representa total of 20+90+19+22+27+18+12= 208 ships.The edge represents Egypt. B19 on the back side may encode 190 ships. B22 may encode22 ships. In total these passages represent 190+22= 212 ships.- However, sometimes thepassages are counted along the edge. E1, E4, and E9 may represent 149 ships. B2 in theinner part may correspond to 20 ships, and B9 to 9 ships. A12 and A18 on the front sidemay encode another 12+18= 30 ships. So, in total all these passages represent149+20+9+30= 208 ships, again. So, on the average, it appears there were c.209seaworthy ships in Egypt at the end of the 4th Dynasty (Refs.27-33).Pyramids and TemplesThe back side has 4 turns, corresponding to the 4th Dynasty. Because of the paragraph-line of B11 this side has a total of 9+1= 10 paragraphs, encoding the 10 pyramids at theend of this dynasty.- Passage B6 encodes 6 temples. B17 corresponds to another 17temples. Together, these passages may represent 6+17= 23 temples.- The edge symboli-zes Egypt. B21 encodes 21 temples. B26 may form a single passage. In that case it mayencode 2 temples. So, the edge may show a total of 21+2= 23 temples.- The first“temple” in passage 18 may encode 18 temples. The second one may form just onepassage, just like the passages 21 and 26 on the edge. These passages may show a total of18+1+2+2= 23 temples, again. So, it appears, that the number of 23 Egyptian temples atthe end of the 4th Dynasty is confirmed.SchoolsIn 2370, at the end of the 5th Dynasty, Egypt had c.385 schools. Because of the lowerpopulation, the country will now have an estimated number of (30/37)x385= c.312schools. The “temples and palaces” on the disc may also represent schools.- The backside has 4 turns, corresponding to the 4th Dynasty. Passage B6 may encode 6 schools,and passage 17 may encode 170 schools. B18 has two “temples”. So, this passage mayindicate 18 schools, twice. B21 may represent 21 schools, and B26 may count for 26schools. So, the back side of the disc may represent a total of 60+170+18+18+21+26=313 schools.The edge of the front side represents Egypt. A30 may encode 300 schools. Passage A9may count for another 9 schools, totalling the number to 300+9= 309 schools. Theaverage of c.311 schools in Egypt at the end of the 4th Dynasty matches the estimatednumber exactly. When the ratio “lower vs. higher schools” is the same as at the end of the5th Dynasty, there were (309/385)x311= c.250 “lower schools”, and (76/385)x311= c.61“higher schools” (Refs.16-26).TABLE 8.2EARLY EGYPTIAN HISTORYACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC, 1458 BCOLD KINGDOM, 4TH DYNASTYc.2678 Start 4th Dynasty (c.2723*)
  10. 10. population: 230,000, 9 Kings, 5 generationsc.2661 Snefru (24)c.2637 Cheops (23)c.2614 Djedefre (8)c.2606 Chephren (26)c.2580 Menkaure (18), discovery of Japan, and America via Aleutian Islands and via Bering Straitc.2562 Ratoisis (25)c.2537 Bikka (4)c.2533 Shespeskaf (7)c.2526 Thamphitis (9)Egyptian Fleet: c.209 seaworthy shipsPyramids: c.10, Temples: c.23Schools: c.311; lower schools: c.250, higher schools: c.61c.2517 (End of reign)c.2525 End of 4th Dynasty, population: 300,000 (2465*)* according to archaeological research(..) years of reign; discoveries: Ch.9 (Refs.31-40)8.3 3RD DYNASTYThe 3 turns of the inner part of the back side (Fig.8.5) represent the 3rd Dynasty, the firstone of the Old Kingdom, which lasted officially 55 years, from 2778 to 2723. The 3"temples" in the inner part confirm it. The 3 paragraphs on the edge confirm it, again.Passage B3 on this side also represents the 3rd Dynasty. Important passage A3 on thefront side (Fig.8.4) represents it, too.KingsOn the front side, passages A24-31 (using 27a/b), A6-14, and A19-27, represent theprobably 9 Kings of the 3rd Dynasty (compare the previous series). The first seriesfinishes with a King at the end of this side. The last series finishes with a King, too. Someof the Kings are shown in the passages. The end of the last series contains 9 symbols,confirming the 9 Kings. This series of passages finishes in paragraph 9, confirming them.In the inner part all 9 Kings of this Dynasty are shown, the first one in passage A3,confirming the 3rd Dynasty. On both edges the 6+3= 9 Rulers are shown. The 9 para-graphs of the back side confirm them again.The "branch" in passage A3 occurs 6 times on the back side (Table 2.2), representing the6 "major Kings" of the 3rd Dynasty. The "hammer" and "branch" in passage B3 occurs 6times on this side, confirming the 6 major Kings. The last passages of the second kingsseries A6-14 contain 6 symbols, confirming the 6 major Kings of this Dynasty(Refs.16-26).Duration and EducationOn the back side, the 3 passages B29-30 plus B19/1, but especially B11-13, encode theduration of the period, 3 generations, or 3x30.5= 91 years, according to the disc from2769 till 2678 (compare the previous series). Three symbols in the last series occur 3times on one of the sides or both sides, confirming the 3 generations of the 3rd Dynasty.Note, that passage B13 is the 3rd of the series of almost identical passages B5, B10, and
  11. 11. B13, confirming the 3rd Dynasty. These passages symbolize the first generation of the5th, the 4th, and the 3rd Dynasty, respectively. The translation of the first two passagesread: “Education learns the tipsy Cat-god to doubt” (Ch.5). It shows that the schools inthis whole time period were well organised. The translation of the last passage reads:“Education leads to the merriment of the young Cat-god”, which confirms it.The first generation series starts in the 9th paragraph, confirming the 9 Kings. Lastpassage B13 of the second series is the start of the 6th paragraph, confirming the 6 majorKings. Finally, the "cover" in passage B3 occurs 3 times on the front side, confirming the3 generations of the 3rd Dynasty. It may be noted, that the Phaistos Disc is the onlyreliable source of information for the duration of the 3rd Dynasty. The Pre-PalatialPeriod on Crete started at the beginning of this time period, c.2769.On the front side, the 3 passages A28-30, and A10-12, confirm the duration of 3 genera-tions (compare the previous series). Both series finish at the end of a paragraph, the lastone with a King. Four symbols in the first series occur 3 times on one of the sides or bothsides, confirming it. The "King" in passage A3 occurs 3 times on the edge of the backside, confirming the 3 generations of the 3rd Dynasty.Double generationsPassages A22 and A20 on the front side determine the duration of the 3rd Dynasty,between 22 and 20 double generations ago. In passages A21 and A22, the "cover","draught-screen" and "plane" occur 3 times on one side or both sides, confirming the 3generations of the 3rd Dynasty. The 4+5= 9 symbols confirm the 9 Kings. The "draught-screen", "messenger", and "branch" occur 6 times on one of the sides or both sides,confirming the 6 major Kings.Passages B22 and B20 on the back side confirm the duration of the 3rd Dynasty, between22 and 20 double generations ago. In passages B21 and B22, the "draught-screen" and"cover" occur 3 times on one side or both sides, confirming the 3 generations of the 3rdDynasty. The "branch", "draught-screen", and "temple" occur 6 times on one of the sidesor both sides, confirming the 6 major Kings.PopulationPassage B23 determined the population at the end of the 3rd Dynasty (230 thousand).The previous passage B19 has a "messenger", encoding a population of 190,000 men atthe start of the 3rd Dynasty. The next or 2nd passage has a “King”, confirming the 2ndnumber (9), and passage B24 at the end of the paragraph has a "messenger", confirmingthe number has to be written down in 24-18= 6 figures. Passage B19 also represents thefirst generation in the first generation series of this dynasty.‘Volcano Catastrophe’Near Elephantine in the south of Egypt is the small islet of Sehel in the middle of theRiver Nile. It is the location of the famous “Famine Stela”, which tells the story of aterrible drought during the reign of the second king Djoser (c.2753-2723). In his 18thyear of reign the famine lasted already seven years, and its description clearly fits aVolcano Catastrophe. The “shrines (were) covered with dust”, and there were no floo-dings of the Nile. It was a period of drought and famine in Egypt, but also worldwide.Tree ring data and ice core samples confirm the Disaster. Passage A3 on the front sidecontains two “corpses”, which indicate a Catastrophe in the 3rd Dynasty(c.2769-2678). Passage B3 on the back side has a “cover”, or Volcano, confirming it.
