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CH.7: LATE HISTORY OF EGYPT

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CHAPTER 7 …

CHAPTER 7
LATE HISTORY OF EGYPT

7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 NEW KINGDOM: 18TH DYNASTY
7.3 SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
7.4 MIDDLE KINGDOM: 12TH DYNASTY
7.5 FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
7.5.1 EARLY FIP
7.5.2 LATE FIP: 11TH DYNASTY
7.6 6TH DYNASTY OF THE CATASTROPHE
7.7 DISCUSSION

Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com

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  • 1. CHAPTER 7LATE HISTORY OF EGYPT7.1 INTRODUCTION7.2 NEW KINGDOM: 18TH DYNASTY7.3 SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD7.4 MIDDLE KINGDOM: 12TH DYNASTY7.5 FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD7.5.1 EARLY FIP7.5.2 LATE FIP: 11TH DYNASTY7.6 6TH DYNASTY OF THE CATASTROPHE7.7 DISCUSSIONDr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.comSUMMARYThe inner parts of both sides of the disc have 18 passages, corresponding to the 18thDynasty (New Kingdom), which was in power when the Phaistos Disc was made (1458BC). Both edges have 12 passages, corresponding to the 12th Dynasty, the importantprevious dynasty of the Middle Kingdom. However, the 18 passages of the inner partsalso correspond to the 18 Dynasties in the history of Egypt. For each dynasty, the discprovides the duration in generations of 30.5 years, the number of Kings, the years ofreign of each King, and the population number. New data are now available for theSecond Intermediate Period. At the beginning of the 15th or Hyksos Dynasty a calamityhappe-ned caused by a comet. At the start of the 6th Dynasty a huge Comet Catastropheoccur-red, which wiped out half of the people of Egypt.7.1 INTRODUCTIONPopulation of EgyptThe Phaistos Disc (Figs.7.5 and 7.6) shows the authorities of Crete were very interestedin nearby Egypt, the greatest civilization on Earth (Refs.1-6). The center of the discsymbolizes Crete, where the disc was made. The front side A has 5 turns, correspondingto the southern Nile Delta, 5° below Crete, at 35-5= 30°N. The edge represents thisregion. So, it may provide information about Egypt, for instance its population.On both sides the passages are counted from the center towards the edge (Ch.2). PassageA21 on the edge of the front side contains the first "messenger" (Fig.4.3, #1), the currentsymbol indicating population on the disc. It encodes an Egyptian population of2,100,000, because a factor 10 less or more would be in both cases unprobable. The nextor 2nd passage A22 has a "King" (#2), the most important symbol of the disc. It confirmsthe 2nd number (1), and passage A27 has a "King", too, showing the number has to bewritten down in 27-20= 7 figures.The front side of the disc has 31 passages, corresponding to the northern Nile Delta, at31°N. Passage A2 of the inner part also has a "messenger", showing an Egyptian popula-tion of 2.0 million. The passage itself indicates the first number (2), and passage A8 has a"Queen", also important, confirming the number has to be written down in 8-1= 7 figu-res. (Passage A31 on the edge has a “messenger”, too, but the resulting number for thepopulation is not confirmed.)
  • 2. The back side has 4 turns, corresponding to the northern Nile Delta, 4° below Crete, at35-4= 31°N. So, the edge, the 4th turn, may also provide information about the populati-on. Passage B19 contains a “messenger”, suggesting an Egyptian population of 1.9million. The next or 2nd passage has a “King”, confirming the 2nd number (9), and pas-sage B25 has the “grater” (#43), now an Egyptian pyramid, showing the number has tobe written down in 25-18= 7 figures.Passage B24 also has a “messenger”, suggesting an Egyptian population of 2.4 million.The next or 2nd passage has the Egyptian pyramid, confirming the 2nd number (4), andpassage B30 at the end of the side has a “King”, confirming the number has to be writtendown in 30-23= 7 figures. The average value provides the real Egyptian population of(2.1+2.0+1.9+2.4)/4= 2.1 million men at the end of the New Palace Culture on Crete,1458 BC. This is the date of the Phaistos Disc (Ch.2).B7 has a “cover” and a “waterway”. These signs resemble the Delta and the River Nile,respectively. The passage even has a second Delta sign. The paragraph-line points fromthe first Delta sign to the neighboring passage B16, with a “messenger”, below it. It mayprovide the population of the Northern Egyptian Empire, 1.6 million men. B16 forms aseries of 7 passages. The “palace” of the next passage confirms the 2nd number (6), andthe series finishes with the “papyrus” and the symbol of “religion” in B22 on the edge,showing the number should be written down in 22-15= 7 figures. The last symbol resem-bles the River Nile and its Delta, again, and Lower Egypt was called the “Land of thePapyrus”.A5 on the front side has a “branch” (of wood). The paragraph-line points from this signto a “messenger” nearby. A5 may form a series of 6 passages, providing the population ofthe Southern Egyptian Empire, 0.5 million men. The “messenger” in the next passageconfirms the subject (population), and the King and the “falcon”, symbol of God, in A10,shows the number has to be written down in 10-4= 6 figures. Upper Egypt was called the“Land of the Wood” (Ch.5). The total population of Egypt is confirmed: 1.6+0.5= c.2.1million men (Table 7.6, Refs.1-15).The Egyptian FleetCrete has a fleet of c.150 seaworthy ships (Ch.4). The size of the population of Egypt is210/14= 15 times as big as that of Crete. So, we may expect that the Egyptian fleetcontains a roughly estimated number of 15x150= c.2,250 ships. However, this valuemight be too low, because Egypt was richer and more powerful than Crete.The second half of the edge has passage numbers, encoding latitudes in Egypt. B27 onthe back side has a “boat” and the symbol of “religion”, which resembles the River Nilewith its Delta. It forms a series of 4 passages, encoding 2,700 seaworthy ships. The nextor 2nd passage has a “King”, confirming the 2nd number (7), and the last passage at theend of the side has a Nile symbol and a King, showing the number has to be writtendown in 30-26= 4 figures.B22 has a “boat”, a “papyrus”, and a Nile symbol, corresponding to 220 Egyptian ships.The series of passages finishes at the end of the paragraph. B19, with a boat, is also onthe edge. It encodes another 19 boats. The short series finishes at the end of a kind ofparagraph. Added up, it appears that Egypt has a fleet of 2,700+220+19= c.2,939 sea-worthy ships.
  • 3. In the inner part is passage B2 with a boat. It forms a series of 4 passages, finishing witha Nile symbol. So, it encodes 2,000 boats. B9 forms a series of 3 passages, finishing witha “cover” and a “waterway”. These signs resemble the Delta and the River Nile,respectively. So, it corresponds with another 900 boats. Together, these confirm an Egyp-tian fleet of 2,000+900= c.2,900 seaworthy ships.On the inner part of the front side are also boats. B18 forms a series of 4 passages, finish-ing with a Delta sign on the edge. It encodes 1,800 Egyptian boats. B12 also forms aseries of 4 passages, finishing with important passage A15. The text reads: “The Theoryof the Holy Kings of Lower and Upper Egypt” (Ch.5). The series corresponds with 1,200boats. Together, these confirm an Egyptian fleet of 1,800+1,200= c.3,000 seaworthyships, again (Refs.27-30).Pyramids and TemplesPassage B25 on the back side has the “grater” (#43), the only sign resembling a pyramid.It encodes the realistic number of c.25 pyramids in Egypt.- Passage B26 has a “temple”.It forms two passages till the end of the paragraph, encoding 26 Egyptian temples. B21 isalso on the edge. It also forms 2 passages, finishing with the papyrus and the Nile sym-bol. It corresponds with another 21 temples. A30 on the front side has a “temple”, too. Itforms 2 passages till the end of the side. It encodes 30 temples. Added up, the disc showsevidence of 26+21+30= c.77 Egyptian temples.The inner parts of the disc have “temples and palaces”, which might confirm the totalnumber. Passage B18 forms a series of 2 passages, finishing with B19, the first passageon the edge. B19, after B30, symbolizes the northern Nile Delta, at 30+1= 31°N. The 2temples of B18 encode together 2x18= 36 Egyptian temples. The “palace” in B17 corres-ponds with another 17 temples. B6 at the end of the paragraph corresponds with 6temples. Finally, the “palace” of A9 on the front side is also at the end of the paragraph.It encodes 9 temples. Added up, the inner parts confirm a total of 18+18+17+6+9= c.68Egyptian temples.SchoolsCrete has c.128 schools (Ch.4). Because of its higher population Egypt will have anestimated number of (210/14)x128= c.1,920 schools. The “temples and palaces” on thedisc may also represent schools. The edges of the disc represent Egypt in the first place.The temple of B21 forms a series of 4 passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph. Itencodes 2,100 Egyptian schools. B26 forms a short series of 2 passages, also at the end ofthe paragraph. It corresponds with 26 schools. A30 also forms 2 passages, at the end ofthe side. It encodes 30 schools. It appears, that there are a total of 2,100+26+30= c.2,156schools in Egypt.The inner parts have “temples and palaces”, which might confirm the total number ofschools. The “palace” of B17 forms a series of 4 passages, finishing at the end of a kindof paragraph. It encodes 1,700 schools. The two temples of B18 form series of 3passages, twice encoding 180 schools. B6 at the end of the paragraph represents another 6schools. Finally, the “palace” of A9 on the front side will form a series of 2 passages,finishing with the King at the end of a paragraph. It encodes 90 schools. Added up, it isconfirmed that Egypt possesses a total of 1,700+180+180+6+90= c.2,156 schools. If theratio “lower vs. higher schools” is the same as on Crete (Ch.4), there will be (102/128)-x2,156= c.1,718 “lower schools”, and (26/128)x2,156= c.438 “higher schools”.
  • 4. Fig.71 Granite statue of the 6th King Thutmose III (1485-1458) of the Eighteenth Dynasty, who was in power when the Phaistos Disc was made.7.2 NEW KINGDOM: 18TH DYNASTYBoth sides of the disc have an Inner Part and an Edge. The inner part of each sidecontains 18 passages, twice encoding the important 18th Dynasty of Egypt, the first oneof the New Kingdom (Refs.16-26). The five passages on the front side with the “horn”and the “falcon”, symbols for the "power of God", contain together (3x4)+(2x3)= 18symbols, confirming it. The most important, equal passages A3 and A15 form together3+15= 18 units, again confirming the 18th Dynasty. On the back side, passages B3 andB15 contain a “Queen“. These also form together 3+15= 18 units, confirming the 18thDynasty of Queen Hatshepsut (Ch.2). Passage A18 on the front side represents the 18thDynasty. It has the important symbol of the "King". When the last two symbols of B3 arecombined to a "Queen" (the King’s virgin), the disc contains 18 "Kings" in total,confirming this Dynasty. During the 18th Dynasty the Phaistos Disc was made (Ch.2).RulersOn the front side, passages A1-6 represent the 6 Rulers of the 18th Dynasty (see Ch.2).Note the thick separation-line at the end of A6. The names of the Pharaohs are notmentioned on the disc. These names and their years of reign can be found in the literature(Refs.14,20).- The history of Egypt starts in the center of the disc. So, the last KingThutmozes III is shown in passage A1, and the first King Ahmozes I is shown in passageA6. A7 with the symbols for the "power of God" is used for separation of the series. Onthe edge of side A, but also on side B, the 5 Kings and 1 free Queen of the 18th Dynastyare shown.
