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CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD
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CH.9: DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD

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CHAPTER 9 …

CHAPTER 9
DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD

9.1 ICELAND AND GREENLAND
(Prehistory and Pre-Dynastic Period)
9.2 TAIWAN AND THE SOLOMON ISLANDS
(Djer, Djet, Anedjib, and Semerkhet, 1st Dynasty)
9.3 MADAGASCAR
(Peribsen, 2nd Dynasty)
9.4 AUSTRALIA
(Djoser, 3rd Dynasty)
9.5 NEW ZEALAND AND THE ISLANDS IN THE PACIFIC
(Sa and Huni, 3rd Dynasty)
9.6 JAPAN AND AMERICA VIA THE ALEUTIAN ISLANDS
(Menkaure, 4th Dynasty)
9.7 AMERICA VIA THE SOUTHERN CROSSING OF THE ATLANTIC
(Sahura, 5th Dynasty)
9.8 AMERICA VIA THE UPPER NORTH (GREENLAND)
(Neferir-kare, 5th Dynasty)
9.9 HAWAII AND ANTARCTICA
(Antef I, II and Mentuhotep II, III, 11th Dynasty)
9.10 DISCUSSION

Dr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.com

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  • 1. CHAPTER 9DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD9.1 ICELAND AND GREENLAND (Prehistory and Pre-Dynastic Period)9.2 TAIWAN AND THE SOLOMON ISLANDS (Djer, Djet, Anedjib, and Semerkhet, 1st Dynasty)9.3 MADAGASCAR (Peribsen, 2nd Dynasty)9.4 AUSTRALIA (Djoser, 3rd Dynasty)9.5 NEW ZEALAND AND THE ISLANDS IN THE PACIFIC (Sa and Huni, 3rd Dynasty)9.6 JAPAN AND AMERICA VIA THE ALEUTIAN ISLANDS (Menkaure, 4th Dynasty)9.7 AMERICA VIA THE SOUTHERN CROSSING OF THE ATLANTIC (Sahura, 5th Dynasty)9.8 AMERICA VIA THE UPPER NORTH (GREENLAND) (Neferirkare, 5th Dynasty)9.9 HAWAII AND ANTARCTICA (Antef I, II and Mentuhotep II, III, 11th Dynasty)9.10DISCUSSIONDr. R.M. de Jonge ©, drsrmdejonge@hotmail.comSUMMARYThe 18 passages of both inner parts of the disc each correspond to the first 18 Dynastiesof Egypt. For each dynasty the disc provides the duration in generations of 30.5 years, thenumber of Kings, the years of reign of each King, the population number, but also thegeographic discoveries on the planet Earth. This is indicated with the symbols of the“boat”, the “waterway”, “religion”, a.o. Greenland in the west was already discovered inprehistory. Taiwan and the Solomon Islands in the east were reached in the 1st Dynasty.The island of Madagascar, East Africa, was discovered in the 2nd Dynasty. Australia andNew Zealand were found in the 3rd Dynasty, and America was discovered via the BeringSea in the 4th Dynasty. At the end of the 5th Dynasty, the whole world was discovered,except the Islands of Hawaii and Antarctica, which were finally reached during the 11thDynasty.9.1 ICELAND AND GREENLAND (Prehistory and Pre-Dynastic Period)
  • 2. Canary IslandsThe Phaistos Disc is round, just like the planet Earth (Figs.9.3 and 9.4) (Ref.1). It has afront and a back side, similar to the northern and the southern hemisphere, or the situationwhen the Sun is shining on one of its faces. It has a center on each side, resembling theNorth and the South Pole. The spiral shaped line on the disc resembles the latitude lineson a globe. Many symbols may have geographic meanings, such as islands, capes, andsailing routes (Refs.2-6).From studies of the Megalithic Culture in Western Europe it is known that the CanaryIslands, NW Africa, were discovered c.5700 BC (Refs.21-26). Both passages A29 andB29 have a “mountain” and a “waterway”, which suggest a “sailing route” to “islands”was discovered. They encode the geographic location of the Eastern Canary Islands, at29°N. Both Figures show a correct image of the disc, also in a geographical sense. If thecenter of the disc symbolizes the Strait of Gibraltar, both passages indicate the correctsailing direction, SW. Passage B1 also has these signs, encoding the sailing distance fromthe African coast, 1 Egyptian moira= 1°= 60 NM (Ref.13). Passage B19 (E1) has a“boat”, confirming it.The Phaistos Disc was made on the island of Crete, in 1458 (Ch.2) (Refs.3-6). B9, at theend of a paragraph, has a “boat” and a “hammer”, which resembles a sailing route to anisland, or a cape. Counting the passages on back and front sides, it appears that thediscovery of the Canary Islands happened 30+31+9= 70 double generations ago (Ch.8).This is between 1458+70x61= 5728 and 5728-61= 5667. The corresponding passage A9on the front side is at the end of a paragraph, too. It has 7 symbols and a “shield with 7burls”, confirming the discovery of the 7 Canary islands, 61+9= 70 double generationsago.Passage B27 (E9) has a “boat” and the sign of “religion”, which resembles a “crossing toan island, or a cape”. It confirms this discovery, 30+31+9= 70 double generations ago.-Passage B10 has an “island” and a “crossing” sign. It confirms the discovery, 30+30+10=70 double generations ago. The corresponding passage A10 on the front side has a“horn”, which resembles a “sailing route”, and a “shield with 7 burls”. It confirms thediscovery, 30+30+10= 70 double generations ago.- Passages A29 (E10) and B29 have an“island” and a “waterway”. These confirm the discovery of the Canary Islands, at 29°N,30+30+10= 70 double generations ago.Cape Verde IslandsFrom studies of the Megalithic Culture in Western Europe it is known that the CapeVerde Islands, West Africa, were discovered c.4600 BC (Refs.21-26). Passage A16 onthe front side has a “horn” and a “shield with burls”, which suggest that a “sailing route”to an “archipelago” was discovered. This passage A16 encodes the location of the CapeVerde Islands, at 16°N. Fig.9.3 shows a correct image of this side of the disc, also in ageographical sense. If the center of the disc symbolizes Crete/Egypt, or Cape Blanco,West Africa, the passage points to the correct (sailing) direction, WSW.The paragraph-line of A16 points to paragraphs 9 and 10 on the edge, having 4+2= 6passages, which encode the sailing distance to the islands, 6 moiras= 6°= 360 NM (1Egyptian moira= 1°= 60 Nautical Mile). Next passage A17 represents the northernislands, at 17°N, which are the most western ones. A16 and A17 possess together 4+2= 6symbols, confirming the sailing distance from the African coast.