  12. 12. King Djoser started to reign in c.2753, which is in the first generation (c.2769-2739)of the 3rd Dynasty. This time period lasted for 30 years, so it is a second governmentgeneration, shown by the passages on the back side. His first year 2753 is representedby passage B16, and the year of 2739 by last passage B30. However, years of reign arealso shown by individual symbols. Counting these symbols starts in the year of 1457+(5x242)= 2667, at the back side of the disc. As usual, counting continues with the lastsymbol on that side, going backwards. His first year 2753 is represented by the “bee”in passage B9, and the year of 2739 by the symbol of the “cover” in B13. As will beshown below, B9 encodes the number of casualties, and B13 corresponds with the firstgeneration, when the Catastrophe happened.Passage B19 encodes the 3rd year of reign of the king, in 2750. It has a “corpse”,referring to a Catastrophe. It also encodes the first generation of the generation seriesB29-19. The symbol of the “cover”, or Volcano, in B10 confirms this year, and thenature of the Disaster. Passage B1 in the center bears a Volcano, and it confirms thefirst generation of the series B29-1. It also corresponds with the latitude of the IbusukiVolcanic Field, Kyushu, Japan, at 30+1= 31°N. The big Eruption of this Volcano isreported in the literature. It has a caldera having a width of 3 km. Passage B10 encodesits position, 10 Moiras, or 100°, east of the Nile Delta.Passage B22 encodes his 6th year of reign, in 2747. It has the sign of “religion”, refer-ring to a smaller Volcano Catastrophe. It also encodes the time period of the Disaster,22 double generations ago. The symbol of “volcano” in B10 confirms this year, andthe nature of the Disaster. The “scraper” in B22 has 27 dots, referring to passage B27at the other side of the edge. It bears a “corpse” and a “volcano”, again, confirming theCata-strophe. It also corresponds with the latitude of the Shiveluch Volcano,Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, at 30+27= 57°N. The big Eruption of this Volcano ismentioned in the literature. Passage B13 encodes its position, 13 Moiras, or 130°, eastof the Nile Delta. B13 also corresponds with the first generation of the series B10-13.The similar passage B5, together with B7, confirms the latitude, at 57°N. B5 containstwo different symbols of the “Volcano”, and B7 also has two “Volcanoes”. Itsparagraph line points to B16, which represents the first year of reign of Djoser, in2753. Passage B3 has a “Volcano”, confirming the latitude, at 90-33= 57°N, as well asthe 3rd Dynasty.The paragraph line of B13, just mentioned, points to passage B23 on the edge. It has a“Volcano”, referring to a Catastrophe in the 7th year of reign of the king, in 2746. Thesymbol of the “Volcano” in B11 confirms this year, and the nature of the Disaster.Passage B1 in the center bears a Volcano, and it confirms the first generation of theseries B29-1. It also corresponds with the latitude of the Cotopaxi Volcano, Equador,at 1°S. The big Eruption of this Volcano is reported in the literature. It has a calderaabout 2 km wide. Passage B11 encodes its position, 11 Moiras, or 110°, west of theNile Del-ta. A25 on the front side is the second passage of the kings series A24-31(using 27a/b). It encodes the second king Djoser of the 3rd Dynasty. The passageconfirms the position of the Volcano, 25 Moiras, or 250°, east of the Nile Delta. Itclearly illustrates that it was a worldwide Catastrophe.Passage B30 encodes the 14th year of reign of the king, in 2739. It has two differentsigns of a “Volcano”, both referring to a Catastrophe. It also symbolizes the 30 yearsof reign of the king. The symbol of the “Volcano” in B13 confirms this year, and the
  13. 13. nature of the Disaster. Passage B13 also corresponds with the first generation of thegeneration series B10-13. Passage B30 corresponds with the position of the VolcanoPiton de la Fournaise, on the French island of Réunion, in the Western Indian Ocean, 3Moiras, or 30°, east of the Nile Delta. The very big Eruption of this Volcano isreported in the literature. Passage B21, with a “Volcano”, encodes its latitude, at 21°S.Its huge consequences were noticed 21 double generations ago, starting in this year of2739. Passage A21 on the front side also has a “Volcano”, confirming it. It has a VEIindex of more than 5.Passage B30 has a “shield” with 7 burls. It illustrates the 7 years of famine in the sec-ond year of 2739. B7 has two “Volcanoes”, confirming it. Passage A7 on the front sidehas a “shield”, twice confirming it. Passage A3 has a shield and 7 symbols, twice con-firming the 7 years of famine in the 3rd Dynasty. The symbols of next passage A4mean: “Please, write it down”. The passage represents the 18th year of reign, 2735,when king Djoser made his Stela, as shown in the south of Egypt. On the Stone theking negotiates with three local gods, which may represent the three main Volcanoes.The symbol of the “corpse” in B14 on the back side confirms his 18th year of reign,and the many victims of the famine. Passage B30 represents the second generation ofthe series B28-19/1, when Djoser made his Stela.Passage A21 on the front side contains a “messenger” and a “Volcano”, encoding thepopulation of Egypt at the time of the last Eruption on Réunion, at 21°S, 210 thousandmen. The next passage has a “shield, king”, confirming the second number (1), andA26 has a “shield Volcano” and a “corpse”, confirming the number has to be writtendown in 26-20= 6 figures. The second “corpse” in A3, encoding the 3rd Dynasty,points to neighboring passage A9. It has two “corpses”, encoding 9,000 casualties inEgypt (4.3%). Passage A12, confirming the first generation in the series A10-12, has a“corpse, king”, which shows the number has to be written down in 12-8= 4 figures.Passage B9 on the back side has a “corpse”, confirming the 9,000 casualties. PassageA12, confirming the second generation in the series B11-13, confirms the number hasto be written down in 12-8= 4 figures. (Refs.66,67)Upper and Lower EgyptPassage A3 on the front side contains the symbols of the "wood" and the "papyrus",suggesting a division of the country in Upper and Lower Egypt for at least part of the 3rdDynasty. Passages B2 and B3 on the back side contain similar symbols of the "sedge"and the "bee", confirming this situation in both the 2nd and 3rd Dynasties. The strugglefor unification of Egypt in this time period is discussed in the literature (Refs.16-26). Apossible scenario for the Kings reigning in this Dynasty is described below (see alsoTable 8.3).Years of reign: back sideYears of reign are indicated by series of symbols, as usual. If these series are joined, it isindicated by (). It means the years of reign of consecutive Kings are shown in a nice way.On the back side, the first King Sanakht is shown in passage 20. The 17 precedingsymbols along the edge, ending in B29, are his 17 years of reign, from 2770 till 2753(officially: 2778-2761). The year 2770 is the last year of reign of the last King of theprevious, 2nd Dynasty. His successor King Djoser is represented by the Royal Son inpassage 28. The 29 preceding symbols, ending in B21, are his 29 (officially 30) years ofreign, from 2753 till 2723 (2761-2731). The discovery of Australia by King Djoser was
  14. 14. during the first generation of this Dynasty, so between 2753 and 2739 (Ch.9)(Refs.31-33).His successor King Sekhemkhet is shown in passage 20, again. The 17 precedingsymbols along the edge, ending in B29, are his 17 (officially 16) years of reign, from2723 till 2707 (2731-2715). His successor King Khaba is also shown in passage 20. The19 preceding symbols, ending in B16, are his 19 years of reign, from 2707 till 2688(2715-2696). After this King, so during the last generation, there are indications thatEgypt was not united any longer. It appears that half of the country was ruled by lessimportant Kings.Upper EgyptOn the back side, King Sa is shown in passage B20. The 19 preceding symbols, ending inB16, are his 19 years of reign, from 2688 till 2669. During his reign New Zealand wasdiscovered (Ch.9). The King in passage 3, representing the 3rd Dynasty, looks along theend of B9 to this series. His successor King Ba is also shown in passage 20. The 8 prece-ding symbols are his 8 (officially 7) years of reign, from 2669 till 2662. His successorKing Qahedjet, is shown in passage 28. The 3 preceding symbols are his 3 years of reign,from 2662 till 2659.Lower EgyptKing Nebtawi is shown in passage 28. The 3 preceding symbols are his 3 years of reign,from 2688 till 2685. His successor, the last King Huni, is shown in passage 20. The 24preceding symbols, ending in B15, are his 24 years of reign, from 2685 till 2661. Duringhis reign New Zealand was discovered. The King in passage 3, representing the 3rdDynasty, looks along the end of B9 to this series.Inner part of front sideOn the inner part of the front side, years of reign are indicated by series of symbols, too.The first King Sanakht is shown in passage 6. The 17 preceding symbols, ending in A3,are his 17 years of reign. His successor King Djoser is shown in passage 13. The 30preceding symbols, ending in A7, are his 30 years of reign. His successor King Sek-hemkhet is also shown in passage 13. The 16 preceding symbols, ending in A10, are his16 years of reign. King Khaba is shown in passage 12. The 19 preceding symbols, endingin A9, are his 19 years of reign.On the front side, King Sa of Upper Egypt is shown in passage 12. The 19 precedingsymbols, ending in A9, are his 19 years of reign. His successor King Ba is shown inpassages 3, 8 and 9. The 7 preceding symbols are in all cases his 7 years of reign. Hissuccessor King Qahedjet is represented by the symbol of God in passage 7. The 3 prece-ding symbols are his 3 years of reign. King Nebtawi of Lower Egypt is also representedby the symbol of God in passage 7. The 3 preceding symbols are his 3 years of reign. Hissuccessor, the last King Huni, is shown in passage 9. The 24 preceding symbols, endingin A4, are his 24 years of reign.Edge of front sideOn the edge of the front side, years of reign are indicated by series of symbols, too. Thefirst King Sanakht is shown in passage 24. The 17 preceding symbols, ending in A21,are his 17 years of reign. His successor King Djoser is shown in passage 22. The 30preceding symbols along the edge, ending in A28, are his 30 years of reign. His successorKing Sekhemkhet is also shown in passage 22. The 16 preceding symbols, ending in