  • 5. The disc shows the 6 “temples” of Crete. Passage B6 contains a temple, confirming theirnumber. These temples are also in honor of the 6 Rulers of the 18th Dynasty. Side A con-tains 1 temple in honor of Queen Hatshepsut, and side B contains 5 more temples inhonor of the 5 Kings of this Dynasty. Passage A18 has 6 symbols, confirming the 6Rulers of the 18th Dynasty. The 6th symbol in the passage shows the 6th and last King ofthis dynasty, Thutmozes III (Fig.7.1). During the reign of this King the Phaistos Disc wasmade (Ch.2). Passage B18 has 5 symbols, confirming the 18th Dynasty of the previous,5th Ruler, Queen Hatshepsut.DurationThe front side has 31 passages, encoding a first generation of 31 years, and the back sidehas 30 passages, encoding a second generation of 30 years. On the average, each sidecontains 30.5 passages, corresponding with 1 generation of 30.5 years. At the time of thefall of the New Palace Culture on Crete, the 18th Dynasty lasted officially c.122 years,from c.1580 to 1458 BC. On the back side, the 4 passages B1-4 of the first paragraphencode the duration of the 18th Dynasty, 4 generations, or 4x30.5= 122 years, which isaccording to our calculations from the disc, from 1458+122= 1580 to 1458. Equal groupsof 4 symbols are present in neighboring passages B5 and B13 of this side, confirming the4 generations of the 5+13= 18th Dynasty.The first paragraph of the front side has 4 passages, confirming the 4 generations of the18th Dynasty. The 122 symbols (Table 2.1, dropping the "flower" in A1), confirm the122 years of reign. The 119 symbols of the back side confirm these again. The 17“shields” on the disc each contain 7 burls for a total of 17x7= 119 burls, confirming thenumber of years, once again.Passage A2 on the front side determines the start of the 18th Dynasty, 2 doublegenerations ago. The "flower" and "burin" in passages A1-2 occur 4 times on both sidesof the disc (Table 2.2), confirming the 4 generations. The "messenger" and "scroll of thelaw" occur 6 times on one of the sides or both sides, confirming the 6 Rulers. Passage B2on the back side confirms the start of this Dynasty, 2 double generations ago. The 2“temples” of passage B18 confirm the 2 double generations of the 18th Dynasty. The 2edges of the disc represent 2 turns, again confirming the duration of the period, 2 doublegenerations.PopulationThe front side has 5 turns. So, the edge of it represents Egypt, 5° south of Crete. PassageA21 determined the population at the end of the 18th Dynasty, in 1458 (2.1 million). Theinner part of side A contains 18 passages, symbolizing this Dynasty. So, the previouspassage A17, the last but one of the inner part, will give the population at the start of thisperiod. It has a "messenger", corresponding to an Egyptian population of 1,700,000. Thenext and 2nd passage A18 has a "King", confirming the 2nd number (7), and passageA23 has a "falcon", symbol of God, confirming the number has to be written down in23-16= 7 figures. A23 symbolizes the holy Tropic of Cancer, and the Southern EgyptianEmpire, at 23°N. On midsummer day the Sun is there at right angles above. It is the cen-ter of the Sunreligion.Years of reign: joined series of passagesFor the important 18th Dynasty, recent years of reign are indicated by joined series ofpassages. Passage A13 on the front side shows the 4th King Thutmozes II. The 13preceding passages, the first ones on the Disc, are his last 13 years of reign (all except the
  • 6. first one), from 1519 till 1506. His successor Queen Hatshepsut is represented by the lastpassage 19 of the inner part. The 6 preceding passages are her first 6 years of reign, herregency for the young Thutmozes III, from 1506 till 1500. The “bow and arrow” in A19shows that not everybody was happy with the events during this time period. Hatshepsutis shown as a Queen in passage B3 on the back side. The 12+3= 15 preceding passagesare her last 15 years of reign, from 1500 till 1485. So, Queen Hatshepsut reigned Egyptfor a total of 6+15= 21 years, from 1506 till 1485. King Thutmozes III (Fig.7.1) is shownin B3, besides Hatshepsut, but also in last passage B30. The 27 preceding passages are his27 years of reign, from 1485 till 1458, the date of the Phaistos Disc (Ch.2).On the front side, recent years of reign are shown by joined series of passages a secondtime. Important passage A3 in the first paragraph shows the 6-2= 4th King Tutmoses II.The 3 preceding passages, the first ones on the Disc, are his last 3 years of reign, from1509 till 1506. His successor Queen Hatshepsut is represented by the “King” in passage9. The 6 preceding passages are her first 6 years of reign, her regency for the youngThutmozes III, from 1506 till 1500. The “Death-Palace” in A9 refers to the famousmonument she built in Deir-el-Bahari (Fig.7.2). The “dove” shows that her “peaceful”period of government was appreciated. Hatshepsut is shown as a Queen in passage A24.The 15 preceding passages are her last 15 years of reign, from 1500 till 1485. So, QueenHatshepsut reigned Egypt for a total of 6+15= 21 years. King Thutmozes III is shown inA24, besides Hatshepsut and her “shield”, but also in last passage 31, honouring himtwice. The 7 preceding passages are his first 7 years of reign, from 1485 till 1478.On the front side, Queen Hatshepsut is shown in passage A8, in her 8-3= 5th year ofreign. The "Death-Palace" in next passage A9 represents her Death-Temple in Deir-el-Bahari (Fig.7.2) , on the westbank of the River Nile, which she ordered to build in her9-3= 6th year of government, in 1500. On the back side Queen Hatshepsut is also shownin passage B15, and her temple in passage B21. The 21-15= 6 preceding passagesconfirm the start of the construction of her Death-Temple in her 6th year of reign. Asimilar death-temple is shown in passage B26, encoding the lattitude of Thebes, wherethe temple is located, at 26°N. The "temples" in passages B21 and B26 are situated on theedge or 4th turn, which symbolizes Egypt, 4° south of Crete, at 35-4= 31°N. The frontside of the disc possesses 31 passages and 5 turns, encoding the latitude of the Deir-el-Bahari Temple, at 31-5= 26°N. The back side possesses 30 passages and 4 turns,confirming this temple of Queen Hatshepsut in Thebes, at 30-4= 26°N (Fig.7.2).Passages B4-30 on the back side represent the 27 years of reign of Thutmozes III (Ch.2).We know this King ordered to build many temples. Note, that in agreement with thisstatement these passages show to the tune of 1 palace and 5 temples. Passage B28 showsKing Thutmozes III in the 28-3= 25th anniversary of his accession to the throne, but alsoas a little boy, when Queen Hatshepsut acted as regent.Side B and the edge of side A, the 5th turn, each contain 1 free Queen, which is theprevious or 5th Ruler of this dynasty, Queen Hatshepsut. Because of her so-called “illegalregency” of the last King Thutmozes III, she has not been placed between the Kings ofpassages A27 and A31, where she belongs.- Both inner part and the edge of side B eachcontain 3 Rulers. So it appears, one distinguishes between an old period of three Rulersuntil the death of Thutmozes I in 1520, and a new period of three Rulers after this date,one double generation later, till 1520-62= 1458, which is the date of the disc.
  • 7. Fig.7.2 The mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut in Deir el-Bahari at Thebes, Egypt (c.1500 BC, Courtesy R.H. Wilkinson, Refs.24,69)Years of reign: joined series of symbolsYears of reign are always indicated by series of symbols. These series run from the startof a passage to a “King, Queen, or symbol of God” at the end of a passage. If these seriesare joined, it is indicated by (). It means the years of reign of consecutive Kings areshown in a very nice way.On the front side, the first King Ahmozes I is represented by the symbol of "God" inpassage 7. The 24 preceding symbols are his 24 years of reign, from 1580 till 1556. The
  • 8. first symbol of the series is the "ordinary man" in passage 1, showing this King did notpossess royal blood. So, he is the first King of the new, 18th Dynasty. His successor KingAmenhotep I is shown in passage 12. The 23/26 preceding symbols, ending in A8/A7,are his 23/26 years of reign, from 1556/59 till 1533. His successor King Thutmozes I isshown in important passage 15, at the end of the first half of the front side. The 13 prece-ding symbols, ending in A13, are his 13 years of reign, from 1533 till 1520.His successor King Thutmozes II is represented by the last passage 19’ of the inner part.The 14 preceding symbols, ending in A16’, are his 14 years of reign, from 1520 till 1506.His successor Queen Hatshepsut is shown in passage 24. The 6 preceding symbols,ending in A23, are 6 years of reign, her regency for the young Thutmozes III, from 1506till 1500. Queen Hatshepsut is also shown with her “shield” in the same passage 24. The21 preceding symbols, ending in A20’, are her total of 6+15= 21 years of reign, from1506 till 1485. Her successor, the last King Thutmozes III, is shown in the last passage31. The 27 preceding symbols, ending in A24 with the same King, honouring him twice,are his 27 years of reign, from 1485 till 1458, which is the date of the Phaistos Disc(Table 7.1).ConfirmationYears of reign are confirmed by passages. On the front side, King Ahmozes I is shown inpassage 24, because of his 24 years of reign. King Amenhotep I is shown in passage23/27, because of his 23/27 years of reign. King Thutmozes I is shown in passage 13,because of his 13 years of reign.King Thutmozes II is shown in passages 13/15, because of his 14 years of reign. QueenHatshepsut is symbolized by a “King” in passage 6, because of her first 6 years of reign,her regency for the young Thutmozes III. Queen Hatshepsut is also represented by the"King" in important passage 15, because of her last 15 years of reign. The last KingThutmozes III is shown in passage 27, because of his 27 years of reign. Note, that allyears of reign are confirmed, some recent ones several times (Refs.16-26).DatesThe end of the New Palace Culture on Crete happened c.1450. There is no disagreementon this date among specialists (Refs.10-15). The Phaistos Disc confirms this date with itsmore accurate value of 1458. In addition, it shows that the New Kingdom in Egypt star-ted c.1580 (Table 7.1). This last date is widely accepted as correct by many Egyptolo-gists. However, there are still some scholars who believe in the later date of c.1550(Ref.53). So, the Phaistos Disc may be of great help in improving the absolute dates ofthe Egyptian civilization.TemplesThe symbol of the “temple” is interesting. It may have several meanings. Here, thetemple may represent important periods in Egyptian history. The three poles symbolizethe Archaic Period, the basis of Egyptian civilization. The first floor is the Old Kingdom,and its 4 rooms are meant for the 4 Dynasties of it. The large central horizontal platemight symbolize the First Intermediate Period, when the power of Egypt declined. In thatcase the second floor is the Middle Kingdom, and the 3 rooms are meant for the 3 mostimportant Dynasties 11, 12, and 13. Finally, it appears, that the top floor represents theNew Kingdom.
  • 9. TABLE 7.1LATE EGYPTIAN HISTORYACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC, 1458 BCNEW KINGDOM: 18TH DYNASTYc.1580 Start of 18th Dynasty (c.1580*)(18 passages of inner parts, 123/119 symbols= 122 years)Population 1,700,000, 6 Rulers, 4 generationsEdge side A: 5 Kings and 1 Queenc.1580 Ahmozes I (24)c.1556 Amenhotep I (23/27)c.1533 Thutmozes I (13)c.1520 Thutmozes II (14)c.1506 Hatshepsut, regency (6)c.1500 Death-Palace in Deir-el-Baharic.1500 Hatshepsut (15)c.1485 Thutmozes III (27)c.1458 Population 2,100,0000.5 million in Upper Egypt, 1.6 million in Lower EgyptEgyptian Fleet: c.2,939 seaworthy shipsPyramids: c.25, Temples: c.77Schools: c.2,156; lower schools: c.1,718, higher schools: c.438c.1458 End of New Palace Culture on Crete (c.1450*)* according to archaeological research(..) years of reign; the names of the Pharaohs are not mentioned on the disc.7.3 SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD13th-17th DynastiesThe edge of the front side contains 12+1= 13 passages, corresponding to the 13th Dynas-ty. The inner part contains 7 paragraphs, and the inner part of the other side has 6 para-graphs, together confirming the 7+6= 13th Dynasty (Table 2.1). This dynasty is the long-est of the 2nd Intermediate Period (SIP). Side A contains 7+4= 11 paragraphs, and theedge of side B has 3 paragraphs, together encoding the 11+3= 14th Dynasty.The edge of side B contains 12 passages, and the inner part of it has 3 turns, togetherencoding the 12+3= 15th or Hyksos Dynasty. This was the most important foreign dynas-ty. When combining the last two symbols of passage B3 to 1 “King” (the son of the vir-gin), the 6 Rulers of this Dynasty are shown. On the edge of the front side these 6 Rulersare confirmed.Side B contains 6+3= 9 paragraphs, and the inner part of side A has 7 paragraphs, toge-ther encoding the 9+7= 16th Dynasty. Side A contains 11 paragraphs, and the inner partof side B has 6 paragraphs, together encoding the 11+6= 17th Dynasty (Refs.16-26).All five dynasties together form the Second Intermediate Period (SIP) or Hyksos Time,which lasted officially 206 years, from 1786 to 1580 BC. It was a chaotic time periodbetween the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. On the front side, passages A8 andA9 represent the 2 important time periods within the SIP, which should be called the
  • 10. Early SIP and the Late SIP. Passages A7 and A10, both with the "falcon", symbol ofGod, are used for separation of the series.On both sides, passage 18 was symbolic for the present, 18th Dynasty. So, passages13-17 are symbolic for the 13th-17th Dynasties. On the front side, passage A13 is moreimportant than A14, and passage A15 is more important than A16 and A17 (Ch.5),illustrating the relative importance of the corresponding Dynasties. Important passageA15 represents the 15th or Hyksos Dynasty. When reading the text on the back side(Ch.5), again two groups can be identified: passages B13-14, and passages B15-17,confirming the Early and the Late SIP. Note the thick separation-line at the end ofpassage A16 on the front side. It illustrates that it was the 17th Dynasty (A17), whichleaded to the present 18th Dynasty (A18).Duration of the SIPOn the back side, the 8 passages B5-12 of paragraphs 2-5 encode the duration of theperiod, 8 generations or 8x30.5= 244 years, which turns out to be from 1794 to 1550, aswill be explained. The "cat" in 4 of these passages occurs 8 times on the back side,confirming the 4x2= 8 generations. Side B has 4 turns, confirming the duration of theSIP, 4 double generations, or 8 generations. The inner part of side A has also 4 turns,confirming it. On the front side the 8 passages A5-12 of paragraphs 2-4 confirm theduration, 8 generations. The 242 symbols of the disc confirm the number of years.Neighboring passages A6 and A2 on the front side determine the duration of the SIP,between 6 and 2 double generations ago. Note that these passages have a group of twosymbols, the "messenger" and the "scroll of the law", in common. In passages A3-6involved, the "King", "corpse", and "shield" occur 14, 15, and 17 times on one of thesides or on both sides, confirming the corresponding Dynasties (Table 2.2). The "shield"and the "corpse" in passages A3-6 occur 8 times on the inner part of side A, confirmingthe 8 generations. Neighboring passages B6 and B2 on the back side confirm the durationof the SIP, between 6 and 2 double generations ago. Note that these groups have the"hammer" in common.Duration of dynastiesThe edge of side A, and especially the 13th passage of it (A19), symbolizes the 13thDynasty, which formed the start of this less important time periode. The weak indicationshows Egypt felt into decay. The once proud nation was ruled by folks from strangecountries in the east. The symbols of “bow” and “arrow” in passage A19 mean theHyksos imported these weapons into Egypt, where they worshipped the wargod Baal.According to some experts, the bow is of Asian origin (Refs.1-3).On the back side, the paragraph-line of B5 runs till the edge of passage B13, and a groupof 4 symbols of B5 equals passage B13. So, B5 is the start of the 13th Dynasty. B6 andB9 also have 4 symbols, so one of these marks the end of the 13th Dynasty. B5 has 5symbols, corresponding to 5 passages, so we choose for B9. So, paragraphs 2 and 3 have5 passages, encoding the duration of the 13th Dynasty, 5 generations.B7, at the start of the new paragraph, is the start of the next, or 14th Dynasty. B9 has 4symbols, just like passage B14, so B9 marks the end of the 14th Dynasty. B7 has 3symbols, corresponding to 3 passages. So, paragraph 3 has 3 passages, encoding theduration of the 14th Dynasty, 3 generations. This dynasty ruled contemporarily with theprevious Dynasty.