  • 3. The Phaistos Disc was made on Crete in 1458 (Ch.2). Passage B22 has a “boat” and a“crossing” sign, which resembles a sailing route to an island, or a cape. When countingthe passages on the back side, it appears that the discovery of the Cape Verde Islandshappened 30+22= 52 double generations ago (Ch.8). This is between 1458+52x61= 4630and 4630-61= 4569. The corresponding passage A22 on the front side has a “plane”,which resembles “a route to an island or a cape”, and an “archipelago” sign. It confirmsthe discovery 30+22= 52 double generations ago.Passage B10 has an “island” and a “crossing” sign. It confirms the discovery of the 10Cape Verde islands, 30+12+10= 52 double generations ago. The corresponding passageA10 on the front side has a “sailing route” and an “archipelago”, confirming it.- Bothpassages A29 (E10) and B29 have an “island” and a “waterway”, confirming thediscovery, 30+12+10= 52 double generations ago.MadeiraFrom studies of the Megalithic Culture it is known that the two islands of Madeira werediscovered c.4200 BC (Refs.21-26). Passage B2 on the back side has a “boat” and a“route” sign, which suggest that an important boat voyage was made. Together with the31 passages of the front side it encodes the 2 islands of Madeira, at 31+2= 33°N. B3 hasan “island” and a “route” sign, and A3 has an “archipelago”, both confirming thediscovery of Madeira, at 30+3= 33°N.Passage B2 has 4 symbols, corresponding to the sailing distance from the easternCanaries to Madeira, 4 moiras= 4°= 240 NM. Passages B2, B3, and A3 are all situated inthe first paragraphs, each with 4 passages, confirming it twice.The Phaistos Disc was made in 1458 (Ch.2). B22, the 4th passage on the edge, has a“boat” and a “crossing” sign. Counting the passages on the back side, it appears that thediscovery of Madeira happened 30+12+4= 46 double generations ago (Ch.8). This isbetween 1458+46x61= 4264 and 4264-61= 4203. B22 (E4) has 4 symbols, confirmingthe sailing distance, twice. The corresponding passage A23 (E4) on the front side has a“sailing route”, confirming the sailing distance and the date of discovery.Passage A16 has a “sailing route” and an “archipelago”, confirming the discovery,30+16= 46 double generations ago. Passage B2 on the back side has a “boat” and a“route” sign, confirming the discovery of the 2 islands of Madeira, 31+13+2= 46 doublegenerations ago.AzoresIt is known that the islands of the Azores in the middle of the Ocean were discoveredc.3600 BC (Refs.21-26). Passage B7 has a “waterway”, suggesting an important boatvoyage was made. It encodes the island of Sta Maria, East Azores, at 30+7= 37°N. The 2“mountains” in the passage represent the 2 islands of the East Azores. The correspondingpassage A7 on the front side has a “sailing route” and a “archipelago”, confirming it.-Passage A26 (E7) has an “island”, an “archipelago”, and a “waterway”, confirming thediscovery of Sta Maria, at 30+7= 37°N.Next passage B8 on the back side has an “island”, referring to the Central Azores, at30+8= 38°N. The translation of B8 reads: “The wood (of the ship) leads to the island”.So, B8 also corresponds to the sailing distance from Madeira to Sta Maria, 8 moiras= 8°=480 NM. The corresponding passage A8 on the front side has a “route” sign, confirming
  • 4. it. Both passages B26 (E8) and A27 (E8) have an “archipelago”, confirming both theCentral Azores and the sailing distance.Next passage B9 has a “boat” and a “route” sign, suggesting a subsequent boat voyage tothe West Azores, at 30+9= 39°N. The corresponding passage A9 has an “archipelago”,confirming it.- Passage B27 (E9) has a “boat” and a “crossing” sign, strongly confirmingit. Passage A26 (E7), just mentioned, has three important symbols, confirming thediscovery of the West Azores, at 31+1+7= 39°N.The 3 passages B7-9 encode the discovery of the 3 island groups of the Azores. B7 andB8 each have 3 symbols, and both have together 3 “islands”, confirming it. The usedpassage A7 also has 3 symbols, confirming it. Passage B9 shows the discovery of the 9islands of the Azores. The used passage B27 (E9) has 3 symbols, confirming thediscovery of the 3 island groups of the Azores, consisting of 9 islands.Passage B6 has a “route” sign and an “island”, indicating the discovery of the Azores,30+6= 36 double generations ago (3654-3593). Note, that in B6 the “square” touches the“route” sign, and that in B8 (Central Azores) the “square” touches the “island”, and thatin B9 (West Azores) the “boat” touches the “route” sign, again. The paragraph-line of B7points to B16, with two symbols also present in B24. B24 (E6) confirms the discovery,30+6= 36 double generations ago.Passage A5 on the front side has two “route” signs, confirming the discovery 31+5= 36double generations ago. Passage A23 (E4) has a “sailing route”, confirming thediscovery, 31+1+4= 36 double generations ago. Both passages A5 and A23 have 3symbols, showing the discovery of the 3 island groups of the Azores. Passage A23encodes the holy Tropic of Cancer, and the Southern Egyptian Empire, at 23°N. It is thecenter of the Sunreligion. The SunGod always said: “The Realm of the Dead is in theWest, at the other side of the Waters, in the Land where the Sun sets” (Refs.21-24)Faeroes and IcelandIt is known that the Faeroes and Iceland were discovered c.3400 BC (Refs.21-26).Passage B1 has an “island” and a “waterway”, encoding the Faeroes, at 30+31+1= 62°N(Figs.9.3 and 9.4). Passage B19 (E1) has a “boat”, confirming it. B1 is situated in the firstparagraph having 4 passages, corresponding to the sailing distance from Scotland to theFaeroes, and from the Faeroes to Iceland, twice 4 moiras= 4°= 240 NM. Passage B19(E1) has 4 symbols, confirming it.Passage B2 has a “boat” and a “route” sign, corresponding to the SE coast of Iceland, at31+31+2= 64°N. Passage A26 on the front side has an “island”, an “archipelago”, and a“waterway”, confirming the SE coast of Iceland, at the complementary latitude of 90-26=64°N. In the Megalithic Culture of Western Europe, the use of complementary latitudeswas very common (Refs.21-41). Both passages B2 and A26 have 4 symbols, confirmingboth sailing distances, twice.Passages A1 and A19 (E1) on the front side show the discovery of the Faeroes, at31+31+1= 62°N, 31+1= 32 double generations ago (3410-3349). Passage B2 on the backside has a “boat” and a “route” sign, confirming the discovery of the Faeroes and Iceland30+2= 32 double generations ago. Passage B1 has an “island” and a “waterway”, againconfirming this event, 31+1= 32 double generations ago.
  • 5. GreenlandIt is known that Greenland was discovered c.3300 BC (Refs.21-30). Passage B5 has an“island” and a “crossing” sign, encoding the sailing distance from Iceland to Cape Holm,Greenland, 5 moiras= 5°= 300 NM. A5 on the front side has two “route” signs, confir-ming it. Both passages indicate the latitude of Cape Holm, at 31+31+5= 67°N. PassageB6 has a “route” sign and an “island”, and passage B7 has two “islands” and a “water-way”, confirming Cape Holm, at 30+31+6= 30+30+7= 67°N.Passage B23 has an “island”, confirming Cape Holm at the holy Arctic Circle, at 90-23=67°N. It has 5 symbols, confirming the sailing distance of 5 moiras. Passage A23 on thefront side has a “sailing route” and the symbols for the “power of God”. It confirms theholy Arctic Circle, at 90-23= 67°N. It is the northernmost line where the Sun still shineson midwinter day (Refs.21-41). Note, that the symbol of the “island”, upside down,resembles South Greenland.Passage B1 has an “island” and a “waterway”, indicating the discovery of Greenland,30+1= 31 double generations ago (3349-3288). Passage B19 (E1) has a “boat”, confir-ming it. The front side of the Phaistos Disc contains 31 passages, confirming it, again.Passage A31 has an "archipelago", confirming it. It happened before the start of the Pre-Dynastic Period of Egypt (Table 8.7). The burls of the shield in A31 resemble themountains of Greenland, which poke through the ice cap.South GreenlandIt is known that the south capes of Greenland were discovered c.3250 BC (Refs.21-30).Passage B30 on the back side has an “island”, an “archipelago”, and a “crossing” sign,encoding Cape Farvel, the south cape of Greenland, at 30+30= 60°N. Passage A29 on thefront side has an “island” and a “waterway”, confirming the latitude, at 31+29= 60°N.Passage B1 on the back side has an “island” and a “waterway”, corresponding to the SWCape of Greenland, at 30+30+1= 