  15. 15. A19, are his 16 years of reign. King Khaba is shown in passage 20. The 19 precedingsymbols along the edge (dropping passage 19), ending in A28, are his 19 years of reign.On the front side, King Sa of Upper Egypt is shown in passage 20 on the edge. The 19preceding symbols, dropping A19 and ending in A28, are his 19 years of reign. Hissuccessor King Ba is shown in passage 20. The 7 preceding symbols, ending in A19, arehis 7 years of reign. His successor King Qahedjet is represented by the Queen in passage24. The 3 preceding symbols are his 3 years of reign. King Nebtawi of Lower Egypt isrepresented by the symbol of God in passage 23. The 3 preceding symbols are his 3years of reign. His successor, the last King Huni, is shown in passage 24. The 24 prece-ding symbols, ending in A19, are his 24 years of reign.ConfirmationFor the 3rd Dynasty, years of reign are confirmed by passages with a King. On the frontside, the first King Sanakht is shown in passage 16, because of his 16 (officially 17) yearsof reign. His successor King Djoser is shown in passage 31, because of his 31 (officially30) years of reign. His successor King Sekhemkhet is shown in passage 16, because ofhis 16 years of reign. His successor King Khaba is represented by the 19 passages of theinner part, because of his 19 years of reign.King Sa of Upper Egypt is shown by the inner part of the front side. The 19 passages arehis 19 years of reign. His successor King Ba is represented by the symbol of God inpassage 7, because of his 7 years of reign. His successor King Qahedjet is shown inimportant passage 3, because of his 3 years of reign. King Nebtawi of Lower Egypt isshown in passage 3, because of his 3 years of reign. His successor, the last King Huni, isshown in passage 24, because of his 24 years of reign.DiscussionInformation about the earliest dynasties is very limited (Refs.14-26,53-59). Except forsingle notes, carvings on potsherds etc., the main records are:The Palermo stone….(carving) Dynasty 5 c.2400 BCThe Cairo stone…….(carving) Dynasty 5 c.2400 BCThe Karnak list…….(on stone) Dynasty 18 c.1500 BCThe Abydos list……(on stone) Dynasty 19 c.1300 BCThe Sakkara list……(on stone) Dynasty 19 c.1300 BCThe Turin canon…(on papyrus) Dynasty 19 c.1300 BCManetho’s list...(papyrus/stone) Greek Period c. 200 BCThe only one of these records that was made to give a correct version of history, isManethos list. The others were all made for different purposes, not entirely known. Bycombining these records scholars have got a rather good picture of the order of Kings, butthe time span for the earliest dynasties and the order of some Rulers, especially fromDynasties 2 and 3, is still a subject of discussion. The Phaistos Disc, describing truehistory, is capable of solving some of these problems.
  16. 16. Fig.8.3 The 2nd king Djoser (c.2753-2723 BC) of the Third Dynasty of Egypt, who discovered Australia via the eastern crossing from New Guinea, at Cape York.The Egyptian FleetIn 2520, at the end of the 4th Dynasty, Egypt had a population of 300 thousand men, anda fleet of c.209 seaworthy ships. At the end of the 3th Dynasty, the population was only230 thousand men. So, we may expect that around the year of 2660, the Egyptian fleetcontained an estimated number of (23/30)x209= c.160 ships. This estimation is a bit toohigh, because it was 2660-2520= 140 years earlier in time.In 2920, at the end of the 1st Dynasty, Egypt had a population of 140 thousand men, anda fleet of c.90 seaworthy ships (see below). At the end of the 3rd Dynasty, the populationwas 230 thousand men. So, we may expect that around the year of 2660, the Egyptianfleet contained an estimated number of (23/14)x90= c.148 ships. This estimation mightbe correct, because developments were slow in this early time period.The inner part of the back side has 3 turns, corresponding to the 3rd Dynasty. The edgerepresents Egypt. Sometimes the passages are counted along the edge. “Boats” appear inpassages E1, E4, and E9. So, there were c.149 seaworthy ships (Ch.6).- Passage A18 onthe front side encodes 18 ships. A12 encodes another 12 ships. B2 on the back sidecorresponds to 20 ships, and A9 corresponds to 90 ships. When the individual passagesB19, B22, and B27 are taken, these represent a total of 1+2+2= 5 ships. All together theserepresent a total of 18+12+20+90+5= 145 ships.- However, the last passages can also becounted along the edge. In that case we obtain from E1, E4, and E9 a total of 1+4+9= 14ships. Now a total of 18+12+20+90+14= 154 ships are obtained. So, on the average,
  17. 17. there were c.149 seaworthy ships in Egypt at the end of the 3rd Dynasty.Pyramids and TemplesPassage B25 on the edge of the back side has the “grater”, the only symbol of a pyramidon the disc. It may form a series of one passage, only confirming the first number (2). So,it represents the 2 pyramids in Egypt at the end of the 3rd Dynasty.- The inner part of theback side has 3 turns, corresponding to the 3rd Dynasty. Passage B17 encodes 17 templesin Egypt. Next passage B18 encodes 18 temples, which is confirmed, because of thesecond symbol. These passages show the c.17 temples at the end of this dynasty.SchoolsIn 2520, at the end of the 4th Dynasty, Egypt had c.311 schools. Because of the lowerpopulation, the country will now have an estimated number of (23/30)x311= c.238schools. The “temples and palaces” on the disc may also represent schools.The inner part of the back side has 3 turns, corresponding to the 3rd Dynasty. Passage B6may encode 60 schools, and passage 18 may encode 180 schools. In total, these encode60+180= 240 schools. The edge of the back side represents Egypt. B21 (E3) may encode210 schools, and B26 encodes 26 schools, totalling the number to 210+26= 236 schools.The average of c.238 schools in Egypt at the end of the 3rd Dynasty matches theestimated number exactly. When the ratio “lower vs. higher schools” is the same as at theend of the 4th Dynasty, there were (250/311)x238= c.191 “lower schools”, and(61/311)x238= c.47 “higher schools” (Refs.16-26).TABLE 8.3EARLY EGYPTIAN HISTORYACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC, 1458 BCOLD KINGDOM, 3TH DYNASTYc.2769 Start 3rd Dynasty (c.2778*) population: 190,000, 9 Kings, 3 generationsc.2769 Start Pre-Palacial Period on Cretec.2770 Sanakht (#1)(17)c.2753 Djoser (Netjerykhet) (#2)(30), discovery of Australiac.2750 /47/46/39, ‘Volcano Catastrophe’ (Famine Stela) c.9,000 casualties in Egypt (4.3%), population 210,000 menc.2723 Sekhemkhet (#3)(16)c.2707 Khaba (#4)(19) UPPER Egyptc.2688 Sa (#5)(19), discovery of New Zealand, Micronesia, Melanesia, andPolynesiac.2669 Ba (#8)(7)c.2662 Qahedjet (#9)(3)c.2659 (End of reign) LOWER Egyptc.2688 Nebtawi (#6)(3)c.2685 Huni (#7)(24), discovery of New Zealand, Micronesia, Melanesia, and PolynesiaEgyptian Fleet: c.149 seaworthy ships
  18. 18. Pyramids: 2, Temples: c.17Schools: c.238; lower schools: c.191, higher schools: c.47c.2661 (End of reign)c.2678 End 3th Dynasty, population: 230,000 (c.2723*)* according to archaeological research(..) years of reign; discoveries: Ch.9 (Refs.31-40)8.4 ARCHAIC PERIOD: 2ND DYNASTYThe 2 sides of the Phaistos Disc represent the 2 Dynasties of the Archaic Period. Theback side represents the 2nd and latest Dynasty, and the front side deals with the 1st andoldest Dynasty. Passage B2 on the back side represents the 2nd Dynasty. Passage A2 onthe front side also represents this Dynasty. It may be noted, that we dit not find a cleardistinction between the Archaic Period and the Old Kingdom. We did not find a clearreason for the end of the 2nd Dynasty, too (Refs.16-26).KingsOn the front side, the 9 passages A19-27, and A15-23, and A28-23, and A28-31 plusA1-5, represent the probably 9 Kings of the 2nd Dynasty (compare the previous series).The first series finishes with a King. The second and third series finish with A23,corresponding with the holy Tropic of Cancer, at 23°N. Some of the Kings are shown inthe passages. The end of the first series contains 9 symbols, confirming the 9 Kings. Thisseries of passages finishes in paragraph 9, confirming them. In the inner part all 9 Kingsof this Dynasty are shown. On both edges the 6+3= 9 Rulers are shown. The 9 para-graphs of the back side confirm them, again (Refs.53-59).DurationOn the back side, the 5 passages B20-24, and B2-6, but especially B14-18, encode theduration of the period, 5 generations, or 5x30.5= 153 years, according to the disc from2922 till 2769 (compare the previous series). All series finish at the end of a paragraph.The first two series start with B20 (E2) and B2, both representing the 2nd Dynasty. Theyeach finish with 9 symbols, confirming the 9 Kings.- On the front side, the 5 passagesA31-22, A1-5, and A13-17 confirm the duration, 5 generations (compare the previousseries). It may be noted, that the Phaistos Disc is the only reliable source of informationfor the duration of the 2nd Dynasty.Passages A24 and A21 (E2) on this side determine the duration of the 2nd Dynasty,between 24 and 21 double generations ago. Last passage A24 is at the end of a paragraph.In passages A22-24, the "lid", "Queen" and "shield" occur twice on one side or bothsides, confirming the 2nd Dynasty. The "King", "horn", and "falcon" occur 5 times onone of the sides, confirming the 5 generations.Passages B24 and B21 on the back side confirm the duration of the 2nd Dynasty,between 24 and 21 double generations ago. Last passage B24 is at the end of a paragraph.In passages B22-24, the "fish" occurs twice on the front side, confirming the 2ndDynasty. The 2 "messengers" occur 5 times on the back side, confirming the 5 generati-ons of the 2nd Dynasty. Both combinations B22-23 and B24-23 each have 4+5= 9symbols, confirming the 9 Kings.