  • 11. B10, at the start of the new paragraph, is the start of the 15th or Hyksos Dynasty. Thepassage has 5 symbols, just like B15, corresponding to 5 passages. Apparently thedynasty ruled till the end of the SIP, which is confirmed in the literature. So, paragraphs4 and 5 have 3 passages, encoding the duration of the 15th or Hyksos Dynasty, 3generations.The paragraph-line of B10 points to a “messenger” below it, also present in B16. So, B10will also be at the start of the 16th Dynasty. B16 has 3 symbols, corresponding to 3passages. Apparently this dynasty also ruled till the end of the SIP. So, paragraphs 4 and5 have 3 passages, encoding the duration of the 16th Dynasty, 3 generations. It appears,that this dynasty ruled simultaneously with the 15th or Hyksos Dynasty.Finally, B11, at the start of the paragraph, is the start of the next, or 17th Dynasty. Thepassage has 3 symbols, just like B17, corresponding to 3 passages. Apparently thisdynasty also ruled till the end of the SIP. So, paragraph 5 has 2 passages, encoding theduration of the 17th Dynasty, 2 generations. It appears that the 17th Dynastie ruledcontemporarily with both the 15th and 16th Dynasty. It may be noted, that the PhaistosDisc is probably the most reliable source of information for the duration of the dynastieswithin the SIP (Refs.16-26).When reading the text of the passages involved (Ch.5), two groups can be identified:passages B5-9 and B10-12, corresponding with 5 and 3 generations, repectively. These 2groups confirm the 2 important time periods within the SIP, the Early SIP and the LateSIP.Correction of the durationPassage B12 on the back side symbolizes a generation where the Hyksos influence inEgypt continued during the 18th Dynasty. Earlier we argued that passages B5-12encoded the duration of the SIP, 8 generations or 8x30.5= 244 years, so from from 1794to 1550. It is more correct to state that the duration is defined by passages B5-11, so by 7genera-tions or 7x30.5= 214 years, so from 1794 to 1580. The 18th Dynasty started in1580.Comet CatastrophePassage A3 on the front side contains two “corpses”. This means, that 3 double genera-tions ago, a major disaster happened. This is between 1458+3x61= 1641, and 1641-61=1580 (see Ch.6). The two corpses are placed upside down, which is unusual. The lastcorpse touches the first one with its leg, and points to passage A9. The first corpse pointsto the “Queen” in B8. Passage A9 has two corpses, indicating a possible number of90,000 casualties in Egypt, because a factor 10 less or more would be in both casesunprobable. The King in A13, above the “Queen” in A24, confirms the number has to bewritten down in 13-8= 5 figures. Previously, A13 provided the date of the event (seeCh.6). The cock’s comb of the King in A3 touches the end of the passage, which pointsto the second “corpse” in A9. This is the 5th symbol of the passage, confirming the 5figures. The mentioned number is 18% of the casualties wordwide, and about c.6.7% ofthe population of Egypt at that time.The Catastrophe happened 3 double generations ago, which is 5 or 6 generations ago.The “boat” of passage A12 (see Ch.6) points to A6, indicating the calamity occurred 6generations ago, between 1641 and 1641-31= 1610. This is correct, because it happened
  • 12. in 1628 (Ch.6). Passage B9 on the back side has a “corpse”, confirming the c.90,000casualties in Egypt. B13 has an upside-down “Cat-god”, confirming the number shouldbe written down in 13-8= 5 figures. In addition, the paragraph-line of this passage pointsto the “messenger” in B23, indicating number of people. Passage B13 also has a “cover”or “head of a comet”, indicating the possible cause of the disaster (Refs.24-32). Thiscalamity was the reason of the end of the 13th and 14th Dynasties (B9), and the start ofthe 15th or Hyksos Dynasty (B10). It marks the end of the Early SIP, and the beginningof the Late SIP. Note, that this natural disaster happened in 1628, which was during thefirst generation of the Hyksos Dynasty, from 1641 to 1610 (Refs.43-52).PopulationPassage A17 on the front side determined the population at the end of the SIP (the 17thDynasty, 1.7 million). So, the previous and identical passage A11 will give thepopulation at the start of this period. It has a "messenger", corresponding to an Egyptianpopulation of 1,100,000. The next or 2nd passage A12 with the "King" confirms the 2ndnumber (1), and passage A17 is the identical passage just mentioned, confirming thenumber has to be written down in 17-10= 7 figures (Table 7.2).TABLE 7.2LATE EGYPTIAN HISTORYACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC, 1458 BCSECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIODc.1794 Start of SIP, 7 (8) generations (c.1786*) Population 1,100,000EARLY SIP (5 generations)c.1794 Start of Early SIP (A8)c.1794 13th Dynasty, 5 generations (edge side A)c.1732 14th Dynasty, 3 generationsc.1702 Start of New Palace Culture on Crete (c.1700 BC*)c.1641 (End of reign)LATE SIP (2 generations)c.1641 Start of Late SIP (A9)c.1641 15th Dynasty, 2 (3) generations, Hyksos Dynasty, "Great Hyksos"c.1641 16th Dynasty, 2 (3) generations, "Small Hyksos"c.1628 Comet Catastrophe (floodings during 10 days): c.90,000 casualties in Egypt (6.7%), (c.510 thousand worldwide)c.1611 17th Dynasty, 1 (2) generation(s)c.1580 Start of 18th Dynasty (c.1550, End of SIP)c.1580 18th Dynasty, population: 1,700,000 (c.1580*)* according to archaeological research7.4 MIDDLE KINGDOM: 12TH DYNASTYThe edges of the disc each possess 12 passages, both representing the important 12thDynasty, which lasted officially 214 years, which is from 2000 to 1786 (Figs.7.5 and7.6). The three equal passages 10, 13, and 16 on the front side, with the symbols for the"power of God", contain together 3x4= 12 signs, confirming the 12th Dynasty. The sign
  • 13. of the "mummy", symbolizing death, contains 12 bandages, confirming it again. The“papyrus” has 6 buds and 6 leaves, once again confirming the 6+6= 12th Dynasty.Passage A12 on the front side represents the 12th Dynasty. The "carpenters square" in thepassage occurs 12 times on the disc, confirming it (Table 2.2). Passage B12 on the backside represents the 12th Dynasty, too. It contains the "glove" and the "scroll of the law",because the 12th Dynasty was a time of law and order.KingsThe edges, which represent the 12th Dynasty, contain together 4+3= 7 paragraphs, enco-ding the 7 Kings, Amenemhet I-IV and Sesostris I-III. The 4+3= 7 Rulers on inner partand the edge of the back side, confirm these 7 Kings. On the front side, the 7 passages11,12 and 14,15 and 17,18,19 represent the 2+2+3= 7 Kings of the 12th Dynasty.Passages A13 and A16 with the "falcon", symbol of God, are used for separation. TheKings were Amenemhet I, Sesostris I; and Amenemhet II, Sesostris II; and Sesostris III,Amenemhet III and IV, respectively. The 4+3= 7 central rooms of the "temple" confirmthese 7 Kings. The “shield” has 7 burls, confirming them again.Actually, there were 7 Kings and 1 Queen, or 8 Rulers, during this time period. However,the last Queen, who only ruled for a few years at the end of the dynasty, was consideredunimportant. Passages A11 and A12, which represent the first two Kings, containtogether 2+6= 8 symbols, representing these 8 Rulers. Note, that last passage A12 alsorepresents the 12th Dynasty. A18 and A19 symbolize the last two Kings. These passagesalso contain together 6+2= 8 symbols, again confirming the 8 Rulers of the 12th Dynasty.CrisisOn the back side, passages B11-18 encode the duration of the period, 8 generations, or8x30.5= 244 years, according to the disc from 2007 till 1763, as will be explained. Lastpassage B18 is at the end of the inner part. The 242 symbols of the disc confirm thenumber of years. Passages A11-18 on the front side confirm the 8 generations. Lastpassage A18 is at the end of the inner part, again.However, passage B11 on the back side symbolizes a generation where the Hyksosinfluence in Egypt started, just after the end of the 12th Dynasty. It contains the group ofsymbols “cover, waterway”, which means “take care for the course of the law” (Ch.5).So, serious political mistakes were responsible for the end of the 12th Dynasty. PassageA11 on the front side represents the same generation, when the chaos started. It has thecombination “messenger, hoof”, which means, “spread it with great drive”. It emphasizesthe message of B11 at the other side.Passage A29 on the front side is equal to passage B11. It confirms the political mistakesat the end of the 12th Dynasty. So, A29 does not belong to the great period of the MiddleKingdom. As a consequence, the other 13-1= 12 passages on the edge of this side nowsymbolize the 12th Dynasty.DurationWe just argued that passages B11-18 encoded the duration of the period, 8 generations.However, it is more correct to state that the duration of the 12th Dynasty is defined bypassages B12-18, so by 18-11= 7 generations or 7x30.5= 214 years. This is from 2007 to1793, which is until the start of the 2nd Intermediate Period. The 7 Kings, mentionedearlier, symbolize these 7 generations. The edge on the front side contains 7 "shields"
  • 14. with 7 burls, confirming it.On both sides, the precise duration of the 12th Dynasty is determined by importantpassage 12. On the front side passages A12 and A18 are equal. These confirm theduration of this Dynasty, 18-11= 7 generations. These passages are equal, because thepresent 18th Dynasty is based upon the former 12th Dynasty. Both passages containtogether 6+6= 12 symbols, confirming the 12th Dynasty. The passages start with the"carpenters square". The 12 "squares" on the disc confirm the 12th Dynasty, and theyconfirm the statement that this 12th Dynasty "resulted in" or “leaded to” the present 18thDynasty.Passages A18 and B18 at the end of the inner parts symbolize the simultaneous start ofthe Old Palace Culture on Crete and the 12th Dynasty in Egypt, 18 generations ago, in1458+18x30.5= 2007. The “temples” or palaces in B18 confirm it. For that reason thegrand staircase of the Palace of Phaistos has 12 steps, commemorating the 12th Dynasty(see Fig.6.2). As a consequence this Egyptian Period is indicated on the Phaistos Disc ina prominent way. It was an important time period for Crete, as well as for Egypt(Refs.7-15,16-30).Passage B12 on the back side symbolizes the last generation of the 12th Dynasty, whenthe power of the Rulers strongly declined. This was during the reigns of King Ame-nemhet IV and Queen Neferusobek. For that reason B13 is the first passage of paragraph6, having 6 passages corresponding with the 6 generations of the 6 first, strong Kings ofthis Dynasty. On the front side the new paragraph also starts at passage A13, confirmingit.Passages A9 and A6 on the front side have a group of two symbols, the "shield" and the"King", in common. These two passages show the main part of the 12th Dynasty lastedbetween 9 and 6 double generations ago. Passages B9 and B6 on the back side have the"hammer" in common. These two passages confirm the main part of the 12th Dynastywas between 9 and 6 double generations ago.PopulationPassage A11 of the front side determined the population at the end of the important 12thDynasty (1.1 million). So, previous passage A6 having a "messenger" will give thepopulation at the start of it. It corresponds to an Egyptian population of 600,000 men.Passage A6 itself, with a "King", confirms the first number (6), and passage A11 with the"messenger", just mentioned, confirms the number has to be written down in 11-5= 6figures (Tables 7.3 & 7.6).