61°N. Passage B19 (E1) has a “boat”, confirming it.Passage B30, having three important symbols, shows the discovery of South Greenland,30 double generations ago (3288-3227). It is the last passage of the generation seriesB25-30 of the Pre-Dynastic Period (see Ch.8). So, it shows this discovery 30+30= 60generations ago, between 1458+60x30.5= 3288 and 3288-31= 3257. So, during the 1stgeneration of the Pre-Dynastic Period people reached the SW Cape of Greenland. The31+30= 61 passages of the Phaistos Disc encode its latitude, at 61°N. Passage B30confirms this latitude, at 31+30= 61°N.It is known that the megalith builders gave up their efforts to cross Davis Strait, c.3200BC (Refs.17-30). Passage B19 (E1) has a “boat”, encoding the SW Cape of Greenland,at 30+30+1= 61°N. However, it also has a “corpse”, showing that they surrendered.Passage B29 has an “island”, a “waterway”, and a “corpse”, confirming that they gave upcrossing Davis Strait at the SW Cape of Greenland, at 90-29= 61°N. This happened 29double generations ago (3227-3166). A29 on the front side, with an “island” and a“waterway”, confirms the SW Cape, at 90-29= 61°N, and the date.Passage B27 of the generation series B25-30 has a “boat”, a “crossing” sign, and a“corpse”, showing that people gave up crossing Davis Strait 30+27= 57 generations ago.It was in the 3rd generation of the Pre-Dynastic Period (3227-3196), which lasted a totalof 6 generations. Passage A26 of the generation series A24-28 (using A27a/b) has an“island”, “archipelago”, “waterway”, and “corpse”, confirming that one surrendered,
  • 6. 31+26= 57 generations ago. This was in the 3rd generation, indeed (Table 8.6). The burlsof the shield in A26 resemble the mountains of Greenland, again, poking through the icecap. (Refs.70-81)9.2 TAIWAN AND THE SOLOMON ISLANDS (Djer, Djet, Anedjib, and Semerkhet, 1st Dynasty)Sumatra, Kalimantan, Philippines, TaiwanPassage B1 of the back side contains an “island” and a "waterway", which means impor-tant boat voyages occurred during the 1st Dynasty (Refs.1-6). Fig.9.4 shows a correctimage of this side of the disc, also in a geographical sense. So, this passage B1 pointsESE from Egypt (the center of the disc), in the direction of Singapore, at 1°N, which isan important bifurcation of sailing routes (Refs.21-24). A line runs from B1 to passageB10, which has the shape of the South Chinese Sea, around the latitude of 10°N. The“island” and the “crossing” sign indicate the crossings around that Sea from Singapore toSumatra, further to Kalimantan, further to the Philippines, further to Taiwan, and finallyto mainland China. The last sign is also the symbol of "religion", indicating the north sideof the South Chinese Sea, at the holy Tropic of Cancer, at 23°N (Refs.1-16).So, the Egyptians discovered West Indonesia, the Philippines, and Taiwan around thisSea. The line between both passages B1 and B10 (emphasized by a second piece of lineparallel to it), forms the end of passage B3, encoding South Korea, at a latitude of 31+3=34°N. So, it is emphasized, that all discoveries were south of this peninsula (Table 8.5).Sunda Islands, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon IslandsPassage A1 on the front side also symbolizes the 1st Dynasty. It contains a "burin" poin-ting to A6. Fig.9.3 shows a correct image of this side of the disc, also in a geographicalsense. This passage A6 points east from Egypt (the center of the disc). So, the Egyptiansundertook a second expedition in the direction of the south point of Sri Lanka, at 6°N.Passage A6 shows they crossed from Sumatra to the island of Java, at 6°S.Passage A1 represents Singapore, again, at 1°N (Refs.21-24). Passage A6 points eastfrom Singapore (the center of the disc). So apparently, they sailed along the SundaIslands over a distance of 60 moiras= 60°= 3,600 NM east of Singapore, which is untilthe Solomon Islands, at 6°S, behind New Guinea. The shapes of passages A1 and A6suggest they returned along the north side of New Guinea, along islands in the directionof Kalimantan, discovered in the previous expedition.KingsA24-31 is one of the kings series of the 1st Dynasty (Ch.8). The history of Egypt startedin the center. For that reason the passages in these series are counted backwards. The 3rdpassage A29 and the 6th passage A26 contain "waterways", indicating discoveries in theeast during the reigns of the 3rd King Djer (c.3043-3012, Taiwan), and the 6th KingAnedjib (c.2992-2966, Solomon Islands), respectively. A26 also encodes the 26 years ofreign King Anedjib. In another kings series A28-22, the 4th passage A19 belongs to A17and A18, with a “boat”, of the same paragraph, and the 7th passage A29 has a "water-way". These passages indicate discoveries in the east during the reigns of the 4th KingDjet (c.3035-3012, Taiwan), and the 7th King Semerkhet (c.2966-2948, SolomonIslands), respectively. A31 encodes the 31 years of reign of King Djer, and A18 encodesthe 18 years of reign of King Semerkhet.Passages A10-18 on the front side form a complete circle of 36 symbols, corresponding
  • 7. with a circle angle of 360 degrees. It is called the “Circle”. Passages A10-12 at the startof the Circle are identical to passages A16-18 at the end of it. Both groups together arecalled the “Combination”. A10, with the symbols of the “power of God”, is the firstpassage of the Combination, having two “boats”. It symbolizes the South Chinese Sea,again, around 10°N, which can be reached by sailing SE from Egypt (the center of thedisc). A6-13 is another kings series of the 1st Dynasty. The 4th passage A10 representsthe 4th King Djet, confirming his discovery of Taiwan. The 7th passage A7, also with thesymbols of the “power of God”, represents the 7th King Semerkhet, confirming his dis-covery of the Solomon Islands, at 7°S.GenerationsB25-30 on the back side is one of the generation series of the 1st Dynasty (Ch.8). The 3rdpassage B27 of this series contains a "boat" and a “crossing” sign, and the 5th passageB29 has an “island” and a "waterway". These passages suggest the visit to the SouthChinese Sea happened in the 3rd generation (Taiwan, 3044-3014), and the expeditionbeyond West Indonesia occurred in the 5th generation (Solomon Islands, 2983-2953). Inanother generation series B7-12, the 3rd passage B9 contains a "boat", and the 5thpassage B11 has a "waterway". These passages strongly confirm this statement. TheKings just mentioned reigned during these generations.Passage B27 (see above) has the symbol of “sailing route” or "religion", suggesting cros-sings from island to island, and confirming discoveries until Taiwan, at the holy Tropicof Cancer. Passage B22 of the generation series B19-24 has a "boat", which confirms thediscovery of Taiwan, at 22°N. The passage ends with the symbol of “crossing” or"religion", and with next passage B23, confirming the discovery of Taiwan at the holyTropic of Cancer, at 23°N. It illustrates the religious nature of these expeditions. B23 alsoencodes the 23 years of reign of King Djet.A24-28 (using 27a/b) is a generation series on the front side. The 3rd passage A26 in thisseries has a "waterway". It confirms the discoveries around the South Chinese Sea in the3rd generation. A18-23 is another generation series. The 3rd passage A20 has a “route”sign and an “archipelago”, confirming the discoveries in the 3rd generation. The 5thpassage A22 has the same, confirming the 5th generation. Passage A23 at the end of thisseries has the symbols of the “power of God”, which confirm the discoveries untilTaiwan at the holy Tropic of Cancer, at 23°N. It also confirms the 23 years of reign ofKing Djet.Finally, passage A26 has an “island”, an “archipelago”, and a "waterway", confirmingthe first discoveries in the east, 26 double generations ago (Taiwan, 3044-2983). This isduring the 3rd and 4th generations of the 1st Dynasty (Table 8.5). Passage B25 on theback side only has a “route” sign, confirming the second discoveries in the east, 25double generations ago (Solomon Islands, 2983-2922). This is during the 5th and 6thgenerations of this dynasty (Refs.17-24).9.3 MADAGASCAR (Peribsen, 2nd Dynasty)Ascension and St. HelenaIt is known that the small islands of Ascension and St. Helena in the South AtlanticOcean were discovered c.2900 BC (Refs.21-24). Passage B22 (E4) has a “boat” and a“crossing” sign, corresponding to Cape Palma, the south cape of West Africa, at 4°N.The small passage A14 on the front side has a “route” sign, encoding the sailing distance