  19. 19. PopulationPassage B19 on the back side determined the population of Egypt at the end of the 2ndDynasty, 190 thousand men. Passage B24 determines the start of the 2nd Dynasty, 24double generations ago. The first separation line of this passage points to a “messenger”in passage B14, encoding a population of 140,000 men at the start of the 2nd Dynasty.The next or 2nd passage B15 has a “Queen”, confirming the 2nd number (4), and B19also has a “messenger”, confirming the number has to be written down in 19-13= 6figures.Passages A1 and A4 on the front side have the symbol of the “ordinary man”, occurringtwice on the disc, confirming the population of 140,000 men at the start of the 2ndDynasty. Passage A2 has a “messenger” for the 2nd Dynasty, confirming the 2nd number(4), and A6 has also a “messenger” and even a “King”, confirming the number has to bewritten down in 6 figures. This Egyptian population of 140 thousand men is equal to thepresent population on Crete at the end of the New Palace Culture, in the year of 1458(Ch.3, Refs.1-15).Years of reignDuring probably the whole 2nd Dynasty, the country was devided in Upper Egypt in thesouth, and Lower Egypt in the north. Attempts for unification did not succeed. Also, theorder of some rulers is still a subject of discussion. The most probable scenario is thefollowing.Back side: Upper and Lower EgyptYears of reign are indicated by series of symbols, as usual. If these series are joined, it isindicated by (). On the back side, the 1st King Hotepsekhemwy of Upper Egypt isrepresented by the Royal Son in passage 28. The 37 preceding symbols, ending in B19,are his 37 (officially 38) years of reign, from c.2922 till 2884. The year 2922 is the lastyear of reign of the last King of the previous, 1st Dynasty. The 2nd King Raneb of LowerEgypt is also shown in passage 28. The 40 preceding symbols, ending in B19, are his 40(officially 39) years of reign, from c.2922 till 2883. Again, the year 2922 is the last yearof reign of the last King of the previous, 1st Dynasty.His successor the 3rd King Ninetjer of Upper Egypt is represented by the Queen inpassage 15, and by the Royal Son in passage 28. The 48 preceding symbols, ending in B4and B16, respectively, are his 48 (officially 47) years of reign, from 2884 till 2837. Hissuccessor the 4th King Weneg of Lower Egypt is shown in passage 20. The 17 precedingsymbols along the edge, ending in B29, are his 17 years of reign, from 2883 till 2866.His successor the 5th King Sened of Lower Egypt is represented by the Royal Son inpassage 28. The 40 preceding symbols, ending in B19 are his 40 (officially 41) years ofreign, from 2866 till 2825.His successor the 6th King Neferkare of Upper Egypt is shown in passage 20. The 17preceding symbols along the edge, ending in B29, are his 17 years of reign, from 2837till 2820. His successor the 7th King Neferkaseker of Lower Egypt, is also shown inpassage 20. The 24 preceding symbols, ending in B15, are his 24 (officially 25) years ofreign, from 2825 till 2800. His successor the 8th King Peribsen of Upper Egypt is repre-sented by the Queen in passage 15, and by the Royal Son in passage 28. The preceding48 symbols, ending in B4 and B16, are his 48 years of reign, from 2820 till 2772. Thisyear coincides with the end of the 2nd Dynasty. His successor the 9th KingKhasekhem(wy) of Lower Egypt is represented by the Royal Son in passage 28. The 29
  20. 20. preceding symbols, ending in B21, are his 29 (officially 30) years of reign, from 2800 till2770. Again, this year coincides with the end of the 2nd Dynasty.Front sideOn the front side, series of symbols, mostly on the edge, confirm the years of reign. Thefirst King Hotepsekhemwy is shown in passages 20 and 24. The 38 preceding symbolsalong the edge, ending in A24’ and A28’ respectively, are in both cases his 38 years ofreign. The next King Raneb is also shown in passages 20 and 24. The 38 precedingsymbols along the edge are in both cases his 38 (officially 39) years of reign. The nextKing Ninetjer is shown in passage 22. The 47 preceding symbols along the edge, endingin A24, are his 47 years of reign. The next King Weneg is represented by the symbol ofGod in passages 23, and shown in passage 27. The 17 preceding symbols, ending in A20and A24, are in both cases his 17 years of reign. His successor King Sened is shown inpassage 20. The 41 preceding symbols along the edge, ending in A23, are his 41 years ofreign.The next King Neferkare is represented by the symbol of God in passage 23, and shownin passage 27. The 17 preceding symbols, ending in A20 and A24, are in both cases his17 years of reign. The next King Neferkaseker is shown in both passages 24 and 31. The24/26 preceding symbols, ending in A19 and A25, are his 24/26 (officially 25) years ofreign. The next King Peribsen is represented by the Queen in passage 24, and shown inpassage 31. The 48 preceding symbols along te edge, ending in A25 and A20, are inboth cases his 48 years of reign. The next and last King Khasekhem(wy) is shown inpassage 22. The 30 preceding symbols along the edge, ending in A28, are his 30 years ofreign.ConfirmationYears of reign are confirmed by passages on the front side. The first King Hotepsekhem-wy is represented by the Queen in passage 8, because of his 30+8= 38 years of reign. Thenext King Raneb is shown in passage 9, because of his 30+9= 39 years of reign. The nextKing Ninetjer is shown in passage 16, because of his 31+16= 47 years of reign. The nextKing Weneg is shown in passage 18, because of his 18 (officially 17) years of reign. Hissuccessor King Sened is shown in passage 10, because of his 31+10= 41 years of reign.The next King Neferkare is shown in passage 18, because of his 18 (officially 17) yearsof reign. The next King Neferkaseker is shown in passage 24, because of his 24 (offi-cially 25) years of reign. The next King Peribsen is shown in passage 18, because of his30+18= 48 years of reign. The next and last King Khasekhem(wy) is shown in passageA31/B30, because of his 31/30 (officially 30) years of reign.LiteratureThe 2nd Dynasty is a more or less chaotic period in the history of Egypt, and much of itis unknown. Some quotations from the literature may illustrate it (Table 8.4) (Refs.16-26,53-59):...“The first 5 Kings (until Sened, #5) and the last one (Khasekhemwy, #9) are documentedand positioned with accuracy, but some chiefs in the mid period probably ruled for shortterms (?), and maybe from different parts of the country. At the end of the 2nd Dynastythe union was recovered.”...“Notable is that the Abydos list has one King after Sened (#5), where three other
  21. 21. important lists have four.” (Abydos is an ancient royal graveyard on the west bank of theRiver Nile, at 26°N, Upper Egypt. The Abydos List dates from c.1300 BC.)...Ninetjer“Sealings with the name of Ninetjer (#3) have been found in various places in LowerEgypt, and most of all in Sakkara. The notations about different celebrations are allexcept one referring to events from Lower Egypt (?). After King Ninetjer (#3) somethinghappened to the Egyptian society that made many centralised functions collapse ordecline.” (Sakkara is an ancient royal graveyard on the west bank of the River Nile nearMemphis and Cairo, at 30°N, Lower Egypt.)...Weneg“During the period of unrest after King Ninetjer (#3) a few names pop up on scantyfragments and among them a King called Weneg (#4). He was probably the pharaohpreceding (?) Ninetjer at least in Lower Egypt, because a division of the country for ashort period cant be excluded.”...Sened“When King Sened (#5) was in power, Egypt was probably divided once again into itssouthern and northern parts, with him as the King in North (Lower Egypt), from thecapital Memphis. A text mentions King Peribsen (#8), who probably was Senedscounterpart in the southern part of the country at the same time.”...Neferkare“In the Abydos kingslist from a wall in the temple of King Seti I from the 19th dynasty,Neferkare (#6) does not exist and nor does his immediate successor (Peribsen, #8)(?). Inboth the Sakkara and Turin lists Neferkare has the position between Sened (#5) andNeferkaseker (#7), and in Manethos list he is in the same place under the Greek-formedname Nepherkheres.”...Peribsen“Peribsen (#8) was a ruler who had his roots in the South, and was probably ruling fromthere throughout his time on the throne. Not a single trace of him is found in LowerEgypt.”The Egyptian FleetIn 2660, at the end of the 3rd Dynasty, Egypt had a population of 230 thousand men, anda fleet of c.149 seaworthy ships. At the end of the 2nd Dynasty, the population was only190 thousand men. So, we may expect that around the year of 2770, the Egyptian fleetcontained an estimated number of (19/23)x149= c.123 ships (Refs.27-33).In 2920, at the end of the 1st Dynasty, Egypt had a population of 140 thousand men, anda fleet of c.90 seaworthy ships. At the end of the 2nd Dynasty, the population was 190thousand men. So, we may expect that around the year of 2770, the Egyptian fleetcontained an estimated number of (19/14)x90= c.122 ships. Both estimation are probablya bit too high. It is well-known, that the 2nd Dynasty was a troubled time period.The 2nd Dynasty is symbolized by the back side of the disc. Passage B2 on this side en-codes 20 ships. B9 may encode 90 ships. So, it appears there were a total of 20+90= 110ships.- Passage A18 on the front side corresponds to 18 ships. A12 corresponds toanother 12 ships. However, the edge represents Egypt. B19 on the back side typically