  • 15. Fig.7.3 Hieroglyphics from the White Chapel at Karnac, Egypt, of the 2nd King Sesostris I (c.1978-1942) of the Twelfth Dynasty (Sandstone, Courtesy P. Johnson, Ref.67)Comet CatastrophePassage A15 on the front side represents the fourth king Sesostris II (1905-1886). Thepassage has two “corpses”, which means a Catastrophe happened during his reign. Thesecorpses touch each other. It means the number of casualties is indicated by twosuccessive passages with corpses. These have to be the neighboring passages A25 andA26 on the edge. The edge has twelve passages, confirming the 12th Dynasty.Passage A26 has the combination of “cover, waterway, corpse”, which suggests 260thousand casualties because of the Tail of a Comet (6.2%). The next passage has a“shield, king”, confirming the second number (6), and A31, at the end of the side, alsohas a “shield, king”, confirming the number has to be written down in 31-25= 6 figures.Passage B26 on the back side has a “shield, mummy”, confirming the c.260 thousandcasualties, worldwide. The Egyptian mummy has 12 bandages, confirming the 12thDynasty. The next passage has a “corpse”, confirming the second number (6), and A19also has a “corpse”, confirming the number has to be written down in 30-25+1= 6 figures(world population: c.4.2 million men). Passage A19 confirms the 19 years of reign of theking.Passage A31 on the front side has a “square, messenger, scroll of the law”, also present inpassage B23 on the back side, together with a “Comet”. It encodes 30+23= 53,000casualties in Egypt (6.2%). The next passage also has a “messenger, scroll”, confirmingthe second number (3), and B27 has a “corpse”, again, confirming the number has to bewritten down in 27-22= 5 figures. Passage A22 on the front side has a “shield, king”,confirming the 31+22= c.53,000 casualties in Egypt. The next passage has the symbols
  • 16. for the “power of God”, confirming the second number (3), and A26 has the combination“cover, waterway, corpse”, again, confirming the number has to be written down in26-21= 5 figures (population of Egypt: c.850 thousand men). This last passage indicatedthe number of casualties, worldwide.The combination of “cover, waterway, corpse” in A26 is also present in B29, the 11thpassage on the edge (E11). It encodes the duration of the Catastrophe, 11 days of forestfires, rains, and floodings. Next passage B30, at the end of the side, has a “cover” and a“shield, king”, confirming the second number (1). Passage A29 (E11) on the front sidehas a “cover, waterway”, confirming the duration. The identical passage B11 on the backside confirms the duration, again. Next passage B12 confirms the second number (1), aswell as the 12th Dynasty. The paragraph line of B11 points to the 12 passages on theedge, confirming it. Passage A11 on the front side has a “messenger”, encoding the worldpopulation at the time of the Disaster, 31+11= c.4.2 million men. Next passage A12 has a“corpse” and a “king”, confirming the second number (2), and the identical passage A17confirms the number has to be written down in 17-10= 7 figures.Passage A15 on the front side represents the fourth king Sesostris II (1905-1886). Hereigned 15 generations ago, which is between 1458+(15x30.5)= 1915, and 1915-30=1885. It was a second government generation, which is shown on the back side of thedisc. His 19 years of reign are indicated between B11 and B30. B8 shows the kingreigned 8 double generations ago. The “square” in the passage touches the “Comet”.Passage B17, with the palace of Phaistos, has a “square”, too. It suggests the Catastrophehappened in his 17-11= 6th year of reign, which is the year of 1899.Not only passages, but also symbols may indicate years. Starting from the year of 1457+242+119= 1818, the front side is now of importance. Counting the years will continue atthe end of the side, going backwards. The 19 years of reign of the king are shownbetween the “horn” of A10 and the “papyrus” of A15, the passage of Sesostris II, wherethis story started. The first symbol of A12, representing the 12th Dynasty, is the “square”,again, representing the 6th year of reign of the king, which confirms the year of 1899.King Sesostris II had a great admiration for King Djoser of the 3rd Dynasty, because thisking also had to deal with a Catastrophe during his reign.Passage B19 on the back side, with a “boat, corpse”, was the last one of the seriesB26-19. It provides the number of casualties on Crete, c.1,900 men (6.1%). The nextpassage has a “king”, confirming the second number (9), and B22 also has a “boat”,confirming the number has to be written down in 22-18= 4 figures. The “scraper” with 27dots refers to B27, having a “corpse”, again. Passage A31 on the front side, with a“shield, king”, was the last one of the series A26-31. It encodes the population of Crete atthe time of the Disaster, c.31,000 men. The next passage, the last one of the inner part,confirms the second number (1), and A22 has a “shield, king”, confirming the numbershould be written down in 22-18+1= 5 figures. A19 confirms the c.1,900 victims ofCrete, again. (Refs.58-61)Years of reign: joined series of symbolsYears of reign are indicated by series of symbols. If these series are joined, it is indicatedby (). On the front side, King Amenemhet I, the first King of the 12th Dynasty, isrepresented by the “Queen” in passage 8. The 29 preceding symbols, the first ones on thedisc, are his 29 years of reign, according to the disc from 2007 till 1978. His successor,King Sesostris I (Fig.7.3) is shown in passage 16. The 36 preceding symbols, ending in
  • 17. A9, are his 36 years of reign, from 1978 till 1942. According to the disc there is now ashort interval, in view of the literature during 3 years, shown by passages 17-19(Refs.14-26).His successor King Amenemhet II is shown in passage 27. The 34 preceding symbols,the first ones on the edge, ending in A20, are his 34 years of reign, from 1939 till 1905.His successor King Sesostris II is shown in passage 20. The 19 preceding symbols on theedge, dropping passage 19 and ending in A28, are his 19 years of reign, from 1905 till1886. Note, that his 6th year of reign is in A29 (E11), which encoded the duration of theComet Catastrophe. According to the disc there is now a short interval, in view of theliterature during 1 year, shown by passage 19.On the front side, King Sesostris III is shown in passage 9. The 36 preceding symbols,the first ones on the disc, are his 36 years of reign, from 1885 till 1849. His successor,King Amenemhet III (Fig.7.4) is shown in passage 20. The 44 preceding symbols, endingin A10, are his 44 years of reign, from 1849 till 1805.His successor, King Amenemhet IV, is shown in passage 22. The 9 preceding symbols,ending in A21, are his 9 years of reign, from 1805 till 1796. His successor, QueenNeferusobek, is represented by the symbol of God in passage 23, and shown in passage24. In both cases, the 3 preceding symbols are her 3 years of reign, from 1796 till 1793.ConfirmationThese years of reign are confirmed by passages on the front side. King Amenemhet I, thefirst King of the 12th Dynasty, is represented by the edge and by God in passage 16,because of his 13+16= 29 years of reign. His successor, King Sesostris I (Fig.7.3) isshown in passage 6, because of his 30+6= 36 years of reign. The short interval is shownby important passage 3, because of its duration of 3 years.The next King Amenemhet II is shown in the same passage 3, because of his 31+3= 34years of reign. His successor King Sesostris II is shown by the edge and in passage 6,because of his 13+6= 19 years of reign. Last passage 19 of the inner part confirms thenumber of years. The short interval is shown by passage 1, because of its duration of 1year.On the front side, his successor King Sesostris III is shown in passage 6, because of his30+6= 36 years of reign. His successor King Amenemhet III (Fig.7.4) is shown by theedge and in passage 31, because of his 13+31= 44 years of reign. His successor, KingAmenemhet IV, is shown in passage 9, because of his 9 years of reign. His successor,Queen Neferusobek, is represented by the King in passage 3, because of her 3 years ofreign.Overlap in reignHowever, in the 12th Dynasty there was a lot of overlap in government. Kings were oftenco-ruler. This is shown on the back side. King Amenemhet I, the first King of the 12thDynasty, is represented by the Royal Son in passage 28. The 29 preceding symbols,ending in B21, are his 29 years of reign, from 2007 till 1978. His successor, KingSesostris I (Fig.7.3) is shown in passage 14, and represented by the Royal Son in passage28. The 44/46 preceding symbols, ending in B3/B29, are his 45 years of reign, from1987 till 1942.
  • 18. His successor King Amenemhet II is represented by the Royal Son in passage 28. The 37preceding symbols, ending in B19, are his 37 years of reign, from 1942 till 1905. Hissuccessor King Sesostris II is shown in passage 20. The 19 preceding symbols, ending inB15, are his 19 years of reign, from 1905 till 1886. Note, that his 6th year of reign is inB17, which encoded the date of the Comet Catastrophe. According to the disc there isnow a short interval, in view of the literature during 1 year, shown by the "King" inpassage B3.The next King Sesostris III is represented by the Royal Son in passage 28. The 37preceding symbols, the first ones on the edge, are his 37 years of reign, from 1885 till1848. His successor, King Amenemhet III (Fig.7.4), is shown in the same passage 28,also as the Royal Son. The 46 preceding symbols, ending in B29, are his 46 years ofreign, from 1849 till 1803, or may be from 1850 till 1804.The King in passage 20 may represent his successor, King Amenemhet IV. The 8preceding symbols, the first ones on the edge, may represent his 8 years of reign, assometimes reported. However, probably King Amenemhet IV is shown in the lastpassage 30. The 9 preceding symbols confirm his 9 years of reign, from 1805 till 1796.His successor Queen Neferusobek is represented by the King in passage 28. The 3preceding symbols confirm her 3 years of reign, from 1796 till 1793. She was the lastRuler of the 12th Dynasty.