  • 8. to Ascension, 14 moiras= 14°= 840 NM. It has 2 symbols, corresponding to the 2 islands,Ascension and St. Helena. B8 on the back side has an “island”, encoding the latitude ofAscension, at 8°S.- A12 on the front side has a “route” sign and a “boat”, correspondingto the sailing distance to St. Helena, 12 moiras= 12°= 720 NM. A16 has a “sailing route”and an “archipelago”, encoding the latitude of St. Helena, at 16°S.Passage A8 has a “route” sign, confirming the island of Ascension, at 8°S. The “lid”,“square”, and “Queen” also occurs in passage A24, having an “archipelago”, showing thediscovery of the two islands happened 24 double generations ago (2922-2861). This is atthe start of the 2nd Dynasty. Passage A19 of the generation series A31-22 is part of theparagraph with A17 and A18, with a “boat”. It shows the discovery happened in the 2ndgeneration (2891-2861). Small passage A14 of the generation series A13-17 has a “route”sign, confirming the discovery in the 2nd generation.In the king series the passages are counted backwards. Passage A26 of the king seriesA19-27 has an “island”, “archipelago”, and “waterway”. It corresponds to the 2nd kingRaneb of Lower Egypt (c.2922-2883). A8, with the “Queen”, encodes his 31+8= 39years of reign. Important passage A24 (see above) has an “archipelago”, corresponding tothe 4th King Weneg, also from Lower Egypt (c.2883-2866). A17, part of theCombination, encodes his 17 years of reign.Passage A22 of the kings series A15-23, and A28-23, has a “route” sign and an“archipelago”, confirming the 2nd King Raneb. A20 has a “route” sign and an “archipe-lago”, confirming the 4th King Weneg. Both Kings reigned during the 2nd generation.So, Ascension and St. Helena were discovered by one of these Kings, between 2891 and2866.MadagascarPassage B2 on the back side has a "boat" and a “route” sign, which indicate that animportant boat voyage occurred during the 2nd Dynasty (Refs.21-24). Fig.9.4 shows acorrect image of this side of the disc, also in a geographical sense. The shape of thepassage resembles a kind of arrow pointing SSE from Egypt (the center of the disc).-A28-23 on the front side is one of the kings series of the 2nd Dynasty (Ch.8). The historyof Egypt started in the center. For that reason the passages in these series are countedbackwards. The 8th passage A29 contains a "waterway", which indicates that the boatvoyage happened during the reign of the 8th King Peribsen of Upper Egypt(c.2820-2772).Passage A19 of the series is in the same paragraph with A17 and A18, belonging to theimportant Combination with the “boats”. It is situated on the edge. The shape of A19resembles the island of Madagascar, located SSE of Egypt (the center of the disc),indeed.- Passage A17, just mentioned, is the 5th, and last passage of the generation seriesA13-17. It indicates the discovery of Madagascar in the 5th, and last generation of the2nd Dynasty (2800-2769). King Peribsen ruled during this generation. A18, with the“boat”, encodes his 30+18= 48 years of reign.Passage B2 with the “boat” is an arrow, pointing to the 5th, and last passage B18 of thegeneration series B14-18. B18 confirms the 30+18= 48 years of the King. The last part ofthis passage resembles the island of Madagascar, again, located SSE of Egypt (the centerof the disc). So, it is confirmed that Madagascar was discovered in the 5th, and lastgeneration of the 2nd Dynasty.- In the kings series A28-31 plus 1-5 on the front side, the
  • 9. 8th passage A29 contains an “island” and a "waterway", confirming the boat voyagehappened during the reign of the 8th King Peribsen.A15-23 is another kings series of the 2nd Dynasty (Ch.8). The 8th passage A16represents the 8th King Peribsen, again. Note, that its paragraph-line points to A29 on theedge, which was just mentioned. A16 contains a “sailing route” and an “archipelago”, butalso the symbols of the “power of God”. This passage encodes the SE Cape ofMozambique, at 16°S, as well as the sailing direction of 16° ESE from this Cape to WestMadagascar, at the same latitude. A16, containing 4 symbols, is in the 4th turn on thisside, twice encoding the sailing distance of 4 moiras= 4°= 240 NM.- Last passage A23 ofthis series also contains the symbols of the “power of God”. It symbolizes the holy Tropicof Capricorn, at 23°S, which runs over South Madagascar.Passage A2 on the front side symbolizes the 2nd Dynasty. It is part of the generationseries A1-5. Last passage A5 has two “route” signs, confirming the discovery in the 5thgeneration.- Passage A12 of the Combination has a “boat”. It corresponds with the NorthCape of Madagascar, and with the islands of the Comores, at 12°S. Passage A26 has a“waterway”. It corresponds with the South Cape of Madagascar, at 26°S.Passage A2 contains the symbols of the “messenger” and the “scroll of the law”. Thesame group of symbols appears in B24 on the back side. It is the 5th, and last passage ofthe generation series B20-24, confirming the discovery in the 5th generation of the 2ndDynasty.- The same group appears in passage A31, at the start of the generation seriesA31-22. The 5th, and last passage A22 has a “route” and an “archipelago”, confirmingthe discovery in the 5th generation.- A19-27 is one of the king series of the 2nd Dynasty.Passage A19 represents the island of Madagascar (see above). The previous, or 8thpassage A20 has a “route” sign and an “archipelago”, confirming its discovery by the 8thKing Peribsen.Passage B22 on the back side is the first one of the series B22-24, indicating the doublegenerations of this Dynasty. It has a “boat” and a “crossing” sign, confirming thediscovery of Madagascar 22 double generations ago (2800-2739). The “crossing” sign inthe passage depicts the “sailing route” from Mozambique to Madagascar. The sign of the“scraper” shows the island of Madagascar, itself (Table 8.4) (Refs.17-24).9.4 AUSTRALIA (Djoser, 3rd Dynasty)Passage B1 on the back side symbolizes the 1st Dynasty (Fig.9.4). It points from Egypt(the center of the disc) ESE in the direction of Singapore, at 1°N, an important divisionof sailing routes (Refs.21-24). A piece of line runs from B1 to B10, which has the shapeof the South Chinese Sea, at about 10°N. People discovered the area around it during the1st Dynasty: Indonesia, the Philippines, and Taiwan. The piece of line at the end of B3,and a second line parallel to it, symbolize the south coast of Korea, at 31+3= 34°N. Thefirst three passages represent Dynasties 1, 2, and 3, respectively. So, the discoveries inthe east during these dynasties were all south of Korea Peninsula.Passage B3, having an “island” and a “route” sign, represents the 3rd Dynasty, the firstone of the Old Kingdom. The King in this passage looks along the first separation line ofB10 to the edge of the disc. So, the King looks along the island of Sumatra, the southernend of the South Chinese Sea, SE, in the direction of Australia. The important edge has12 passages, encoding the north coasts of Australia, at 12°S, 120 moiras= 120°= 7,200
  • 10. NM east of Egypt (Refs.13,21-24). Important passage A3 on the front side (Fig.9.3) alsorepresents the 3rd Dynasty. A3 and B3 contain together 7+5= 12 symbols, confirming it.So, Australia was discovered by the Egyptians in the 3rd Dynasty (Refs.21-24).First passage B29 of the generation series B29-19 (Ch.8) contains an “island” and a“waterway”, suggesting an important boat voyage during the first generation of the 3rdDynasty (2769-2739). First passage A29 of the generation series A29-31 on the front sidealso has these symbols, confirming it.A24-31 on the front side is a kings series of the 3rd Dynasty (Ch.8). The history of Egyptstarted in the center. For that reason the passages in these series are counted backwards.-The 2nd passage A30 of this kings series represents the 2nd King Djoser (c.2753-2723).The temple in the passage may indicate his pyramide complex near Sakkara, at 30°N.A30 also encodes his 30 years of reign.