  22. 22. encodes 19 ships, B22 may encode 22 ships, and B27 encodes 27 ships. So, these passa-ges indicate a total of 18+12+19+22+27= 98 ships.- However, the last passages aresometimes counted along the edge. If so, E1 typically encodes 10 ships, E4 encodes 4ships, and E9 may encode 90 ships. So, the edge alone provides a total number of10+4+90= 104 ships. This is also the average number. So, it appears, there were c.104seaworthy ships at the end of the 2nd Dynasty. This is less than the estimated number.TemplesPassage A30 on the front side is at the end of a paragraph. It may encode just 3 temples.A9 encodes 9 temples. Together this side shows the presence of 3+9= 12 temples.- Onthe back side the individual passages 6, 17, 18, 21, and 26 encode a total of 6+1+2+2+2=13 temples. So, it appears, there were c.12 temples at the end of this dynasty.SchoolsIn 2660, at the end of the 3rd Dynasty, Egypt had c.238 schools. Because of the lowerpopulation, the country will now have an estimated number of (19/23)x238= c.197schools. The “temples and palaces” on the disc may also represent schools.Passage A30 on the front side typically encodes 30 schools. A9 may encode 90 schools.B6 on the back side may correspond to 60 schools. Together, these passages show30+90+60= 180 schools.- However, B6 may also correspond to 6 schools, and B17 mayencode 170 schools. Together these may show the presence of 6+170= 176 schools.-Passage A18 confirms the presence of 180 schools, twice. So, at the end of the 2ndDynasty, there were c.180 schools in Egypt, which is less than estimated. When the ratio“lower vs. higher schools” is the same as at the end of the 3rd Dynasty, there were(191/238)x180= c.144 “lower schools”, and (47/238)x180= c.36 “higher schools”.TABLE 8.4EARLY EGYPTIAN HISTORYACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC, 1458 BCARCHAIC PERIOD: 2ND DYNASTYc.2922 Start 2nd Dynasty (c.2898*) Population: 140,000, 9 Kings, 5 generations UPPER Egyptc.2922 Hotepsekhemwy (#1)(38)c.2884 Ninetjer (#3)(47)c.2837 Neferkare (#6)(17)c.2820 Peribsen (#8)(48), discovery of Madagascarc.2772 (End of reign)c.2770 End of the 2nd Dynasty. LOWER Egyptc.2922 Raneb (#2)(39), discovery of Ascension and St. Helenac.2883 Weneg (#4)(17), idemc.2866 Sened (#5)(41)c.2825 Neferkaseker (#7)(25)c.2800 Khasekhem(wy) (#9)(30)Egyptian Fleet: c.104 seaworthy shipsTemples: c.12
  23. 23. Schools: c.180; lower schools: c.144, higher schools: c.36c.2770 (End of reign)c.2769 End of the 2nd Dynasty, population: 190,000 (c.2778*)* according to archaeological research(..) years of reign; discoveries: Ch.9 (Refs.31-40) Fig.8.4 Front side A of the Phaistos Disc (Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.1)
  24. 24. Fig.8.5 Back side B of the Phaistos Disc (Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.1)8.5 1ST DYNASTYThe 1st Dynasty of the Archaic Period, which lasted officially 150 years, from c.3048 to2898, is represented by the front side of the Phaistos Disc (Refs.1-15). Both passages 1on front and back side represent the 1st Dynasty.KingsOn the front side, the 8 passages A28-22, and A24-31, and A28-31 plus A1-4, andA6-13, represent the probably 8 Kings of the 1st Dynasty (compare the previous series).All series finish with a King and/or at the end of a paragraph. Some of the Kings areshown in the passages. The second series finishes at the end of the side! It finishes with 8symbols, confirming the 8 Kings. On the back side the 8 Rulers are shown, including theRoyal Son. Using the paragraph-line of B11, the two edges contain together 4+4= 8 para-graphs, confirming them. On these edges the disc shows the total number of 5+3= 8Kings of the 1st Dynasty. So, the aledged 9th King by the name of "Sneferka", occasion-ally mentioned, does not exist (Refs.53-59).
  25. 25. DurationOn the back side, the 6 passages B25-30, and B7-12, but also B19-24, encode theduration of the period, 6 generations, or 6x30.5= 183 years, according to the disc from3105 till 2922 (compare the previous series). All series finish at the end of paragraphs,the first series even at the end of the disc! The first passage B19 (E1) of the last seriessymbolizes the 1st Dynasty. The 6 paragraphs of the inner part confirm the 6 generations.The "waterway" in passage B1 occurs 6 times on the disc, again confirming the 6generations of the 1st Dynasty.On the front side, the 6 passages A23-28, A6-11, and A18-23, confirm the duration, 6generations (compare the previous series). Passage A28 is at the end of a paragraph, andpassage A23, with the symbols for the "power of God", represents the holy Tropic ofCancer and the Southern Egyptian Empire, at 23°N. It is the center of the Sunreligion(Refs.31-33).Passages A27 and A24 on this side determine the duration of the 1st Dynasty, between 27and 24 double generations ago. Passage A27 finishes at the end of a paragraph with theimportant combination of "shield-King", occurring thirteen times on the disc, also in lastpassage B30 on the back side. In the passages A25-27, the "chopper", "glove", and"prisoner" occur only once on one of the sides, confirming the 1st Dynasty. The"waterway", "fish" and "draught-screen" occur 6 times on the disc, confirming the 6generations. A25 and A27 have 3+5= 8 symbols, confirming the 8 Kings. The "corpse"and "shield" occur 8 times in the inner part of the front side, confirming the 8 Kings,again.Passages B27 and B24 on the back side confirm the duration of the 1st Dynasty, between27 and 24 double generations ago. Passage B27 is at the end of a paragraph, again. In thepassages B25-27, the "triangular grater" and the "temple" occur only once on one of thesides, confirming the 1st Dynasty. The "square", "hammer", "temple", and "fish" occur 6times on the back side or both sides, confirming the 6 generations. B25 and B26 have4+4= 8 symbols, confirming the 8 Kings. The passages involved form the 8th paragraph,confirming the 8 Kings of this Dynasty. The "shield" and "corpse" in the paragraph occur8 times in the inner part of the front side, confirming them, again.Two time periodsParagraphs 8 and 9 of side B each contain 3 passages, encoding two equal time periods of3 generations within the 1st Dynasty. The 3 paragraphs of the edge confirm it. The"flower" in passage A1 occurs 3 times on the front side, confirming the periods of 3generations in the 1st Dynasty. The "cover" in passage B1 occurs 3 times on the edge ofthe front side, confirming it. In passages A25-27, the "cover" and "draught-screen" occur3 times on one side or both sides, confirming the periods of 3 generations. In the passagesB25-27, the "temple", "corpse", "boat" and "religion" occur 3 times on the edge or theinner part, confirming it. The inner part of side B has 3 turns, confirming the 2 periods of3 generations.Comet CatastrophePassage A26 on the front side contains the group of signs “cover, waterway, corpse”,which suggests a catastrophe. It shows, that “continuous floodings” by the “head and tailof a comet” resulted in numerous “casualties” (Refs.41-52). It appears, that thecatastrophe occurred 26 double generations ago, which is between 1458+26x61= 3044and 3044-61= 2983 (1st Dynasty of Egypt).