  • 19. Fig.7.4 Bronze statue of the 6th King Amenemhet III of the Twelfth Dynasty (c.1849-1805) (Courtesy P. Johnson, Ref.67)The Egyptian FleetIn 1458, 18th Dynasty, Egypt had a population of 2.1 million men and a fleet of c.2,939seaworthy ships. At the end of the 12th Dynasty the population was only 1.1 million men.So, we may expect that at this moment, around the year of 1794, the Egyptian fleetcontained an estimated number of (1.1/2.1)x2,939= c.1,539 ships (Refs.27-30). However,this estimation is too high, because it was 1794-1458= 336 years earlier in the time!In 2370, at the end of the 5th Dynasty, Egypt had a population of 370 thousand men, anda fleet of c.300 seaworthy ships (see Ch.8). At the end of the 12th Dynasty, thepopulation was 1.1 million men. So, we may expect that around the year of 1794, theEgyptian fleet contained an estimated number of (110/37)x300= c.892 ships. However,this estimation is far too low, because it was 2370-1794= 576 years later in the time! So,the best estimation appears to be: (576x1,539)+(336x892) / (576+336)= c.1,301 seawor-thy ships.Let us now look at the disc. Passage A12 on the front side represents the 12th Dynasty. Italso has a “boat”. So, it will be at the start of a series of 4 passages, encoding 1,200 ships.The next or 2nd passage has a King, confirming the 2nd number (2), and the lastimportant passage A15 has a King, showing that the number has to be written down in15-11= 4 figures. Passage A18 has a boat, too. It will form a series of 3 passages,corresponding to 180 ships. Last passage A20 on the edge has a King, showing thenumber has to be written down in 20-17= 3 figures. So, added up, it appears that Egypthad a fleet of 1,200+180= c.1,380 seaworthy ships, which is slightly more than expected.The edge of the back side is the 4th turn. It symbolizes the northern Nile Delta, 4° southof Crete, at 35-4= 31°N. It also has 12 passages representing the 12th Dynasty. So, it willshow the size of the fleet, too. Again, the passages will be counted along the edge (seeCh.4). Passage E1 has a “boat”, encoding 1,000 seaworthy ships. It forms a series of 4passages, finishing with another boat, a papyrus, and a Nile symbol in E4, showing thenumber has to be written down in 4 figures. E4 itself encodes 400 ships. It forms a seriesof 3 passages, finishing at the end of the paragraph. E9 encodes 9 boats at the end ofanother paragraph. So, it is confirmed, that in that time period Egypt had a fleet with atotal number of 1,000+400+9= c.1,409 seaworthy ships.Pyramids and TemplesPassage B25 on the back side has the only sign of a “pyramid”. It still encodes c.25pyramids in Egypt.- The edge of the disc symbolizes the country during the 12thDynasty. Passage B26 still encodes 26 Egyptian temples (see above, 18th Dynasty). B21corresponds with another 21 temples. A30 on the front side has a “temple”, too. It willform 1 passage till the end of the paragraph. So, it only encodes 3 temples. Added up, theedges give evidence of 26+21+3= c.50 Egyptian temples at the end of the 12th Dynasty(c.1794). This number appears to be in agreement with the literature (Refs.14-26)The inner parts of the disc have “temples and palaces”, which might confirm the totalnumber. Passage B18 forms a series of 2 passages, finishing with B19, the first passageon the edge. B19, after B30, symbolizes the northern Nile Delta, at 30+1= 31°N. The firsttemple of B18 encodes 18 Egyptian temples (see above). However, the second templewill now form a series which finishes at the end of the inner part. So, it only forms 1
  • 20. passage. The 2nd number (8) is not confirmed. So, it only represents 1 temple. The“palace” in B17 corresponds with another 17 temples. B6 at the end of the paragraphcorresponds with 6 temples. Finally, the “palace” of A9 on the front side is also at the endof the paragraph. It encodes 9 temples. Added up, the inner parts confirm a total numberof 18+1+17+6+9= c.51 Egyptian temples.The symbol of the “temple” is intriguing. The 3 poles appear to represent the 3 importantDynasties 3-5 of the Old Kingdom. The large horizontal plate may mark the start of theMiddle Kingdom, simultaneously with the Old Palace Culture on Crete, around the yearof 2007. The 7 rooms are for the 7 Kings of the 12th Dynasty. The top level is for thepresent, 18th Dynasty.SchoolsIn 1458 Egypt had c.2,156 schools. Because of the lower population, the country willnow have an estimated number of (1.1/2.1)x2,156= c.1,129 schools. The temples and pa-laces on the disc may also represent schools.- The edges of the disc represent Egypt at theend of the 12th Dynasty. These passages will be counted along the edge, again. PassageE11 on the front side has a “temple” or “school”. It may encode c.1,100 schools. E11 willform a series of 4 passages. The next or 2nd passage E12 has a King, confirming the 2ndnumber (1), and the last passage E1 has a King, too, showing the number has to bewritten down in 13-10+1= 4 figures.Passage E3 on the back side corresponds with 300 schools. The “school” in E3 forms aseries of 3 passages, finishing with the “messenger”, now a child, showing the numberhas to be written down in 3 figures. Passage E8 encodes another 800 schools. The“school” forms a series of 3 passages, again, finishing with the King, showing thenumber has to be written down in 3 figures. So, the edge confirms that at the end of the12th Dynasty, Egypt had a total of 300+800= c.1,100 schools. If the ratio “lower vs.higher schools” is the same as in the year of 1458 (18th Dynasty), there were(172/216)x1,100= c.877 “lower schools”, and (44/216)x1,100= c.223 “higher schools”.TABLE 7.3LATE EGYPTIAN HISTORYACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC, 1458 BCMIDDLE KINGDOM: 12TH DYNASTYc.2007 Start 12th Dynasty (12 passages of edges, c.2000*) Population: 600,000, 2+2+3= 7 Kings, 7 generations Start of Old Palace Culture on Cretec.2007 Amenemhet I (29)(A11)c.1978 Sesostris I (36)(A12)c.1942 (3 years)c.1939 Amenemhet II (34)(A14)c.1905 Sesostris II (19)(A15)c.1899 Comet Catastrophe, c.260,000 casualties (6.2%), world population c.4.2 million c.53,000 victims in Egypt, population c.850 thousand (floodings during 11 days)c.1886 (1 year)c.1885 Sesostris III (36)(A17)c.1849 Amenemhet III (44)(A18)
  • 21. c.1805 Amenemhet IV (9)(A19)c.1796 Neferusobek (Queen) (3)Egyptian Fleet: c.1,395 seaworthy shipsPyramids: c.25, Temples: c.50Schools: c.1,100; lower schools: c.877, higher schools: c.223c.1793 End of dynasty, because of failures in the course of the lawc.1794 Start of SIP, population: 1,100,000 (c.1786*)* according to archaeological research(..) years of reign Fig.7.5 Front side A of the Phaistos Disc (Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.1)
  • 22. Fig.7.6 Back side B of the Phaistos Disc (Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.1)7.5 FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD7th-11th DynastiesDuring this time period the country was divided in Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. Theinner part of side A contains 7 paragraphs, corresponding to the short, 7th Dynasty. Bothedges contain together 4+3= 7 paragraphs, confirming it. Passage B11 at the back sidehas a paragraph-line pointing to the edge. As a result, both edges also contain together4+4= 8 paragraphs, corresponding to the short, 8th Dynasty. The seat of this dynasty wasin Lower Egypt. As a consequence, the previous, 7th Dynasty must have been based inUpper Egypt. In total, side B possesses 9 paragraphs, representing the long, 9th Dynasty.It is known, that its seat was in Lower Egypt. Because of B11, it also contains 10 para-graphs, encoding the short, 10th Dynasty. The inner part of side A has 7 paragraphs, andthe edge of side B has 3 paragraphs, together 7+3= 10 paragraphs, confirming it. Thisdynasty must have been based in Upper Egypt. These almost hidden indications point toa low status of all these dynasties.In total, side B possesses 9 paragraphs, representing the long, 9th Dynasty. It is known,
  • 23. that its seat was in Lower EgyptThe whole FIP, including the long, 11th Dynasty, is considered as a chaotic time period.When dropping passage A19 at the end of the inner part, as well as passage A23 with thesymbols for the "power of God", the edge of the front side has 13-2= 11 passages, repre-senting the more important 11th Dynasty. This side has a total of 11 paragraphs, confir-ming it. The first three passages with the symbols for the "power of God", A7, A10, andA13, contain together 11 symbols, confirming it again. It is known, that the 11th Dynastywas based in Upper Egypt. All these dynasties ruled during the Late Pre-Palatial Periodon Crete (Ch.6). As a consequence, they are indicated less prominently than the previ-ously discussed, 12th Dynasty.Duration of the FIPThe 6 passages B19-24 on the back side encode the duration of the First IntermediatePeriod (FIP), 6 generations or 6x30.5= 183 years, according to the disc from 2007+183=2190 till 2007, which is until the start of the 12th Dynasty. These are the passages of pa-ragraph 7, symbolizing the 7th Dynasty of Upper Egypt, the first one of the FIP. On thefront side, passages A19-24 confirm the duration of the FIP, 6 generations. These pas-sages form the 8th paragraph, symbolizing the 8th Dynasty of Lower Egypt, the secondone of the FIP.Passages A12 and A9 on the front side also determine the FIP, between 12 and 9 doublegenerations ago. In the passages A10-12 involved, the "horn", "messenger", "square", and"hammer" occur 6 times on one of the sides or both sides, confirming the duration of theFIP, 6 generations. Passages B12 and B9 on the back side confirm the FIP between 12and 9 double generations ago. In passages B10-12 involved the "waterway" and the"scroll of the law" occur 6 times on the disc, confirming the 6 generations, or 183 years,of the FIP.Note, that the Phaistos Disc is the only reliable source of information for the length of theFIP. In the literature, there is no consensis about this subject. Estimations range from 169years to 263 years (Refs.1-6,14-26).Early and Late FIPPassage B11 on the back side symbolizes the long 11th Dynasty, which is the last one ofthe FIP. Its paragraph-line points to the end of passages B19 and B20, encoding theduration of the Early FIP, 2 generations or 2x30.5= 61 years, from 2190 to 2129. Theparagraph-line also points to the start of passages B21-24, showing the duration of theLate FIP, 4 generations or 4x30.5= 122 years, from 2129 to 2007.The paragraph-line of passage A11 on the front side, also symbolizing the 11th Dynasty,points to passages A19-22, confirming the duration of the Late FIP, 4 generations. Passa-ge A23 with the symbols for the "power of God" is used for separation. A23 and A24confirm the duration of the Early FIP, 2 generations. Note, that according to the PhaistosDisc, the 11th Dynasty is included in the FIP.DynastiesOn the front side, passages A7-11 symbolize the 7th-11th Dynasties. The signs for the"power of God" in passage A7 are also found in A23. It contains the “branch”, symbol ofUpper Egypt, which confirms the seat of it. It appears, the short 7th Dynasty was impor-tant in the 1st generation of the Early FIP. The symbol sequence "lid, square, Queen" in
  • 24. passage A8 is also found in A24 (Ch.2). So, the 8th Dynasty of Lower Egypt was impor-tant in the Early FIP, too.The symbol sequence "shield, King" in passage A9 is also found in A24, A20, and A22.So, the long 9th Dynasty of Lower Egypt was important in the 2nd generation of theEarly FIP, as well as in the whole Late FIP. It appears, that the previous, short 8thDynasty, also of Lower Egypt, was only important in the first generation of the EarlyFIP.The signs for the "power of God" and for the "shield, King" in passage A10 are found inA23 and A24, respectively. So, the short 10th Dynasty of Upper Egypt was only impor-tant in the Early FIP. It was founded after the start of the 9th Dynasty, of course. So, itappears, it was important in the 2nd generation of the Early FIP.- On the back side,passages B7-11 also symbolize the 7th-11th Dynasties.7.5.1 EARLY FIPNote, that the order of Early and Late FIP on both sides is different. However, the historyof Egypt starts in the center of the disc. This means the order on side A is correct, and onside B is wrong. It means, that passages B19-22 on the back side also symbolize the LateFIP, of 4 generations, and that passages B23-24 also represent the Early FIP, of 2 gene-rations. On the other hand, it may also be reversed on side A. Passages A19-20 may sym-bolize the Early FIP, and passages A21-24 may represent the Late FIP.Passages A12 and A11 on the front side determine the Early FIP between 12 and 11double generations ago, which is between 2190 and 2129. The “burin” in passage A12re-fers to the important literature from this time period. Passages B12 and B11 on theback side confirm the Early FIP, between 12 and 11 double generations ago.PopulationThe 2 passages B23-24 on the back side correspond to the duration of the Early FIP, 2generations. B23 has a "messenger", encoding a population of 230,000 men at the start ofthe FIP. Next passage B24 does not have a "King", because there were no real Kings inthis troubled time period. It has a "messenger", confirming the 2nd number (3). PassageB28 has a "King", because the Late FIP had real Kings. It confirms the number has to bewritten down in 28-22= 6 figures (Table 7.4).9TH DYNASTYKingsPassages A24, A20, and A22 of the front side show the 3 important Kings of the 9thDynasty, Cheti I, II, and III, respectively. However, the passages A20-22 form a realkings series for this dynasty. A23 is used for separation, again. The 3 Kings are alsoshown on the edge of the back side. When combining the last two symbols of B3 to 1“King” (the son of the virgin), the 3 Rulers of the inner part symbolize them again.Years of reignThe back side has 9 paragraphs, encoding the 9th Dynasty. So, years of reign of thisDynasty are shown on side B, as series of symbols. If these series are joined, it is indica-ted by ().King Cheti I is shown in passage B14/30. The 43/41 preceding symbols, ending inB4/19, are his 42 years of reign, from 2160 till 2118. King Cheti II may be shown in pas-