- The 2nd passage A26 of the kings series A19-27also represents the 2nd King Djoser. It contains a "waterway", indicating important boatvoyages during his reign. This King ruled during the first generation. So, during the firstgeneration of the 3rd Dynasty the 2nd King Djoser discovered Australia. Both passagesA29 and A26 are situated on the edge, which contains 12 passages, confirming the northcoasts of Australia, at 12°S, 120 moiras east of Egypt (Table 8.3).First passage A10 of the generation series A10-12 has a “sailing route” and an “archi-pelago”. It symbolizes the first generation, when Australia was discovered. The shape ofthe passage, with the symbols for the “power of God”, resembles the shape of thecontinent of Australia, upside down. A10 encodes narrow Torres Strait, between NewGuinea and Australia, at 10°S. Like Australia, the passage is situated SE of the center ofthe disc, representing Singapore. The generation series A10-12 is part of the importantCombination (A10,11,12/A16,17,18), describing religious boat voyages. Passage A12has a “route” sign and a “boat”, confirming the discovery of the north coasts of Australia,at 12°S, 120 moiras east of Egypt.Passage A13 is equal to A10, having the shape of Australia. It is the 2nd passage of thekings series A6-14, representing the 2nd King Djoser, again. So, it is confirmed that KingDjoser discovered Australia. The 3 identical passages A10, A13, and A16, with thesymbols of the "power of God", confirm the 3rd Dynasty. The total number of symbols is3x4= 12, confirming the north coasts of Australia, at 12°S.Passage A10 symbolizes Australia. Note, that the following passages A11-14 form aseries, describing the crossing from the southern islet of Roti (Indonesia), at 11°S, toCape Bougainville, Australia, at 14°S. A10, having 4 symbols, is in the 4th turn, twiceencoding the sailing distance of 4 moiras= 4°= 240 NM. Passage A14 correspond to thesailing direction of 31+14= 45°SE. The disc has 45 different symbols, confirming it. Ithas 4 turns on the back side, and 5 turns on the front side, confirming it, again!First passage B11 of the generation series B11-13 has an “island” and a “waterway”. Itconfirms the start of the crossing from the southern island of Roti of the Sunda Islands(Indonesia), at 11°S, during the first generation. It is the best departure point for Austra-lia. The complete series of passages B11-14, finishing with the “King”, confirms thewhole crossing to Cape Bougainville, at 14°S.Passage B22 on the edge contains a "boat" and a “crossing” sign, confirming this impor-tant boat voyage in the south-east, 22 double generations ago (2800-2739). The "scraper"
  • 11. in the passage looks like the enormous desert of the continent. The passage symbolizesthe NW Cape of Australia, at 22°S. This is close to the holy Tropic of Capricorn, at 23°S,symbolized by the last sign of "religion", and by next passage B23. This sign also depictsthe crossing from the islet of Roti to Australia.The "triangular grater" of passage B25 also symbolizes the enormous desert of Australia,halfway the north and the south points of Australia, at 25°S. It strongly resemblesDjoser’s step pyramid, with its 6 layers. It encodes the surface area of Australia, 6 squareMoiras. The "carpenters square" in the passage (and in B23) looks like a boomerang, thenational symbol of Australia. The disc contains 12 of these "squares", again confirmingthe north coasts of Australia, at 12°S. In conclusion it can be stated that the 2nd KingDjoser of the 3rd Dynasty discovered the continent of Australia in the first generation ofthis dynasty, between 2753 and 2739 (Table 8.3) (Refs.21-24,49-51).Passage A10 on the front side, having the shape of Australia (upside down), encodesTorres Strait, between New Guinea and Cape York, Australia, at 10°S. Passage B10 onthe back side confirms Torres Strait at this latitude. It contains an “island” and the sign of“religion”, depicting its crossing to the south. The passages after A10 on the front sideencode important latitudes along the coasts of the continent of Australia. Passage A18 atthe end of the inner part corresponds to the south point of Carpentaria Gulf, at 18°S.Passage B9 on the back side, having a "boat", symbolizes the crossing of Bass Strait,from Australia to Tasmania, at 31+9= 40°S. Next passages B10-12 represent the latitudesof Tasmania, between 31+10= 41°S and 31+12= 43°S (Refs.42-51,70-74,77-81).Fig.9.1 The famous step pyramid of the 2nd king Djoser (c.2753-2723) of the ThirdDynasty in Saqqara, near Cairo, Egypt. He discovered Australia via the eastern crossingfrom New Guinea, at Cape York. The six steps of the pyramid encode the surface area ofAustralia, 6 square Moiras, or 7.4 thousand square km.9.5 NEW ZEALAND AND THE ISLANDS IN THE PACIFIC
  • 12. (Sa and Huni, 3rd Dynasty)New ZealandPassage B7 on the back side encodes the entrance of Bass Strait, between Australia andTasmania, at 31+7= 38°S. It contains two "mountains" and a "waterway", suggesting asailing route between two islands. One of the islands appears to be Tasmania, resemblingthe "island" symbol, upside down. Next passage B8 encodes the south capes of Australia,at 31+8= 39°S. The text of the passage reads: "The wood (of the ship) leads to theisland". So, it appears, the "waterway" of B7 describes the sailing route from the entranceof Bass Strait, at 38°S (or Tasmania), to New Zealand, due east, which is the direction ofthe passages. Passage B9 has a "boat" and a “route” sign, confirming this sailing route at31+9= 40°S. The "boat" resembles the shape of New Zealand. The 3 passages B7-9encode the shortest sailing distance from the entrance of Bass Strait/Tasmania to NewZealand, 3 Half Moiras= 15 moiras= 15°= 900 NM (Refs.21-24). So, New Zealand wasdiscovered by the Egyptians.Passage B3, symbolizing the 3rd Dynasty, encodes the North Cape of North Island, at31+3= 34°S, passage B9 with the "boat" encodes the entrance of Cook Strait, betweenboth islands, at 31+9= 40°S, and passage B16 encodes the South Cape of South Island, at31+16= 47°S. Note, that the paragraph-line of B7, which started this story, points down-wards to this passage B16, confirming the discovery of New Zealand during thisDynasty. Passage B7 also symbolizes New Zealand. The “island” at the left side is NorthIsland, the “waterway” is Cook Strait, and the “island“ at the right side is South Island. Itconfirms the discovery, measured along the equator, 70 moiras= 70°= 4,200 NM east ofSingapore, the important bifurcation of sailing routes (Refs.21-24,48).Passage B9, with the “boat” and the “route” sign, represents the crossing from Bass Straitto New Zealand, at 31+9= 40°S. Passage B3, representing the 3rd Dynasty, has an“island” and a “route” sign. The “King” of B3 is watching along the end of B9 to passageB19 on the edge, having a “boat”. B19 is the 3rd passage of the generation series B29-19(Ch.8), indicating the discovery of New Zealand during the 3rd generation (2708-2678).It also encodes the 19 years of reign of King Sa (c.2688-2669), who turns out to be im-portant.- Passage B10 represents the same crossing of the Tasman Sea, at 31+10= 41°S.It contains an “island” and a “crossing” sign. Passage B1 in the center of the disc pointsto this passage via a double line at the end of passage B3, representing the 3rd Dynasty,again. Passage B1, having a “waterway”, is the 3rd passage of the generation series B29,30, 1, confirming the discovery of New Zealand in the 3rd generation of this Dynasty.A24-31 (using 27a/b) on the front side is a kings series of the 3rd Dynasty (Ch.8). Thehistory of Egypt started in the center. For that reason the passages in these series arecounted backwards.- The 7th passage A26 of this series contains a “waterway”, sugges-ting an important boat voyage during the reign of the 7th King Huni (c.2685-2661). Thesign of the “papyrus” in passage A3, representing the 3rd Dynasty, points to the start ofpassage A8. A8, with a “route” sign, is also the end of the 7th passage of the kings seriesA6-14, confirming this voyage of the 7th King Huni. This King of Lower Egypt ruledduring the 3rd generation, indeed. The “lid”, “square”, and “Queen” in A8 are also pre-sent in A24. It encodes the 24 years of reign of King Huni.The 5th passage A23 of the kings series A19-27 contains a “sailing route” and thesymbols of the “power of God”, suggesting an important, religious boat voyage duringthe reign of the 5th King Sa. The passage represents the holy Tropic of Capricorn, at23°S. It also has a “branch” (wood), symbolic for Upper Egypt, at 23°N (Ch.5). Passage