  26. 26. Passage B26 on the back side has a “mummy”, pointing to Egyptian victims. It confirmsthe catastrophe happened 26 double generations ago, which is between 3044 and 2983during the 1st Dynasty. Passage B1 confirms “continuous floodings” by the “head andtail of a comet”, again, during the 1st Dynasty.Passage A26 on the front side suggests 2,600 casualties in Egypt, because a factor 10 lessor more is unprobable. The King in the next or 2nd passage A27 confirms the 2nd num-ber (6), and the upside-down “Cat-god” in A29 confirms the number should be writtendown in 29-25= 4 figures. The “head and tail of a comet” in this passage confirms the“continuous floodings” during this catastrophe.Passage B26 on the back side, having the “mummy”, confirms the number of 2,600Egyptian victims. The “corpse” in the next or 2nd passage B27 confirms the 2nd number(6), and the group of signs “cover, waterway, corpse” in B29 confirms the number has tobe written down in 29-25= 4 figures. The passage confirms the numerous “victims” bythe “continuous floodings” because of the “head and tail of a comet”, again. The numberof casualties is about 2.6% of the population of Egypt at the time of the calamity.However, it is not the number of victims which makes this calamity important, but thecomet catastrophe itself. Passage B10 of the generation series B7-12 on the back sidecontains a “head of a comet”, suggesting the disaster occurred in the second generation,which is between 3044-31= 3013 and 2983 (4th generation of the 1st Dynasty). PassageA21 of the generation series A18-23 on the front side contains a “head of a comet”, too,confirming it. The years of this second generation are indicated by the passages of theback side.Passage B7 contains the “head and tail of a comet”, suggesting the disaster occurred inthe 7th year, which is in the year of 3013-7= 3006. This combination of symbols was alsoused in the passages A26, A29, and B29. Passages A26 and B26 each contain a “shield”with 7 burls, twice confirming the 7th year. Passage A7 on the front side has a shield with7 burls, too, twice confirming it. Bruce Masse (Ref.44) reports a catastrophe c.113 yearsafter the start of the 1st Dynasty, which would be in the year of 3105-113= c.2992.The 30 or so passages on each side represent the 30 days of a month. Passage B11 alsohas the signs of the “head and tail of a comet”. It equals A29 on the front side, usedpreviously. B11 suggests 11 days of “continuous floodings”. The next or 2nd passageB12 has a “Cat-god”, confirming the 2nd number (1), and its position at the end of aparagraph confirms the number has to be written down in 12-10= 2 figures. Previously,passage B10 with the “head of a comet” indicated the correct generation of thecatastrophe. The “glove” in B10, which touches the sign of the “comet”, refers to the“glove” in B12. It confirms the 11 days of floodings.Passage B1, symbolizing the 1st Dynasty, confirms the 10 days of “continuous flood-ings”. The next or 2nd passage B2 has a Cat-god, which shows the number has to bewritten down in 2 figures. Passage A27 on the front side was important for the number ofvictims. It has a “shield” with 7 burls, confirming the 7th year of the generation. Thecombination “shield, King” is connected, similar to passages A6 and A13, which wereimportant for the catastrophe of 1628, which had the same duration, c.10 days. The Kingtouches next passage A28, with the combination “bee, cat”, which also occurs in B2 onthe back side, confirming this duration.- The comet catastrophe happened during the
  27. 27. reign of 5th King Den-Udimu (c.3012-2992). It is also indicated by “floodings” duringhis reign on the Palermo Stone. Note, that “Udimu” means “the water-pourer”(Refs.16-26).PopulationThe population at the end of the 1st Dynasty was 140 thousand. Passage A6 on the frontside, which played a role in establishing this number, has a “messenger”, encoding apopulation of 60,000 at the start of this Dynasty. The King and the symbol of God in A10shows the number has to be written down in 10-5= 5 figures. This Egyptian population of60 thousand men is equal to the Cretan population at the end of the Old Palace Culture,just before the civil war, in the year of 1702 (Ch.6, Refs.1-15).Years of reignThe 1st Dynasty lasted 6 generations, or 183 years. However, all known years of reigntotal to c.263 years. This means, that the Kings reigned over a united Egypt for onlyc.100 years. During c.80 years Egypt was devided in a northern and a southern Empire. Itappears that attempts for real unification succeeded later. The order of the rulers is ratherwell-known. The most probable scenario is the following (Table 8.5).Lower and Upper EgyptAll years of reign are indicated by joined series of symbols! This is indicated by (). Onthe back side, the 1st King Aha or Menes of Lower Egypt is represented by the Queen inpassage B15. The 57 preceding symbols, ending in B2, are his official period of 57 yearsof reign, from c.3100 till 3043. He is also shown on the front side, in last passage A31.The 58 preceding symbols, ending in A17, confirm his 58 (officially 57) years of reign.Passage A31 also symbolizes Lower Egypt, at 31°N. Passage A30 has a "temple",because King Menes had his capital in Memphis, near Sakkara, at 30°N.On the back side, the 2nd King Narmer of Upper Egypt is shown in last passage B30.The 60 preceding symbols, ending in B16, suggest a period of 60 years of reign.However, note the special shape of passage B1, symbolizing the 1st Dynasty. The 2additional symbols confirm the official period of 60+2= 62 years of reign, from c.3097till 3035. Passage B26 has a "temple". because King Narmer had his capital in This, nearAbydos, at 26°N. He is also shown on the front side, in passage A16. The 62 precedingsymbols, ending in A2, are his 62 years of reign. Passage A1 symbolizes the 1st Dynasty.Note, that the 119 symbols of the back side of the Phaistos Disc equal the official 62+57=119 years of reign of the first 2 Kings of Egypt. The 17 shields each contain 7 dots for atotal of 17x7= 119 dots, confirming the number of years.The 3rd King Djer of Lower Egypt, is shown in passage A9 on the front side. The 31preceding symbols, ending in A3, are his 31 years of reign, from 3043 till 3012. Thenumber of years seem to symbolize Lower Egypt, at 31°N. His successor the 4th KingDjet of Upper Egypt is shown in important passage A15. The 23 preceding symbolsfinish in the center of A10 before the symbol of God. These encode his 23 years of reign,from 3035 till 3012, but apparently also the center of the Sunreligion in Upper Egypt, atthe holy Tropic of Cancer, at 23°N. Note that the last symbols are in passages A10-12, ofthe important combination with A16-18, symbolizing the discoveries in the east duringhis reign.UnificationAfter the reigns of Kings Djer and Djet, it is probable that a single King ruled a more or
  28. 28. less united Egypt. This King Den-Udimu, who for the first time accepted the title King ofUpper and Lower Egypt, is shown in passage A20. The 19 preceding symbols, ending inA16, are his 19 (officially 20) years of reign, from 3012 till 2992. His successor KingAnedjib is shown in last passage A31. The 26 preceding symbols, ending in A25, are his26 years of reign, from 2992 till 2966. His successor King Semerkhet is shown inpassage A24. The 17 preceding symbols, ending in A21, are his 17 (officially 18) yearsof reign, from 2966 till 2948. His successor, the last King Qa’a, is shown in the lastpassage A31, again. The 26 preceding symbols, again ending in A25, are his 26 years ofreign, from 2948 till 2922. This is about the end of the 1st Dynasty in 2922.ConfirmationYears of reign are confirmed by passage numbers, as usual. On the front side, the firstKing Aha or Menes is shown in passage 27, because of his 30+27= 57 years of reign. Hissuccessor King Narmer is shown in passage 1, because of his 30+31+1= 62 years ofreign. He is shown as an ordinary man, because he was not of Royal birth. He is alsoshown in passage 31, confirming his 31+31= 62 years of reign. His successor King Djeris also shown in passage 31, because of his 31 years of reign, and because of the northernNile Delta, at 31°N. His successor King Djet is represented by the symbol of God inpassage 23, because of his 23 years of reign, and because of the Holy Tropic of Cancer,at 23°N. His successor King Den-Udimu is shown in passage A20 and B20, because ofhis official period of 20 years of reign. His successor King Anedjib is shown in the 8thpassage on the edge of the front side, because of his 18+8= 26 years of reign. His succes-sor King Semerkhet is shown in the last passage 18 of the inner part, because of hisofficial period of 18 years of reign. His successor King Qa’a is shown in the 8th passageon the edge, again, because of his 18+8= 26 years of reign (Refs.53-59).The Power of GodPassage A1 with the flower symbolizes the 1st Dynasty. The front side also contains fivepassages (7,10,13,16,23) with the symbols of the power of God. These contain 5 symbolsof God and 3 Kings, together symbolizing the 5+3= 8 Rulers of the 1st Dynasty.King Aha (Menes) is represented by God in passage 13. Including passage 1, the otherpassages total with their numbers his 57 years of reign (7+10+16+23+1= 57). KingNarmer is represented by God in passage 7. The other passages total with their numbershis 62 years of reign (10+13+16+23= 62). His successor King Djer is represented by Godin passage 10. Including passage 1, passages 7 and 23 total with their numbers his 31years of reign. His successor King Djet is represented by God in passage 16. Passage 23shows his 23 years of reign.His successor King Den-Udimu is shown in passage 10. Passages 7 and 13 total withtheir numbers his 20 years of reign. His successor King Anedjib is shown in passage 13.Passages 10 and 16 total with their numbers his 26 years of reign. His successor KingSemerkhet is shown in passage 16. Including passage 1, the passages 7 and 10 total withtheir numbers his 18 years of reign. His successor, the last King Qa’a, is represented byGod in passage 23. Passages 10 and 16 total with their numbers his 26 years of reign.Final remarksOn the back side the first King Aha or Menes was shown as a “Queen” in passage B15,and the second King Narmer was shown in last passage B30. Including the Royal Son,this side contains 7+1= 8 Rulers, confirming the 8 Kings of the 1st Dynasty. On the frontside, the situation was reversed, which is a kind of special. The 1st King Aha was shown