  • 25. sage B30. The 30+30= 60 preceding symbols are his possibly 60 years of reign, from2118 till 2058. King Cheti III is shown in passage B28. The 49/51 preceding symbols,ending in B29/16 are his 50 years of reign, from 2058 till 2008. These Kings ruled for atotal of 42+60+50= 152 years. This is in agreement with the 5 generations shown on thedisc, which last 5x30.5= 152 years. All series of symbols start near passage B29, whichsymbolizes their capital of Heracleopolis near the Fayum (Lower Egypt), at 29°N.Years of reign are confirmed by passages. On the back side, King Cheti I is shown by theedge and in passage 30, because of his 12+30= 42 years of reign. King Cheti II may beshown in passage 30, because of his suggested 30+30= 60 years of reign. King Cheti IIIis shown in passage 20, because of his 30+20= 50 years of reign.On the front side, King Cheti I is shown on the edge in passage 31, because of his30+12= 42 years of reign. King Cheti II may be shown by the edge and in passage 18,be-cause of his suggested 30+12+18= 60 years of reign. King Cheti III is shown inpassage 20, because of his 30+20= 50 years of reign.7.5.2 LATE FIP11th DynastyPassage A11 on the front side represents the 11th Dynasty. The "messenger" in this pas-sage occurs 11 times on the disc, confirming it (Table 2.2). Passage B11 on the back sidealso represents this dynasty. The "waterway" points to important sailing voyages duringthis time period (Refs.14-26).KingsThe "messenger" in passage A11 occurs 6 times on the front side, representing the 6Kings of the 11th Dynasty. The "waterway" in B11 occurs 6 times on the disc, confir-ming them. The back side, but also the edge of the front side, each contain 6 Rulers, en-coding these 6 Kings. When combining the last two symbols of B3 to 1 “King” (the sonof the virgin), the inner part of side B shows the first 3 Rulers, the Kings Antef I, II andIII, and the edge shows the last 3 Rulers, the Kings Mentuhotep I, II, and III. On the frontside, the 6 passages A19-24 represent the 6 Kings of the 11th Dynasty. However, thethree passages A20-22 also form kings series for both of them. A23 is used for separa-tion, again. On the back side the 6 passages B19-24 of the paragraph represent thesekings, too.GenerationsThe "messenger" in passage A11 occurs 4 times on the inner part of the front side (Table2.2), representing the 4 generations of the Late FIP. The "waterway" in passage B11 oc-curs 4 times on the back side, confirming it. The "cover" of B11 occurs 4 times on the ed-ge, confirming it. On the front side, the 4 passages A19-22 on the edge represent the 4ge-nerations.DurationPassages A11 and A9 on the front side show that the Late FIP lasted between 11 and 9double generations ago. Note, that the passages involved belong to the very special groupA10, A11, and A12, which is repeated in A16, A17, and A19. As explained elsewhere(Ch.10), both groups play a major role in the description of boat voyages to CentralAmerica, the Land of Punt. It is shown that the Late FIP was very active in organisingthese expeditions, which is confirmed in the literature (Refs.14-40). Passages B11 and B9on the back side confirm the Late FIP between 11 and 9 double generations ago. B9 and
  • 26. B11 contain the symbols of “boat” and “waterway”, respectively, confirming these expe-ditions.On the front side, passages A19-22 indicate the duration of the Late FIP, 4 generations.Note, that passage A19, encoding the last, 19th generation, contains the symbols of bowand arrow, suggesting civil war at the end of the Late FIP, which is confirmed in theliterature (Refs.16-26). Passages B19-22 on the back side confirm the duration of 4 gene-rations. Note, that the first and the last passages of this group contain "boats", confirmingboat expeditions during the first and the last generations of the Late FIP.PopulationPassage A6 of the front side determined the population at the end of the Late FIP (600thousand). A group of four symbols in passage A31, including the "messenger", is iden-tical. So, this passage will give the population at the start of it. It corresponds to an Egyp-tian population of 310,000 men. The following passage A20 with a "King" (droppingA19) confirms the 2nd number (1), and passage A24 has a "King", too, confirming thenumber has to be written down in 24-19+1= 6 figures (Table 7.4). The series A31-23,including A19, confirms the number.‘Volcano Catastrophe’Passage A9 on the front side has two “corpses”, which indicate that a Catastropheoccurred in the 9th Dynasty. Neighboring passage A3 has also two “corpses”, whichpoint to the “square” of A9 and the “Queen” of A8, respectively. These indicate therewere 90,000 casualties, worldwide (2.6%). The “shield, king” of A9 confirms the firstnumber (9), en A13 has also a “shield, king”, showing the number has to be written downin 13-8= 5 figures. Its paragraph line points to the “square, Queen” of A24, whichillustrates that A13 is the last passage of the series. A24, also with a “shield, king”, is thelast passage of the kings series A19-24, at the end of the paragraph, which represents thelast king Chety III. The Catastrophe occurred during his reign.A10 is the second passage of this series, identical to last passage A13. It shows, that theCatastrophe happened 10 double generations ago. A4, with an “ordinary man”, has a“burin”, which points to this passage. It shows, that the world population before theCatastrophe was 31+4= 3.5 million men. A10 shows, this number has to be written downin 10-3= 7 figures. Next passage A11 symbolizes the simultaneous 11th Dynasty. Theparagraph line points to A21 on the edge. It has a “cover” or Volcano, which shows thenature of the Catastrophe. The passage represents king Mentuhotep II (c.2026-2014) ofthe main kings series A20-22. Both passages A10 and A13 have the symbols of the“power of God”, also present in A23, which confirms the 5th king Mentuhotep II of thekings series A19-24. The Catastrophe occurred during his reign.Passage A15 has two “corpses”, which indicate 15,000 casualties in Egypt (2.6%). Thenext passage has a “shield, king”, confirming the second number (5), and A19 at the endof the inner part confirms the number has to be written down in 19-14= 5 figures. A17 inthis series encodes, together with A4, the population of Egypt after the Catastrophe,400+170= 570 thousand men. Next passage A18 has a “king”, confirming the secondnumber (7), and A22 has a “shield, king”, confirming the number has to be written downin 22-16= 6 figures. The Egyptian population before the Catastrophe was 585,000 men.Passage A17 also corresponds to 17,000 men, which is the population of Crete before theCatastrophe. The next passage has a “king”, which confirms the second number (7), and
  • 27. A21 has a “Volcano” and a “messenger”, confirming the number has to be written downin 21-16= 5 figures. Passage B14 on the back side has a “messenger” and a “corpse”,encoding the 300+140= 440 casualties on Crete (2.6%). The next passage has a “Queen”,confirming the second number (4), and B16 has a “messenger”, confirming the numberhas to be written down in 16-13= 3 figures.Passage B9 on the back side has a “corpse”, confirming the 90,000 casualties in the 9thDynasty, worldwide. A13 has a “Volcano”, which confirms that the number has to bewritten down in 13-8= 5 figures. Passage B19 has a “corpse”, because the Catastrophehappened 19 generations ago, which is between 1458+(19x30.5)= 2037, and 2037-30=2007. It was the last generation of the 11th Dynasty. It is a second governmentgeneration, so the 12 years of reign of Mentuhotep II (2026-2014) are shown aspassages on the back side, between B11 and B23. B11 confirms the 11th Dynasty, andthe paragraph line of B13 of the mentioned series B9-13, points to B23 on the edge. Itrepresents the 5th king Mentuhotep II in the kings series A19-24.However, years of reign are also shown by individual symbols. Counting starts at theyear of 1457+242+242= 1941, which means that the back side is of importance. Countingcontinues from the end of the side going backwards. It means that the years of reign ofMentuhotep II (2026-2014) are shown between the “corpse” in B9 and the “glove” inB13. These are the first and last passages of the mentioned series B9-13.Both the “corpse” in B9 and the “Volcano” in passage B11 correspond with the Eruptionof the Volcano of Long Island, NE of New Guinea, in the year of 2026. Next passageB10 has a “Volcano”, confirming the Eruption 10 double generations ago. The passage isidentical to B5, providing its latitude, at 5°S. B11 confirms the 11th Dynasty. Itsparagraph line points to the 12 passages on the edge, confirming its position, 12 Moiras,or 120°, east of the Nile Delta, when measured along the equator. The Volcano has acaldera with a diameter of 10km.Both the “Volcano” of B10 and the similar symbol in passage B13 encode the Eruptionof the Volcano of Changbaishan, Eastern China, in the year of 2024. The “glove” ofB10 touches the “Volcano”, also referring to the “glove” in B12. B12 encodes itslatitude, at 30+12= 42°N. B10 determines its position, 10 Moiras, or 100°, east of theNile Delta.- Both the “Volcano” in B11 and the “palace” in passage B17 encode theEruption of the Volcano of Liamuiga, West Indies, in the year of 2020. B17 providesits latitude, at 17°N, and the “Volcano” in B10, gives its position, 10 Moiras, or 100°west of the Nile Delta, when measured along the equator. B11 confirms the 11thDynasty, again, and its paragraph line points to the 12 passages on the edge,confirming the 12 years of reign of the king.The Eruptions of the three mentioned Volcanoes are confirmed in the literature. Itresulted in dimming of the Sun, cold weather, drought, and crop failure for a long time.Both the “glove” of B12 and the “Volcano” in passage B21 point to famine in the year of2016. The “glove, Volcano” in B13 as well as the “Volcano” in passage B23 give similarinformation for the last year of reign of the king in 2014. Crop failure and famine aroundthese years are reported in the literature. It was a worldwide Catastrophe. (Refs.54-57)THE 11TH DYNASTYYears of reign: along the edgeOn the front side, the 6 passages 19-24 symbolize the 6 Kings of the 11th Dynasty
  • 28. (Upper Egypt). On the edge these 6 Rulers are shown. So in the first place, years of reignwill be indicated along the edge. These are indicated by series of symbols. If these seriesare joined, it is indicated by ().The first “Leader” of the 11th Dynasty was King Antef I, shown in passage 22. The 16preceding symbols, ending in A19, indicating civil war, are his 16 years of reign, from2148 till 2132. His successor King Antef II is represented by the “Queen” in passage 24.The total number of 48 symbols along the edge (dropping A19), are his 48 years of reign,from 2132 till 2084. Note, that A24 encodes the Hawaii Archipelago, discovered by him,at 24°N. His successor King Antef III is also shown in passage 24. The 8 precedingsymbols, ending in 23’, are his 8 years of reign, from 2084 till 2076.His successor was King Mentuhotep I. This famous King is represented by the symbol ofGod in passage 23, but he is also shown in passage 31. The total number of 50 symbolsalong the edge are his 50 years of reign, from 2076 till 2026. Note, that passage 23encodes the Southern Egyptian Empire at the holy Tropic of Cancer, at 23°N, andpassage 31 encodes the Northern Egyptian Empire, at 31°N. King Mentuhotep II isshown in passage 27. The 12 preceding symbols, ending in 25, are his 12 years of reign,from 2026 till 2014. Note, that A27 encodes the Antarctic Peninsula, discovered by him,at 90-27= 63°S. The last Leader was King Mentuhotep III, shown in passage 20, again.The 7 preceding symbols, ending in A19, are his 7 years of reign, from 2014 till 2007.Inner PartYears of reign are also shown on the inner part of side A. The first Leader of the 11thDynasty was King Antef I. He is represented by the symbol of God in passage 10. The 16preceding symbols, ending in A7, are his 16 years of reign. His successor King Antef IIis shown in passage 12. The total number of 48 symbols, the first ones on the disc, are his48 years of reign. His successor King Antef III is also shown in passage 12. The 8preceding symbols, ending in A11’ of the 11th Dynasty, are his 8 years of reign.His successor was King Mentuhotep I. This great King is represented by the symbol ofGod in passage 13. The total number of 50 symbols, the first ones on the disc, are his 50years of stable government. King Mentuhotep II is shown in passage 12, with the boat.This King is well-known for his expeditions to Punt (Refs.16-33). The 12 preceding sym-bols, ending in A10, are his 12 years of reign. The last Leader, King Mentuhotep III, isprobably best shown in passage 15, which stresses the Egyptian King Theory (Ch.5,Refs.16-21,31-33). The 7 symbols are his 7 years of reign.ConfirmationYears of reign are confirmed by passages, as usual. The first King Antef I is shown inpassage 16, because of his 16 years of reign. His successor King Antef II is shown in inpassage 18, because of his 30+18= 48 years of reign. His successor King Antef III isrepresented by the “Queen” in passage 8, because of his 8 years of reign. His successorKing Mentuhotep I is shown in passage 20, because of his 30+20= 50 years of reign.King Mentuhotep II is shown in passage 12 with the boat, because of his 12 years ofreign. The last King Mentuhotep III is represented by God in passage 7, again, because ofhis 7 years of reign.The disc shows the 6 temples of Crete. These are also in honor of the 6 Kings of the 11thDynasty. The inner part of side B contains 3 temples, in honor of the two (or three) seriesof 3 Kings of the 11th Dynasty. The temple of side A is in the 11th passage of the edge,