  • 13. A10 contains a “sailing route”, an “archipelago”, and the symbols for the “power ofGod”. It is the 5th passage of the kings series A6-14, confirming this voyage of King Sa.This King of Upper Egypt ruled during the 3rd generation, too. During a part of the 3rdgeneration King Huni and King Sa ruled simultaneously. So, it can be stated that NewZealand was discovered in the 3rd generation of the 3rd Dynasty, during the reigns ofKing Huni and King Sa, between 2688 and 2661 (Table 8.3) (Refs.21-24,44-53,70-84).Fig.9.2 Granite head of the 7th king Huni (c.2685-2661) of the Third Dynasty (BrooklynMuseum, New York, USA). He discovered the islands of New Zealand.Micronesia, Melanesia, and PolynesiaPassage B7 has two “islands” and a "waterway". So, the islands of Micronesia werediscovered, at about 7°N, until the easternmost Ratak Islands, about 70 moiras= 70°=4,200 NM east of Singapore (Refs.13,21-24). Passage A7 at the front side contains a“sailing route”, an “archipelago”, and the symbols for the “power of God”, confirming it.Both passages played a role in the discovery of New Zealand. So, these islands werediscovered by the same Kings, in the third generation of the 3rd Dynasty.Passage B9 on the back side has a "boat" and a “route” sign, and the "King" in B3,representing the 3d Dynasty, looks along the start of next passage B10 to the edge with12 passages. B10 has an “island” and a “crossing” sign. So, the islands of Melanesia and
  • 14. Polynesia were discovered, at about 9°S and 10°S, until the Marquesas Islands, about 120moiras= 120°= 7,200 NM east of Singapore. Next passage B11, with an “island” and a“waterway”, has a paragraph-line pointing to the edge of 12 passages, confirming it.Passage A10 on the front side has a “sailing route”, an “archipelago”, and the symbols ofthe “power of God”, confirming the islands of Melanesia and Polynesia, at about 10°S.Next passage A11 has a paragraph-line, pointing to the edge of 12 passages, confirmingthe sailing distance of about 12 moiras east of Singapore, the bifurcation of sailing routes.Next passage A12 has a “route” sign and a “boat”, confirming it, again. A12 is the 3rdpassage of the generation series A10-12, confirming the 3rd generation of the dynasty.Some of the passages on the front side played a role in the discovery of New Zealand. So,these islands were discovered by the same Kings, again.Passages B19 and B22 on the back side have "boats". So, the islands of Melanesia andPolynesia were discovered at about 19°S and 22°S, until the Tuamotu Islands, south ofthe Marquesas Islands. B19 and B22 are located on the edge, with a total of 12 passages,confirming the sailing distance east of Singapore, 120 moiras.Passage A19 on the front side belongs with A17 and A18 to the important Combinationwith the “boats”. It confirms the 19 years of reign of King Sa. Passage A23 has a “sailingroute” and the symbols of the “power of God”, encoding the holy Tropic of Capricorn.Both passages A19 and A23 confirm the discovery of the islands of Melanesia andPolynesia at about 19°S and 23°S, until the Tuamotu Islands. A19 and A23 are on theedge with 13 passages in total, confirming the sailing distance east of Singapore, about130 moiras. The Egyptians did not discover Eastern Island, about 150 moiras east ofSingapore, or South America. Some of the passages involved played a role in thediscovery of New Zealand. So, the islands were discovered by the same Kings, in the 3rdgeneration, again.Passage B18 on the back side can also be considered as a passage on the edge. It has 2temples, so the 2 bigger islands of Fidzji were also discovered, at 18°S. Passage A18 onthe front side has a “route” sign and a “boat”, and belongs to the Combination. It con-firms the discovery of Fidzji at this latitude. Finally, passage B22 on the edge of the backside has a "boat" and a “crossing” sign, so the larger island of New Caledonia wasdiscovered, at 22°S, as well. Passage B7 has two “islands” and a "waterway", becauseFidzji and New Caledonia are about 70 moiras= 70°= 4,200 NM east of Singapore.Passage A7 on the front side has a “sailing route”, an “archipelago”, and the symbols forthe “power of God”, confirming it.As a conclusion it can be stated, that almost all the islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, andPolynesia were discovered in the 3rd generation of the 3rd Dynasty, during the reigns ofKing Huni and King Sa, between 2688 and 2661 (Table 8.3) (Refs.17-24,70-81,84).
  • 15. Fig.9.3 Front side A of the Phaistos Disc(Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.1)
  • 16. Fig.9.4 Back side B of the Phaistos Disc (Crete, c.1458 BC) (Courtesy L. Godart, Ref.1)9.6 JAPAN AND AMERICA VIA THE ALEUTIAN ISLANDS (Menkaure, 4th Dynasty)The discovery of America via the Bering SeaPassage A4 on the front side represents the 4th Dynasty (Refs.1,2). The “burin” in A4points to passage A10, which is the first one of the Combination. Note, that the kingseries A10-18 describes more than a full circle, which means that they encircled theplanet Earth (Ch.8). The Circle contains 36 symbols, encoding a distance of 360 moiras=360°= 360x60= 21,600 NM, which is the circumference of the Earth (Ref.13). The"burin" points to the start of the Combination in particular. So, they organised a sailingvoyage from Egypt (the center of the disc) to the east (in the direction of the firstpassages), to the back side of the Earth. The equal passages A12 and A18, with the"boats", encode the southern Nile Delta, at 12+18= 30°N. So, the Egyptians discoveredAmerica (Refs.7-16).Passage A4 on the front side encodes the 4th Dynasty, but also the south coast of KoreaPeninsula, at 30+4= 34°N. Passage B4 on the back side also represents the 4th Dynasty.
  • 17. This passage, with an “island”, encodes the crossing of Korea Strait, at 31+4= 35°N. So,the islands of Japan were discovered. The "arrow" of B4 and the shape of the passagepoint to passage B11 in the east, with an “island” and a "waterway", presumely represen-ting the Aleutian Islands sailing route. The paragraph-line of B11 points via the end ofpassage B20 to the very edge, which means they discovered America via the southernAleutians, at 31+20= 51°N (Refs.21-24).Passage A19 is the 5th and central passage of the kings series A28-23. It represents the5th King Menkaure (c.2580-2562). It is part of the paragraph with A17 and A18 of theCombination, referring to religious boat voyages to Central America, the Land of Punt.The symbol of the "boat" in A18 suggests an important boat voyage during his reign.Passage A19 indicates, that 19 double generations ago (2617-2556), during the reign ofKing Menkaure, Egyptian sailors reached America via the Bering Sea for the first time.The “route” sign and the "boat" in A18 refer to this important boat voyage to the southpoint of the Gulf of Campeche, Central America, at 18°N, and to the 18 years of reign ofKing Menkaure. It also symbolized the back side of the planet Earth “18 Moiras” (or180°) west of Egypt. Note, that A19 is the first passage on the edge. So, the inner part ofthe disc represents the Old World, and the edge is the New World.B27 and B9 on the back side are the last but one passages of the generation series B24-28and B6-10, respectively. Both have "boats" and “route” signs, which mean an importantboat voyage happened in the 5-1= 4th generation of this Dynasty (2586-2556), which isduring the reign of King Menkaure, indeed.- A26 on the front side is the 4th passage ofthe generation series A23-27. It has an “island”, an “archipelago”, and a “waterway”,confirming the events in the 4th generation. Passage A1 is the 5th passage of the kingsseries A28-31 plus A1-5. It represents the 5th King Menkaure (Mycerinus). Note, thatthis passage is equal to A4, confirming his discovery of America in the 4th Dynasty(Refs.52-68).Passage B19 contains a “flower” and a "boat". Here it is confirmed that King Menkaurereached America via the Bering Sea 19 double generations ago. Passage B18 containstwo "death temples", confirming that he reached the south point of the Gulf ofCampeche, at 18°N, during his 18 years of reign. This land is the Realm of the Dead, thefamous Land of Punt. B18 or B19 is the first passage on the edge. Here it is confirmed,that the inner part represents the Old World, and the edge is the New World. So, Americawas discovered in the 4th Dynasty by the 5th King Menkaure, between c.2580 and 2562(Table 8.3). The Phaistos Disc has 45 different symbols, confirming it. The back side has4 turns, and the front side has 5 turns, strongly confirming it (Refs.21-24)!Sailing via the Aleutian IslandsPassage B4 symbolizes the 4th Dynasty, but also the crossing from Korea to Japan, at31+4= 35°N. The “arrow” in B4 points to B11. Passage B11 has an “island” and a"waterway", encoding Tsugaru Strait, at 31+11= 42°N. Passage A12 on the front side ispart of the Combination. It has a “route” and a "boat" confirming it, at 30+12= 42°N.Next passage A13, with a “sailing route”, an “archipelago”, and the symbols of the“power of God”, encodes the start of the Kurilles Islands Route, near Hokaido, at 30+13=43°N.Important passages A16-18 with the "boat" form 16+17+18= 51 units, encoding the endof the Kurilles Route, as well as the southern Aleutian Islands, at 51°N. B20 has a