  29. 29. in passage A31, and the 2nd King Narmer was shown in passage A15. Both halfs of thisside each contain 8 Rulers, twice confirming the 8 Kings of the 1st Dynasty.Both Kings Aha and Narmer are shown as a single King in passage A27 on the front side.They started to reign almost simultaniously, 27 double generations ago, in the year of1458+27x61= c.3105. In Lower and Upper Egypt, respectively, they both reigned duringa whole period of a double generation, or c.61 years, till the year of 3105-61= c.3044.These number of years are shown by the 31+30= 61 passages of the Phaistos Disc.Passage B27 on the back side symbolizes the same double generation. The first twoKings of Egypt reigned during this time period. The translation of the passage reads:“the deadly language of the Religion” (Ch.5). So, their power was based on theEgyptian Sunreligion. The “scraper” (#42) in passage B22 contains 27 dots,confirming this double generation. The triangular grater (#43) in passage B25 also has27 dots, confirming it, again.- Note, that King Narmer was also called the “Cat-Fish”.This is in-teresting, because the Phaistos Disc provides the Religion of Crete, which wasbased on two gods: the Cat-god and the Fish-god (Ch.5).The Phaistos Disc contains 2 palaces in passages A9 and B17. These 2 palaces are inhonor of King Aha (Menes) and King Narmer, the first 2 Kings of the 1st Dynasty. Thedisc also contains 6 temples. These 6 temples are in honor of the 6 other Kings of thisDynasty. So, the disc contains 2+6= 8 holy buildings, in honor of the 8 Rulers of the 1stDynasty. Each palace consists of 2 big constructions, in honor of the first 2 Kings of the1st Dynasty. Each temple contains 8 big rooms, in honor of the 8 Kings of this Dynasty.The Disc contains 2 Kings graves in passages A3 and A15. These 2 Kings graves are inhonor of King Aha (Menes) and King Narmer, the first 2 Kings of the 1st Dynasty. EachKings grave contains 4+4= 8 burial chambers, in honor of the 8 Kings of the 1stDynasty.The symbol of the flower in passage A1 represents the 1st turn of the front side. So, itsymbolizes and honors the 1st Dynasty of Egypt. It contains 8 petals, in honor of the 8Kings of this Dynasty. Passage B1 represents the start of the 1st turn of the back side. So,the 2 symbols symbolize and honor the first 2 Kings Aha (Menes) and Narmer of the 1stDynasty.In the famous Turin Kingslist (c.1300 BC), the Kings are grouped together logicallybased on the city where they took up residence. These groups do not (entirely)correspond to the dynasties into which the Kings were placed by Manetho. As aconsequence, it has been concluded that the notion of dynasties was not present or fullydeveloped before the 19th or 20th Dynasty. Note, that the Phaistos Disc, made during the18th Dynasty, shows the contrary. It simply is not true.The Phaistos Disc provides a rather accurate description of Egyptian History from KingThutmozes III of the 18th Dynasty (1458) until the 1st King Aha (Menes) of the 1stDynasty of the Archaic Period of Egypt (3105). Note, that all dates from the PhaistosDisc are absolute dates, because these are counted backwards from 1458 BC.The Egyptian FleetIn 2660, at the end of the 3rd Dynasty, Egypt had a population of 230 thousand men, anda fleet of c.149 seaworthy ships. At the end of the 1st Dynasty, the population was only
  30. 30. 140 thousand, the same as on the island of Crete at the end of the New Palace Culture(Ch.3). So, we may expect that around the year of 2922, the Egyptian fleet contained anestimated number of (14/23)x149= c.91 ships. This estimation might be correct, becausedevelopments were slow in this early time period (Refs.27-33).The edge of the back side represents Egypt, especially the second part of it. Passage B27has a “boat”. It may provide information about the Egyptian fleet about 27 doublegenerations ago, which was during the 1st Dynasty. However, sometimes the passagesare counted along the edge. So, E9 has a “boat”, and a Nile symbol. It may form a seriesof 2 passages, encoding 90 seaworthy ships. Next passage E10 has a King, showing thatthe number has to be written down in 10-8= 2 figures.- Passage B1 has a River Nile anda Delta symbol, representing the 1st Dynasty. B1 points to B10. Previous passage B9, inthe middle of the generation series B7-12 (1st Dynasty), has a “boat”. So, B9 also forms aseries of 2 passages, confirming 90 ships. Last passage B10 has a Delta and a Nilesymbol, showing the number has to be written down in 10-8= 2 figures.Passage B2 typically encodes 20 ships. B9 may correspond to 9 ships. E1 on the edgeencodes 10 ships. E4 may encode 40 ships, because the end of the next passage points tothe “messenger” of B14, which showed the population of Egypt. Finally, E9 encodes 9ships at the end of the paragraph. So, the back side confirms a total number of20+9+10+40+9= 88 ships.- Passage A18 on the front side encodes 18 ships. The passageis at the start of the generation series A18-23, which finishes on the edge. A12 encodes12 ships. The passage is at the end of the Kings series A5-12. Together with the edge ofthe back side, these passages confirm a total number of 18+12+10+40+9= 89 seaworthyships. So, the disc clearly shows, that there were c.90 seaworthy ships in Egypt at the endof the 1st Dynasty.TemplesThe edges of the disc represent Egypt. Passage A30 on the front side may encode 3temples at the end of the paragraph. B26 on the back side may correspond to 2 temples(one passage). Finally, B21 may encode another 2 temples. So, it appears Egypt had atotal of 3+2+2= 7 temples.- B6 in the inner part encodes 6 temples. B17 corresponds toanother temple. So, a total of 6+1= 7 temples is confirmed.- Passage A9 on the front sideshows one temple. B18 on the back side encodes another 2 temples. Together with theedge on this side, a total number of 1+2+2+2= 7 temples are confirmed. So, the discshows, that Egypt possessed 7 temples at the end of the 1st Dynasty.SchoolsIn 2770, at the end of the 2nd Dynasty, Egypt had c.180 schools. Because of the lowerpopulation, the country will now have an estimated number of (14/19)x180= c.133schools. The “temples and palaces” on the disc may also represent schools.- At the end ofthe 1st Dynasty, Egypt had a population of 140 thousand men. It probably means, that thenumber of schools was the same as in Crete at the end of the New Palace Culture (seeCh.4). So, the were a total of c.128 schools; c.102 of these were “lower schools”, andc.26 of these were “higher schools” (Refs.16-26).TABLE 8.5EARLY EGYPTIAN HISTORYACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC, 1458 BC
  31. 31. ARCHAIC PERIOD: 1ST DYNASTYc.3105 Start 1st Dynasty (c.3048*) Population: 60,000, 8 Kings, 2x3= 6 generations LOWER Egypt (3 generations)c.3100 Aha (Menes) (#1)(57)c.3043 Djer (#3)(31), discovery of Sumatra, Kalimantan, the Philippines, and Taiwanc.3012 (End of reign) UPPER Egypt (3 generations)c.3097 Narmer (#2)(62)c.3035 Djet (#4)(23) (discoveries around the South Chinese Sea)c.3012 (End of reign) Egypt UNITED (3 generations)c.3012 Den-Udimu (#5)(20)c.3006 Comet Catastrophe (floodings during 11 days, 4th generation): c.2,600 casualties in Egypt (2.6%)c.2992 Anedjib (#6)(26), discovery of East Indonesia, New Guinea, BismarckArchipelago, and Solomon Islandsc.2966 Semerkhet (#7)(18) (discoveries near East Indonesia)c.2948 Qa’a (#8)(26)Egyptian Fleet: c.90 seaworthy shipsTemples: c.7Schools: c.128; lower schools: c.102, higher schools: c.26c.2922 (End of reign)c.2922 End of the 1st Dynasty, population: 140,000 (c.2898*)* according to archaeological research(..) years of reign; the names of the Pharaohs are not mentioned on the disc; discoveries:Ch.9 (Refs.31-40).8.6 PRE-DYNASTIC PERIODThe 18 Dynasties of Egypt are represented by the 18 passages of both inner parts of thedisc. So, the edges represent the long time period before the Egyptian civilization,covering the Pre-Dynastic Period and the prehistory. The back side deals with morerecent time periods. So, the edge of it probably relates to the Pre-Dynastic Period(Refs.-16-26).DurationOn the back side, the 6 passages B19-24, B13-18, B1-6, but also B25-30 encode theduration of the period (compare the previous series), 6 generations, or 6x30.5= 183 years,so from 3288 till 3105. All series finish at the end of paragraphs. The first and the lastseries are on the edge, representing the Pre-Dynastic Period. The first passage B25 of thelast series symbolizes the southern capital of Hieraconpolis, at 25°N. This series finishesat the end of the side! The 6 paragraphs in the inner part confirm the 6 generations. Thispart has 3 turns, encoding the duration of the Pre-Dynastic Period, 3 double generationsor 3x2= 6 generations. Archaeological research confirms the start of the Pre-DynasticPeriod, at c.3300. On the front side, the 6 passages A29-21, A29-31 plus A1-3, andA24-28 (using 27a/b), confirm the duration of 6 generations (compare the previousseries). The last series finishes at the end of a paragraph.