  • 29. in honor of the 11th Dynasty of Egypt.TABLE 7.4LATE EGYPTIAN HISTORYACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC, 1458 BCFIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD (FIP)EARLY FIP (2 generations)c.2190 Start of Early FIP (c.2160*) Population 230,000UPPER EGYPTc.2190 7th Dynasty, 1 generationc.2160 10th Dynasty, part of generation (Khui)c.2148 11th Dynasty, part of generation (Antef I)c.2129 (End of Early FIP)LOWER EGYPTc.2190 8th Dynasty, 1 generationc.2160 9th Dynasty, 1 generations (Cheti I)c.2129 (End of Early FIP)LATE FIP (4 generations)c.2129 (Start of Late FIP) Population 310,000UPPER EGYPTc.2148 11th Dynasty, 4/5 generations, 6 Kingsc.2148 Antef I (16)(A20)c.2132 Antef II (48)(A21), discovery of Hawaiic.2084 Antef III (8)(A22)c.2076 Mentuhotep I (50)(A20)c.2026 Mentuhotep II (12)(A21), discovery of Antarcticac.2026/4/0 ‘Volcano Catastrophe’, c.90,000 casualties, world population c.3.5 million 15,000 victims in Egypt (2.6%), population of c.585 thousand menc.2014 Mentuhotep III (7)(A22)c.2007 (End of reign)c.2007 End of FIP (c.2000*)LOWER EGYPTc.2160 9th Dynasty, 5 generations, 3 Kingsc.2160 Cheti I (42)(A20)c.2118 Cheti II (60)(A21)c.2058 Cheti III (50)(A22)c.2008 (End of reign)c.2007 End of FIP, population 600,000 (c.2000*)* according to archaeological research(..) years of reign; discoveries: Ch.9 (Refs.31-40)7.6 6TH DYNASTY OF THE CATASTROPHE
  • 30. The inner part of the back side (Fig.7.6) contains 6 paragraphs, corresponding to the 6thand last Dynasty of the Old Kingdom, which officially lasted 165 years, from 2325 till2160 (Refs.14-26). The almost hidden indication points to a low status of this dynasty. Inthis time period the power of Egypt strongly declined. Passage A6 on the front side(Fig.7.5) represents the 6th Dynasty. The thick separation-line at the end of this passagemarks the end of the Old Kingdom. Passage B6 on the back side confirms the 6thDynasty.KingsOn the front side, the 8 passages A24-31 at the end of the spiral represent the 8 Kings ofthe 6th Dynasty. About half of the Rulers are shown in the passages. Passage A23 withthe symbols for the "power of God" is used for separation, again. The last two passagesA30 and A31 contain together 3+5= 8 symbols, confirming the 8 Kings of this Dynasty.The 5+3= 8 Kings are shown on both edges of the disc. The "shield" in passage A6occurs 8 times in the inner part of side A, confirming the 8 Kings of the 6th Dynasty(Table 2.2).Passage A25 is the 6th passage of the edge (E6). So, it represents the 6th Dynasty.Passages A25-31 (using A27a/b) may also represent the 8 Kings of the 6th Dynasty. So,passage A25 may represent the first King Teti. Note, that A25 contains a “corpse”,suggesting a disaster during his reign.- A group of 4 signs in passage A31 equals passageA6. It emphasizes the notion, that A31 refers to the 6th Dynasty. A31 may also show thefirst King Teti of this Dynasty. So, it appears the whole time period was called “theDynasty of King Teti”.DurationOn the back side, the 6 passages B25-30 at the end of the spiral encode the duration ofthe period, 6 generations, or 6x30.5= 183 years, so according to the disc from 2373 to2190. The 3 turns of the inner part confirm the duration, 3 double generations. On thefront side the 6 passages A25-30 confirm the duration, 6 generations. A25 (E6)represents the 6th Dynasty, again.Important passages A15 and A12 on the front side determine the duration of the 6thDynasty, between 15 and 12 double generations ago. The “papyrus” in passage A15 has 6buds and 6 leaves, twice confirming the 6th Dynasty. Passages B15 and B12 on the backside confirm the duration of the 6th Dynasty, between 15 and 12 double generations ago.Comet CatastrophePassage A15 on the front side contains two “corpses”. This means, that 15 doublegenerations ago, a major disaster happened. This is at the beginning of the 6th Dynasty,between 1458+15x61= 2373, and 2373-61= 2312 (Refs.41-52). The two corpses are withthe arms connected, which is unusual. It means, that the number of casualties is indicatedby two consecutive passages with corpses. These passages could be A25 and A26. Thefirst one, A25 (E6), represents the 6th Dynasty.Passage A25 has a “corpse”, suggesting a possible number of 250,000 casualties inEgypt. The corpse in the next or 2nd passage A26 confirms the 2nd number (5), but the“temple” in passage A30, at the end of a paragraph, does not confirm the number has tobe written down in 30-24= 6 figures! This passage does not contain the signs of amummy, corpse, King, or Queen.
  • 31. Passage A30 only symbolizes the southern Nile Delta, at 30°N. It also indicates thiscatastrophe happened 30 generations ago, between 1458+30x30.5= 2373 and 2373-31=2342, which is correct, because it happened in year of 2344 (see Ch.6). Next and lastpassage A31 of the side was important for establishing the c.2,500,000 casualties,worldwide. This huge Catastrophe occurred during the reign of the first King Teti, shownin this passage.Note, that the “temple” in A30 touches passage A18 above it. The second temple in thecorresponding passage B18 on the back side touches B30, which confirms the generationin which the calamity happened (Ch.6). Passage B18 contains an “Egyptian mummy”,indicating a possible number of 180,000 casualties in Egypt. The “corpse” in the next or2nd passage B19 confirms the 2nd number (8), and the “square”, the “messenger”, andthe “comet” in B23 confirms the number has to be written down in 23-17= 6 figures.Earlier, this passage indicated the population at the end of the 6th Dynasty! So, thisnumber of casualties “leaded” to this small population.Passage A18 on the front side contains a “corpse”, confirming the number of 180,000casualties in Egypt. The next or 2nd passage A19 confirms the 2nd number (8), becauseit is the end of both the paragraph and the inner part. The symbols for the power of Godin A23 confirm the number has to be written down in 23-17= 6 figures. A23 symbolizesthe holy Tropic of Cancer and the Southern Egyptian Empire, at 23°N. It is the center ofthe Sunreligion (Refs.31-33).PopulationPassage B23 on the back side determined the population in Egypt at the end of the 6thDynasty (230 thousand). The preceding passage B19, the first one on the edge, has a"messenger", encoding a population of 190,000 men at the beginning of this Dynasty.The next or 2nd passage B20 has a "King", confirming the 2nd number (9), but passageB24 at the end of the paragraph does not have a "King", because there were no real Kingsat the end of the 6th Dynasty. Instead it contains a "messenger", confirming the numberhas to be written down in 24-18= 6 figures. Note, that B24 (E6) represents the 6thDynasty, again.The huge Catastrophe with 180,000 Egyptian casualties, was at the start of the 6thDynasty. So, just before this Catastrophe the population was 190,000+180,000= 370,000men.- Passage A6 on the front side may also be called 31+6= A37. Note the similarity ofA31 and A6, again. A37, having a “messenger”, forms a series of 6 passages, confirminga population of c.370,000 men. Next passage A7 has the symbol of God, confirming the2nd number (7), and last passage A11 of the series also has a “messenger”, confirmingthe number has to be written down in 11-5= 6 figures. Note, that about half of the peopledied because of this terrible calamity. The paragraph-line of A11 points to the “comet”. Itcaused the abrupt end of the previous, 5th Dynasty of Egypt (Tables 7.5 & 7.6).CrisisLast passage A31 of the front side represents the first King Teti, and last passage B30 ofthe back side encodes the first generation of the 6th Dynasty when this King ruled, andwhen the Comet Catastrophe occurred. This means, that the whole history of Egypt wasdevided in an Early History before the 6th Dynasty with this huge Catastrophe, and aLate History after the 6th Dynasty. Egypt lost almost half of its population during thiscalamity, so we can understand this devision on the disc. But what is the reason that theOld Kingdom finished after the 6th Dynasty?
  • 32. Passage B6 on the back side represents the 6th Dynasty. The last symbol in B6 is the“head of a comet”. So, this appears to be the main reason. The translation of the passagemay read: “The Kingdom went down because of the comet.” Passage B13 represents thelast double generation of the 6th Dynasty, between 1458+13x61= 2251 and 2251-61=2190. The passage contains the “head of a comet”, confirming it. Passage A25 (E6) onthe front side represents the last generation of the 6th Dynasty, between 1458+25x30.5=2220 and 2220-30= 2190. It contains a “corpse”, referring to the numerous victims of theCatastrophe, again confirming it.However, there appears to be also another reason. Passage B13, just mentioned, reads:“Education leads to the merriment of the young Cat-god.” (Ch.5). So, the direct cause ofthe end of the 6th Dynasty/Old Kingdom appears to be insufficient education. PassageA25 (E6), just mentioned, reads: “The teacher is spreading the knowledge.” Here, thisreason is clearly confirmed.Years of reignYears of reign are indicated by series of symbols, as usual. If these series are joined, it isindicated by (). On the back side, the first King Teti is shown in passage 28’. The 32preceding symbols, ending in B21, are his 32 years of reign, from 2370 till 2338. Theyear 2370 is the last year of reign of the last King of the previous, 5th Dynasty (Ch.8).Note the “corpse” in passage B27. It encodes the year of the Comet Catastrophe, whichwas the 26th year of reign of King Teti, in 2370-26= 2344. It encodes the 2.6 millioncasualties, worldwide (Ch.6).His successor King Userkare is also shown in passage 28. The 3 preceding symbols arehis 3 years of reign, from 2338 till 2335. His successor King Pepi I is shown in the samepassage. The 3+32 preceding symbols, ending in B21, are his 35 (officially 34) years ofreign, from 2335 till 2301. His successor, King Merenre I, is shown in passage 30. The 9preceding symbols, ending in B29’, are his 9 years of reign, from 2301 till 2292. KingPepi II is represented by the Royal Son in passage 28. The 96 preceding symbols, endingin B4, are his 96 (officially 94) years of reign, from 2292 till 2198. Along the edge are49+46= 95 preceding symbols, ending in B28, confirming these years of reign.King Merenre II is shown in passage 3. The 1 preceding symbol is his only year of reign,from 2198 till 2197. His successor, an unknown King, is probably represented by the“Queen” in passage 15. The 5 symbols are his 5 years of reign, from 2197 till 2192. Thelast King Nitokris is shown in passage 28. The 3 preceding symbols are his 3 years ofreign, from 2192 till 2189. The total number of years of reign during this Dynastyamounts to 181 years, in agreement with the 6 generations or 183 years suggested by thedisc (Refs.16-26).ConfirmationFor the 6th Dynasty, years of reign are confirmed by passages. The first King Teti isshown in passage B20. The 30 passages of the back side, and the 2 passages on the edge,are his 30+2= 32 years of reign. His successor King Userkare is shown in passage 3,because of his 3 years of reign. His successor King Pepi I is shown in the same passage.The 31 passages of side A and the 3 passages of side B are his 31+3= 34 years of reign.His successor King Merenre I is shown in passage 28/30. The 8/10 preceding passages,ending in B21, are his 9 years of reign. His successor King Pepi II is shown in passage 3.The 31 passages of the front side and the 30+30+3 passages of the back side correspond