  • 18. “sailing route” and the symbols of the “power of the King”, confirming the latitude, at31+20= 51°N (Refs.21-24,27). Passage A20 has a “flower”, a “route”, and an “archipe-lago”, confirming it. It also encodes the most important sailing direction from the Beringand Copper Islands to Attu Island, 90-51= 39°SE. (Note, that in antiquity the use ofcomplementary angles was very common.) Passage A4, symbolizing the 4th Dynasty,corresponds to the sailing distance, 4 moiras= 4°= 240 NM.The "burin" in passage A4 points to the important Combination. The identical passagesA10-12, with the "boat", form 10+11+12= 33 units, encoding the start and the end of theAleutian Islands Route, at the complementary latitude of 90-33= 57°N. A26 has an“island”, an “archipelago” and a “waterway”, confirming the latitude, at 31+26= 57°N.Passage B27, with a “boat” and a “crossing” sign, confirms it, at 30+27= 57°N. This isthe most important crossing to America (Table 8.2) (Refs.17-20).Passage B2 on the back side has a "boat" and a “route” sign, corresponding to thecrossing via Saint Laurence Island, at 30+31+2= 63°N, and with the subsequent sailingdistance to the coast of Alaska, 2 moiras= 2°= 120 NM. Passage B27, of the generationseries B24-28, has a "boat" and the sign of “religion”, confirming this “crossing” in the4th generation, at 90-27= 63°N.Passage B5 on the back side, having an “island”, encodes the Crossing of the BeringStrait, at 30+31+5= 66°N. The symbol of "religion" in the passage shows the “crossing”from the East Cape of Asia to the West Cape of Alaska at this latitude. Passage A23 (E5)on the front side, with a “sailing route” and the symbols of the “power of God”, is the 5thpassage on the edge. It confirms the Bering Strait, at 30+31+5= 66°N, near the holyArctic Circle, at 90-23= 67°N. It is the northernmost line where the Sun still shines atmidwinter day. It also encodes the crossing of the Gulf of California at the holy Tropic ofCancer, at 23°N (Ref.34). This crossing leads directly to Central America(Refs.21-41,52-68,70-81).The first paragraphs at both sides of the Phaistos Disc each possess 4 passages,celebrating the discovery of America via the Bering Sea in the 4th Dynasty. The secondparagraph on the front side has 5 passages, celebrating this discovery by the 5th KingMenkaure. The second and third paragraphs on the back side have together 2+3= 5passages, confirming it. Both inner parts of the Disc each possess 18 passages,celebrating his 18 years of reign.- The name of "Korea" might be derived from the nameof the Egyptian King "Menkaure", who discovered it in the 4th Dynasty. An old name forKorea is "Tsjosen", which is probably from the Egyptian King "Djoser", who discoveredAustralia during the previous 3rd Dynasty.-
  • 19. Fig.9.5 A slate statue of the 5th king Menkaure (c.2580-2562) of the Fourth Dynasty,who discovered America via the Aleutian Islands, at the south side of the Bering Sea. Atthe right side his wife Queen Khamerernebty II, at the left side as the goddess Hathorwith a Sun disc on her head. Note, that the space between the horns resembles the shapeof the continent of North America.9.7 AMERICA VIA THE SOUTHERN CROSSING OF THE ATLANTIC (Sahura, 5th Dynasty)The Discovery of America via the AtlanticA19-27 on the front side is a kings series of the 5th Dynasty (Ch.8). The history of Egyptstarted in the center. For that reason the passages in these series are counted backwards.-A26 is the 2nd passage of this series. It represents the 2nd King Sahure (c.2510-2498).The symbols of “island”, “archipelago”, and "waterway" point to an important boat vo-yage during his reign, as confirmed in the literature (Refs.6-16,21-24).- B19 on the backside is the first passage of the generation series B19-23. It has a “flower” and a "boat",suggesting a boat voyage in the first generation (2525-2495), which is during the reign ofKing Sahure, indeed. The first passage B1 of the generation series B1-5 has an “island”and a "waterway", strongly confirming it. The series finishes with B5, with an “island”and a “crossing”, representing the 5th Dynasty.The important series of passages A10-12 on the front side is repeated by passagesA16-18. This Combination describes religious boat voyages to Central America, theLand of Punt. Passages A16-18 point from Egypt (the center of the disc) in south-westerndirection, referring to the Southern Crossing of the Atlantic, between Africa and SouthAmerica. Note, that passage A18 contains a “route” sign and a "boat". So, 18 doublegenerations ago (2556-2495), people reached America via the Atlantic for the first time,
  • 20. during the reign of King Sahure, indeed. They reached the south point of the Gulf ofCampeche, in Central America, at 18°N. So, the discovery of America via the Atlantichappened in the first generation of the 5th Dynasty, during the reign of King Sahure(c.2510-2498) (Table 8.1) (Refs.21-24).Passage B5, with “island” and “crossing”, symbolizes the 5th Dynasty, but also thesailing distance from West Africa to the Cape Verde Islands, 5 moiras= 5°= 300 NM.Note that this passage equals B10. Together these form 5+10= 15 units, corresponding tothe southern Cape Verde Islands, at 15°N. The symbol of "religion" in B10 resembles theSouthern Crossing of the Atlantic from these islands, with the wind and the current, toSouth America. Passage B5 encodes Cape São Roque (the Holy Roque), Brazil, at 5°S.Passage B1 of the generation series B1-5, with “island” and "waterway", represents thefirst generation. It also encodes the sailing direction from the southern Cape Verde Is-lands to Cape São Roque, Brazil, at 30+30+1= 61°SW. Passage A31, with “archipe-lago”, of the generation series A31-22 also represents the 1st generation. It confirms thesailing direction of the Southern Crossing, at 30+31= 61°SW. Important passage A26 ofthe kings series A19-27 represents the 2nd King Sahure, but it also encodes the sailingdistance of the Southern Crossing of the Atlantic, 26 moiras= 26°= 1,560 NM(Refs.21-24,29-33).Central AmericaPassage A5, with two “route’ signs, represents the 5th Dynasty. The paragraph-linepoints to A11 of the Combination. It encodes the start of the Antilles Islands Route, nearTrinidad/Tobago, at 11°N. Next passage A12 with the "boat" encodes the first island ofGrenada, at 12°N, but also the 12 years of reign of King Sahure. However, for safetyreasons one usually prefers the coastal route to Central America. Next passage A13, with“sailing route”, “archipelago”, and the symbols of the "power of God", encodes PointGallinas, the north cape of South America, at 13°N. Passage B13, similar to B5, repre-senting the 5th Dynasty, confirms the latitude.Passage A16, with “sailing route” and “archipelago”, part of the important Combination,encodes the Culture along the North Coast of Honduras, Belize, and Guatemala, at 16°N.Next passage A17 encodes inland Mexico, at 17°N. Passage B17 with the Palace ofPhaistos of Crete confirms the latitude (Ch.3). Important passage A18, with “route sign”and "boat", encodes the Civilization around the south point of the Gulf of Campeche, at18°N. Passage B18 with the two "temples" confirms the latitude. It is the center of theRealm of the Dead, the famous Land of Punt. Passage A19 represents the northern areaaround the Gulf of Campeche, at 19°N. This is the last passage of the inner part(Refs.52-63).The paragraph-line of passage A5 (5th Dynasty) points to A11, providing the sailingdirection from Cape Catoche, Yucatan, to Cuba, 11°ENE. Passage A23 (E5), with thesymbols for the "power of God", encodes the north coast of Cuba, at the holy Tropic ofCancer, at 23°N. It also encodes the 5th Dynasty. Note, that passages 25 at both sidesstart at a new paragraph. Both encode South Florida on mainland North America, at25°N. Passages 29 at both sides contain "waterways", because these represent the mouthof the Mississippy River, at 29°N (Refs.52-57,66-68,70-83).