  32. 32. Passages A30 and A27 on this side determine the duration of the Pre-Dynastic Period,between 30 and 27 double generations ago (compare the previous series). A30 is at theend of a paragraph. In the passages A28-30 involved, the natural symbols of "bee", "cat"and "waterway" confirm the Pre-Dynastic Period. The "waterway", the "draught-screen",and the "temple" occur 6 times on the disc, confirming the 6 generations.Passages B30 and B27 on the back side confirm the duration of the Pre-Dynastic Period,between 30 and 27 double generations ago. This series finishes at the end of the side! Thenatural symbols of "papyrus", "branch", "waterway", and "corpse" confirm the Pre-Dynastic Period. The "hammer", "branch", "waterway", and "draught-screen" occur 6times on the back side or both sides, confirming the 6 generations.Passage B28 contains the "papyrus", because Lower Egypt was called the "Land of thePapyrus". Next passage B29 contains the "branch", because Upper Egypt was called the"Land of the Wood" (or the Reed). So, in the Pre-Dynastic Period Egypt was devided inLower and Upper Egypt. Last passage B30 contains the symbols of "religion" and"King", because these formed the basis for the Egyptian civilization.“Kings”Each generation produces a King, and Egypt was devided during this period. On the frontside, passages A23-20 (using 27a/b), and A20-31, and A1-12, and A5-16 represent theprobably 12 “Kings” of Upper and Lower Egypt of the Pre-Dynastic Period (compare theprevious series). All these series finish with a King, most of them also at the end of aparagraph. The second series finishes at the end of the side! Last passage A31 symbolizesthe northern capital of Boeto, at 31°N. The last passages of two series each contain 12symbols, confirming the 12 Kings. Some of the Kings are shown in the passages. On theedge, and on the back side, the 6+6= 12 Rulers are shown. The 12 passages of the edge ofside B confirm the 12 Kings.The back side and the edge of it contain together 30+12= 42 passages, encoding the 42nomes or provinces of ancient Egypt. From the oldest times the two parts of the countryhad been divided into 42 nomes, and these local areas with their own capitals and gods,were in function as long as the Egyptian history lasted, and the local tribe-leaders becamegovernors of the state (Refs.53-59).Comet CatastrophePassage B29 on the back side has “a head and a tail of a comet”, pointing to “continuousfloodings” during a catastrophe (Refs.41-52). It also has a “corpse”, indicating numerousvictims. Apparently, this catastrophe occurred 29 double generations ago, which isbetween 1458+29x61= 3227 and 3227-61= 3166 (Pre-Dynastic Period). Passage A29 onthe front side has a “head and a tail of a comet”, too, confirming the “continuousfloodings” in this time period.Passage B29 has a “corpse”, suggesting a number of 2,900 casualties in Egypt. The nextor 2nd passage B30 has a King, and a comet, confirming the 2nd number (9), and B20has a King, showing the number has to be written down in 20-18+2= 4 figures. PassageB11 points with its paragraph-line to the end of B20, so this passage is also at the end of akind of paragraph. In addition, B11 is equal to passage A29 on the front side, confirmingthis comet catastrophe.However, it is not the number of victims which makes this calamity important, but the
  33. 33. comet catastrophe itself. Passage B21 of the first generation series B19-24 has a “comet”,suggesting the disaster happened in the first generation, which is from 3227 till 3227-31=3196 (3rd generation of the Pre-Dynastic Period.). Passage A26 of the generation seriesA24-28 (using 27a/b) has a “head and tail of a comet”, confirming this generation.Passage A29 with the “head and tail of a comet” is at the start of the generation seriesA29-31 plus A1-3. Passage A31 represents the 3rd generation, and A3 has two “corpses”.It strongly confirms a number of 3,000 casualties. It forms a series of 4 passages,finishing with A6, equal to A31, showing the number has to be written down in 6-2= 4figures. A3 has the signs of the “papyrus” and the “branch” (or wood), confirming thesevictims were counted in Egypt. A number of 3,000 casualties is about 7 % of the Egyp-tian population at that time.The year of the catastrophe is situated in a first generation, so somewhere indicated onside A. The paragraph-line of passage A29 runs to the very edge, suggesting a passage onthe edge. Passage A26 has a “head and tail of a comet”, and also a “corpse”, suggestingthe 26th year of the 1st generation, or the year of 3227-26= 3201. The combination ofsymbols is equal to the one in passage B29, which indicated the catastrophe in the firstplace. Passage B26 on the back side confirms this year, because it has a “mummy”,indicating Egyptian casualties. The date of a global calamity in c.3195 is confirmed byBaillie (Ref.45).The 30 or so passages on each side represent the 30 days of a month. So, one of these willindicate the duration of the calamity. The “shields” with the 7 burls of passages A26,A31, B26, and B30 appear to point to passage B7. The “branches” in the original passageB29, A3, and in B21, which indicated the correct generation, refer to B8. So, passage B7indicates a duration of 70 days. The translation of both passages read: “Continuousfloodings continued (because of the head and tail of the comet)”. ”The wood (fire) leadedto this continuation”.- Passage A7 on the front side, with the “shield”, confirms theduration of the catastrophe, 70 days. Next passage B8 has a “Queen”, which confirms thenumber should be written down in 8-6= 2 figures.The edges of the disc each contain 12 passages, encoding the 12 months of a year. Theoriginal passage B29 and next passage B30 show the duration of the catastrophe: c.2months. B30 is the last passage on this side, having a “comet”, a “shield”, and a “King”.Passages A29 and A30 on the front side confirm the duration of c.2 months. A30, at theend of the paragraph, has a “shield” and a “temple”, referring to passage B26 with thesame symbols, which indicated the year of the catastrophe.PopulationPassage A6 on the front side provided a population of 60 thousand men at the end of thePre-Dynastic Period. This era is described on the edge of the back side. Passage B19 atthe start of it has a “messenger”, encoding a population of 19,000 men at the start of thisPeriod. The King in the next or 2nd passage B20 confirms the 2nd number (9), and themessenger in passage B23 confirms the number has to be written down in 23-18= 5figures. Next passage A24 also has a “messenger”, suggesting a population of 24,000men. However, the next or 2nd passage B25 does not have a King, so the 2nd number (4)is not confirmed. But passage B28 has a King, confirming the number has to be writtendown in 28-23= 5 figures. So, at the start of the Pre-Dynastic Period the population ofEgypt was 19 to 20 thousand men (Tables 8.6 and 8.8). This number is about equal to thepopulation of Crete at the start of the Old Palace Culture, c.2007 (Ch.6, Refs.1-15).
  34. 34. The Egyptian FleetAt the end of the Pre-Dynastic Period Egypt had a population of 60 thousand men. So,the size of the population was the same as on the island of Crete at the end of the OldPalace Culture, c.1702. Around that year, Crete possessed a fleet of c.39 seaworthy ships(see Ch.6). So, it is expected that the fleet of Egypt will now be about the same(Refs.27-33).In 2920, at the end of the 1st Dynasty, Egypt had a population of 140 thousand men, anda fleet of c.90 seaworthy ships. At the end of the Pre-Dynastic Period, the population wasonly 60 thousand men. So, we may expect that around the year of 3100, the Egyptianfleet contained an estimated number of (6/14)x90= 39 ships. So, the number of c.39seaworthy ships is confirmed (see Ch.6)!SchoolsIn 2920, at the end of the 1st Dynasty, Egypt had c.128 schools. Because of the lowerpopulation, the country will now have an estimated number of (6/14)x128= c.55 schools.At the end of the Old Palace Culture on Crete, there were c.39 schools (see Ch.6). Thesame will probably hold for Egypt. This is slightly less than expected.- The “temples andpalaces” on the disc may also represent schools. The edge of the back side representsEgypt. Sometimes, the passages are counted along the edge. “Temples” appear inpassages E3 and E8. So, a number of c.38 schools at the end of the Pre-Dynastic Periodis confirmed. So, in Egypt there were c.30 “lower schools”, and c.9 “higher schools”, justlike on Crete (see Ch.6)!TABLE 8.6EARLY EGYPTIAN HISTORYACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC, 1458 BCPRE-DYNASTIC PERIODc.3288 Start Pre-Dynastic Period (c.3300*) (edge side B) Population: 19,000-20,000, 6 generations, 12 “kings” Upper Egypt, 6 generations, 6  1

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