  • 33. to his 31+63= 94 years of reign. King Merenre II is represented by the “Queen” inpassage 15. The single passage is his only year of reign. His successor, an unknownKing, is shown in passage 20. The 5 preceding passages, ending in B16, are his 5possible years of reign. The last King Nitokris is shown in passage 3, because of his 3years of reign.The Egyptian FleetIn 1794, at the end of the 12th Dynasty, Egypt had a population of 1.1 million men, and afleet of c.1,395 seaworthy ships. At the end of the 6th Dynasty, which is the last one ofthe Old Kingdom, the population was only 230 thousand men. So, we may expect thataround the year of 2190, the Egyptian fleet contained an estimated number of only(23/110)x1,395= c.292 ships. However, this estimation is far too high, because it was2190-1794= 396 years earlier in the time!In 2370, at the end of the 5th Dynasty, Egypt had a population of 370 thousand men, anda fleet of c.300 seaworthy ships (see Ch.8). At the end of the 6th Dynasty, the populationwas only 230 thousand men. So, we may expect that around the year of 2190, theEgyptian fleet contained an estimated number of (23/37)x300= c.186 ships. This estima-tion might be a little bit low, because it was 2370-2190= 180 years later in time. How-ever, we believe the estimation is actually too high. It is for sure, that the Comet Cata-strophe of 2344 destroyed the whole Egyptian fleet, and in addition, the 6th Dynasty, thelast one of the Old Kingdom, was a very weak one (Refs.27-40).The inner part of the back side has 6 paragraphs, corresponding with the 6th Dynasty. Italso has 3 turns, corresponding to the 3rd Dynasty. At the end of that dynasty, thepopulation was also c.230 thousand men. It appears, that the number of seaworthy shipswas about the same (see Ch.8)! So, our conclusion is that there were only c.149 seawor-thy ships at the end of the 6th Dynasty!Pyramids and TemplesThe inner part of the back side has 6 paragraphs, corresponding with the 6th Dynasty. Itcontains 18 passages, encoding the 18 pyramids at the end of this dynasty.- The edge, andespecially the second part of it, represents Egypt. Passage A30 on the front side has a“temple”, typically encoding 30 Egyptian temples. Passage B6 on the back side has atemple, too. It corresponds with 6 temples in the 6th Dynasty. Added up, it appears therewere 30+6= c.36 temples.Passage B18 confirms the number of 18 pyramids. It has two “temples”, typically confir-ming the 2x18= c.36 temples.- The edge represents Egypt, and sometimes the passages ofit are counted along the edge. E3 has a “temple”, and E8 has a “temple”, confirming c.38temples at the end of the 6th Dynasty (Ch.4).SchoolsIn 1794, at the end of the 12th Dynasty, Egypt had c.1,100 schools. Because of the lowerpopulation, the country will now have an estimated number of only (23/110)x1,100=c.230 schools. The “temples and palaces” on the disc may also represent schools.The inner part of the back side has 6 paragraphs, corresponding with the 6th Dynasty. B6typically encodes 6 schools, B17 encodes 17 schools, and the first “temple” of B18encodes 180 schools. However, B18 is at the end of the inner part. So, it may also form 1passage, only encoding 1 school. So, the inner part appears to indicate a total of
  • 34. 6+17+180+1= c.204 schools. This is less than the estimated number.Sometimes, the passages are counted along the edge. E11 on the front side has a “tem-ple”, which may encode 110 schools. A9 has a “palace”, which may encode 90 schools.So, a total of 110+90= c.200 schools are confirmed. The edge of the back side mayconfirm it, too. When the ratio “lower vs. higher schools” is the same as at the end of the12th Dynasty, there were (88/110)x202= c.162 “lower schools”, and (22/110)x202= c.40“higher schools”. (Refs.62-65)TABLE 7.5LATE EGYPTIAN HISTORYACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC, 1458 BC6TH DYNASTY OF THE CATASTROPHEc.2373 Start of the 6th Dynasty (2325*) population: 370,000, 8 Kings, 6 generationsc.2370 Teti (32)(A25/A31)c.2344 Comet Catastrophe (floodings during 110 days, 1st generation): c.180,000 casualties in Egypt (c.2.6 million worldwide, 54%) population which survived: 190,000c.2338 Userkare (3)c.2335 Pepi I (34)c.2301 Merenre I (9)c.2292 Pepi II (94)c.2198 Merenre II (1)c.2197 unknown (5)c.2192 Nitokris (3)Egyptian Fleet: c.149 seaworthy shipsPyramids: c.18, Temples c.36Schools: c.202; lower schools: c.162, higher schools: c.40c.2189 End of Dynasty because of the Catastrophe, and also insufficient educationc.2190 Start FIP, population: 230,000 (c.2160*)* according to archaeological research(..) years of reignTABLE 7.6POPULATION NUMBERS IN LATE EGYPTIAN HISTORYACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC, 1458 BC6TH DYNASTY OF THE CATASTROPHEc.2373 370,000 6th Dynasty, 6 generationsc.2344 Comet Catastrophe (floodings during 110 days, 1st generation): 180,000 casualties in Egypt (49%), (c.2.6 million worldwide, 54%)c.2344 190,000 population which survivedFIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIODc.2190 230,000 7-10th Dynasties, 2 generations
  • 35. c.2129 310,000 11th Dynasty, 4 generationsc.2026/4/0 ‘Volcano Catastrophe’, c.90,000 casualties, world population c.3.5 million 15,000 victims in Egypt (2.6%), population of c.585 thousandMIDDLE KINGDOMc.2007 600,000 12th Dynasty, 7 generationsc.2007 Old Palace Culture on Cretec.1899 Comet Catastrophe, c.260,000 casualties (6.2%), world population c.4.2 million c.53,000 victims in Egypt, population c.850 thousand (floodings during 11 days)SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIODc.1794 1,100,000 13-17th Dynasties, 7 generationsc.1702 New Palace Culture on Cretec.1628 Comet Catastrophe (floodings during 10 days, 6th generation): 90,000 casualties in Egypt (c.6.7%), (c.510 thousand worldwide)NEW KINGDOMc.1580 1,700,000 18th Dynasty, 4 generationsc.1458 2,100,000 27th year of reign of Thutmozes IIIc.1458 End of New Palace Culture on Crete (c.1450*)* according to archaeological researchLITERATURE (Ch.7)1. Godart, L., The Phaistos Disc, The Enigma of an Aegean Script, Editions Itanos, 1995 (ISBN960-7549-02-3).2. Miller, J., Ancient American, The Phaistos Disk, March/April 1994, p.37.3. Grimes, J.P., Ancient American, Vol.2, Nr.12, p.35.4. Covey, C., Fischer vs. Fell Phaistos Disk Decipherments, Midw. Epigr. Newsl., Vol.19, Nr.4 (2002).5. Kober, A.E., The Minoan Scripts: Fact and Theory, American Journal of Archaeology 52, 1948,82-103.6. Best, J.G.P., and Woudhuizen, F., Lost Languages from the Mediterranean, Leiden, the Netherlands(1989).7. Homer, The Iliad and the Odyssey, transl. Murray, Loeb Classical Library, Heinemann,London (1919).8. Strabo, Complete Works, Loeb Classical Library, Heinemann, London (1923-32).9. Plato, The Dialogues, transl. W. Taylor, Univ. of London Press (1902).10. Willetts, R.F., The Civilization of Ancient Crete, Phoenix Press, New York (1976) (ISBN1-84212-746-2).11. Mohen, J.-P., and Eluère, C., The Bronze Age in Europe. Gods, Hero’s and Treasures, Thames andHudson, 2000 (ISBN 0-500-30101-8).12. Herberger, C.F., The Minoan Cultural Response: the Feminine Emphasis, Midwestern EpigraphicJournal, Vol.18/9, pgs. 47-55, 2004-5 (ISSN 1932-5703).13. People of the Stone Age: Hunter-gatherers and Early Farmers, Weldon Owen Pty Limited, McMahonsPoint, Australia (1995).14. Old World Civilizations, The Rise of Cities and States, The Illustrated History of Humankind, WeldonOwen Pty Limited, McMahons Point, Australia (1995).15. Zwart, A.H., e.a., De Oude Grieken, 7000 Jaar Wereldgeschiedenis, Lekturama, Rotterdam, 1977.(Dutch)16. Siliotti, A., Egypt, Temples, People and Gods, Bergamo, Italy, 1997.17. Hart, G., A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddes ses, Routledge, London, 1986 (ISBN0-7102-0167 -2).18. Wallis Budge, E.A., Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrec tion, 2 Vol., Dover Pub., N.Y., 1973 (ISBN0-486 -22780-4).19. Adams, B., and Cialowicz, K., Protodynastic Egypt, Shire Egyptology, Princes Risborough, 1997.20. Breasted, J.H., Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol.2: The Eighteenth Dynasty, London, 1988.21. Kemp, B.J., Ancient Egypt, Anatomy of a Civilization, London, Routledge, 1991.22. Tompkins, P., Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Harper & Row, London, 1971 (ISBN 0-06-090631-6).(Dr. Stecchini)23. Lehner, M., The Complete Pyramids, Thames & Hudson, London (1997) (ISBN 90-5947-047-8).
  • 36. 24. Wilkinson, R.H., The complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, London (2000)(ISBN 90-246-0608-x).25. Strelocke, H., Egypte, Geschiedenis, kunst en cultuur van het Nijldal, Cantecleer, de Bilt (1981)(ISBN 90-213-0307-8). (Dutch)26. Harris, J.R., Egyptian Art, Spring Books, London (1966).27. Casson, L., Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times, British Museum Press, 1994 (ISBN0-525-47545-1).28. Wachsmann, S., Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age, Levant, College Station, Texas,1998.29. Heyerdahl, T., The Ra Expeditions, George Allen & Unwin, London, 1971.30. Heyerdahl, T., The Tigris Expedition, George Allen & Unwin, London, 1983.31. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S, How the Sungod Reached America, A Guide to Megalithic Sites,MCS Inc., 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083-33-92,also on CD.32. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S, Website: www.howthesungod.com.33. De Jonge, R.M., and IJzereef, G.F., De Stenen Spreken, Kosmos Z&K, Utrecht/ Antwerpen, 1996(ISBN 90-215-2846-0). (Dutch)34. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield J.S., “The Discovery of the Atlantic Islands”, Migration & Diffusion,Vol.3, No.11, pgs.69-109 (2002).35. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield J.S., “A Nautical Center for Crossing the Ocean, America’s Stone-henge”, New Hampshire, c.2200 BC, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.4, No.15, pgs.60-100 (2002).36. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Germany’s Bronze Age Disc Reveals Transatlantic Seafaring”,Ancient American, Vol.9, No.55, pgs.18-20 (2004).37. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Greenland, Bridge between the Old and New World, c.2500BC”, Ancient American, Vol.11, No.67, pgs.12-20 (2006).38. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Stone Rows of Tormsdale: A Voyage to Central America,the Realm of the Dead” (Caithness, NE Scotland, c.1600 BC), Ancient American, Vol.11, No.70,pgs.28-34 (2006).39. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield J.S., The Disc of Nebra, Important Sailing Routes of the Bronze AgeDisplayed in Religious Context, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.5, No.17, pgs.32-39 (2004).40. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., Germany’s Bronze Age Disc Reveals Transatlantic Seafaring,Ancient American, Vol.9, No.55, pgs.18-20 (2004).41. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S, “The Comet Catastrophe of c.2345 BC, (Mougau-Bihan,Com-mana, Brittany)”, to be published.42. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S, “The Comet Catastrophe of c.2345 BC, (The Kermorvanmen-hir and the Tressé grave, Brittany)”, to be published.43. Peiser, B.J., Palmer, T., Bailey, M.E., Natural Catastrophes during Bronze Age Civilizations, BARInternational Series 728, Oxford, 1998 (ISBN 0-86054-916-X).44. Bruce Masse, W., Earth, Air, Fire, and Water, The Archaeology of Bronze Age Cosmic Cata-stroph-es, Ref.43, pgs.53-92.45. Baillie, M.G.L., Hints that Cometary Debris played some Role in several Tree-Ring DatedEnviron-mental Downturns in the Bronze Age, Ref.43, pgs.109-117.46. Peiser, B.J., Evidence for a Global Disaster in the Late 3rd Millennium BC, Ref.43, pgs.117-140.47. Courty, M.-A., The Soil Record of an Exceptional Event at 4000 BP in the Middle East, Ref.43,pgs.93-109.48. Pankenier, D.W., Heaven-Sent: Understanding Cosmic Disaster in Chinese Myth and History,Ref.- 43, pgs.187-197.49. Joseph, F., Survivors of Atlantis, Their Impact on World Culture, Bear & Co., Vermont 2004(ISBN 1-59143-0-040-2).50. Baillie, M., Exodus to Arthur, Catastrophic Encounters with Comets, BT Batsford Ltd., London,1999 (ISBN 0-7134-8681-3).51. Palmer, T., Catastrophes, the Deluvial Evidence,Website: http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/ce102899.html.52. Drews, R., The End of the Bronze Age, Changes of Warfare and the Catastrophe, c.1200 BC,Princeton Paperbacks, 1993 (ISBN 0-691-02591-6).53. Baines, J. and Malek, J., Atlas of Ancient Egypt, Oxford/New York (1980).54. Volcanoes, Website: http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/largeeruptions.cfm55. Website: http://touregypt.net/featurestories/mentuhotep3.htm56. Website: http://www.halexandria.org/home.htm57. Website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neferkare,_ninth_dynasty58. Website: http://www.danielpipes.org/comments/13356759. Website: http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/senusret1.htm60. Website: http://www.biblearchaeology.org/post/2008/09/Israel-in-Egypt.aspx
  • 37. 61. Website: http://www.phouka.com/pharaoh/pharaoh/dynasties/dyn12/04senusret2.html62. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic and theCopper Trade, MCS Inc, 2010 (ISBN 0-917054-20-2). Available: MCS Inc, Box 3392, Kirkland, WaUSA 98033.63. De Jonge, R.M., Website: www.slideshare.net/rmdejonge64. De Jonge, R.M., Minoan Pendant (Cleveland, Ohio, c.1690 BC), Ref.63.65. De Jonge, R.M., The Phaistos Disc Decoded, Website: www.slideshare.net/drsrmdejonge66. Wilkinson, R.H., Tempels van het Oude Egypte, Bosch & Keuning, Baarn (2001) (ISBN90-246-0608-x) (Dutch)67. Johnson, P., The Civilization of Ancient Egypt, Seven Dials, Cassell & Co, London (2005) (ISBN1-84188-068-X)

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