  • 21. The Azores CrossingPassage B5, representing the 5th Dynasty, also encodes Cape Hatteras, at 31+5= 36°N.Passage A12 with the "boat" is part of the important Combination on the front side. Itencodes Cape Cod, at 30+12= 42°N, but also the 12 years of reign of the King. Nextpassage A13 with the symbols of the "power of God" encodes Americas Stonehenge(c.2300 BC) and the south cape of Nova Scotia, at 43°N. Americas Stonehenge, anautical center for crossing the Ocean, is the most important megalithic monument ofNorth America (Refs.21-23,31-33). It is also the most important departure point for thereturn route to the Old World. The small passage A14, having a “route” sign, encodesSable Island, at 30+14= 44°N. Via this little island one crosses to the Azores, in themiddle of the Ocean. However, people orient on Newfoundland. The small passage A17corresponds to Cape Race, Newfoundland, the East Cape of North America, at 30+17=47°N (Refs.21-24,39).Passage A18, with the “route” sign and the "boat", corresponds with the initial sailingdirection from Cape Race to the West Azores, 18°ESE, and the sailing distance involved,18 moiras= 18°= 1,080 NM (Refs.17-20). A8, with a “route” sign, is the last passage butone of another kings series A1-9, representing the 2nd King Sahure. Measured along theequator, he reached the Land of Punt, 8 Moiras= 80°= 4,800 NM west of the continent ofAfrica. However, now it symbolizes the Central Azores, at 30+8= 38°N, and the sailingdistance from Sta Maria (East Azores) to Madeira, 8 moiras= 8°= 480 NM. So, KingSahure discovered this return route across the Ocean via the Azores and Madeira.Passage A29, with “island” and "waterway", encodes the initial sailing direction toMadeira, 29°SE. Important passage A3, having an “archipelago”, corresponds to Madei-ra, at 30+3= 33°N. Finally, passage A5 of the 5th Dynasty corresponds with the sailingdistance to mainland Africa, 5 moiras= 5°= 300 NM (Table 8.1).-The front side of the Phaistos Disc has 5 turns, celebrating the discovery of America viathe Atlantic in the 5th Dynasty. The 2nd paragraph on this side possesses 5 passages,confirming this discovery by the 2nd King Sahure. The 2nd paragraph on the back sidehas 2 passages, also celebrating this discovery by the 2nd King Sahure. The 2 sides of thePhaistos Disc confirm it. Both edges of the Disc each have 12 passages, celebrating his12 years of reign.
  • 22. Fig.9.6 Marble statue of the 2nd king Sahure (c.2510-2498) of the Fifth Dynasty, whodiscovered the two southern crossings of the North Atlantic Ocean. (MetropolitanMuseum of Art, New York, USA)9.8 AMERICA VIA THE UPPER NORTH (GREENLAND) (Neferirkare, 5th Dynasty)Upper North CrossingB1-5 on the back side is a generation series of the 5th Dynasty (Ch.8). Passage B2 of thisseries has a ”boat” and a “route” sign, indicating an important boat voyage in the 2ndgeneration of this dynasty (2487-2456). The position of the “boat” is NW from Egypt(the center of the disc), suggesting the Upper North Crossing of the Atlantic. It is the firstsymbol out of 4 in the passage, probably indicating the first of the 4 Kings during thisgeneration, Neferirkare.A19-27 on the front side is a kings series of the 5th Dynasty (Ch.8). The history of Egyptstarted in the center. For that reason the passages in these series are counted backwards.The 3rd passage A25 of this series, having 3 signs, represents the 3rd King Neferirkare(c.2498-2478), again. It contains the “chopper”, which resembles the island of Greenland,
  • 23. including the crossing to America. The passage symbolizes the crossing from WestGreenland to Cape Mercy, Baffin Island, at the complementary latitude of 90-25= 65°N.A25 is placed NW from Egypt (the center of the disc), confirming this crossing. Due toan injury, the paragraph-line of the passage is hardly visible, but it runs to the very edge.This means the edge is important. Both edges of the disc contain 13+12= 25 passages,confirming the crossing, at 90-25= 65°N.The 2nd passage A19 of the generation series A31-22 confirms this boat voyage in the2nd generation, because the passage belongs to the paragraph with A17 and A18 of theimportant Combination with the “boats” (A10,11,12/A16,17,18). The 3 passages of theparagraph confirm the 3rd King Neferirkare.- Passage B25 on the back side confirms theUpper North crossing, at 90-25= 65°N. It contains the “triangular grater”. It clearlyrepresents the south part of Greenland. The dots are the mountains, poking through theicecap. The paragraph-line shows the crossing to America. It runs to the very edge, whichmeans this edge is important, again. The passage has 4 symbols, encoding the length ofthe crossing, 4 moiras= 4°= 240 NM. Passage B2, with the “boat”, which encoded the2nd generation, also contains 4 symbols, confiming it. Both passages have the “hammer”in common. Passage B17, with the Palace of Phaistos, shows this crossing happened 17double generations ago (2495-2434). Passage B25 and B17 have (besides the “square”)the “saw” in common.Passage B20 confirms the 2nd generation in the generation series B19-23. It contains the“sailing route” and the symbols of the “power of the King”. Passage A7 on the front sideconfirms the 3rd King Neferirkare in the kings series A1-9. It contains the “sailingroute”, the “archipelago”, and the “power of God”. It has 3 symbols, confirming the 3rdKing. The corresponding passage B7 on the back side has two “islands” and a“waterway”, confirming the crossing to America.- Passage A25 in the kings seriesA19-27 symbolized this King for the first time. The "glove" in the passage, with 5fingers, occurs 5 times on the disc, confirming the 5th Dynasty. The “corpse” occurs 5times on the back side, confirming it again (Refs.52-57,66-68).The “corpse” is also present in ‘previous’ passage A26, which symbolized the previousKing Sahure. These “corpses” on the edge symbolize the “Realm of the Dead in the west,at the other side of the waters, in the Land where the Sun sets” (America). Both Kingsreached this land for the first time. The 4+5= 9 symbols in A26 and A27, at the end ofthis kings series, represent the 9 Kings of this Dynasty. The 3rd symbol of the“waterway” represents the 3rd King Neferirkare. So, America was reached via the UpperNorth in the 2nd generation of the 5th Dynasty, during the reign of King Neferirkare,between 2487 and 2478 (Table 8.1) (Refs.21-32,35,40,41,70-83).The front side of the Phaistos Disc has 5 turns, celebrating the discovery of America viathe Upper North (Greenland) in the 5th Dynasty. The second paragraph on this side pos-sesses 5 passages, confirming it. The 3rd paragraph on the back side has 3 passages,celebrating this discovery by the 3rd King Neferirkare. The Phaistos Disc has 2 sides and1 outside edge, which confirm that it was the 3rd King Neferirkare, who accomplished it.
  • 24. Fig.9.7 The 3rd king Neferirkare (c.2498-2478) of the Fifth Dynasty discovered thethird, northern crossing of the Atlantic Ocean. His pyramid is located at Abusir, nearCairo, Egypt.Bermuda (Unas)Passage B2 has a “boat” and a “route” sign, showing the discovery of the island ofBermuda, at 30+2= 32°N. Neighboring passage B1 has an “island” and a “waterway”,confirming this discovery, at 31+1= 32°N. Both passages are part of the generation seriesB1-5. The paragraph-line of B1 points to last passage B5, with an “island” and a “cros-sing” sign, showing the discovery happened in the 5th, and last generation of the 5thDynasty (2403-2373). The paragraph-line of B5 points to similar passage B13, and itslong paragraph-line points in its turn to passage B23 (E5) of the generation seriesB19-23. It confirms the discovery in the 5th, and last generation of the 5th Dynasty. Italso encodes the holy Tropic of Cancer, at 23°N.Last passage A19 of the kings series A19-27 represents the last King Unas(c.2403-2370), who reigned during the last generation (Ch.8). A19 (E1) representsBermuda, at 31+1= 32°N. It belongs to the paragraph with A17 and A18, part of theCombination with the “boats”. It confirms his boat voyage and his discovery. PassageA16 of this combination, with the “sailing route”, the “archipelago”, and the “power ofGod”, confirms the boat voyage of King Unas at the end of this dynasty, 16 doublegenerations ago (2434-2373). Seen from Egypt or the Strait of Gibraltar (the center of thedisc), the discovery was done in the direction WSW.The edges of the disc contain together 13+12= 25 passages, encoding South Florida, at25°N. Passage A26, with the “island”, “archipelago”, and “waterway”, suggests a newsailing route was found from the island of Bimini, near Florida, at 26°N. Passage B27 on
  • 25. the back side, having a “boat” and a “crossing” sign, indicates this sailing route startedfrom the NE coast of Great Abaco, at 27°N. Both passage and island are situated WSWof Gibraltar (the center of the disc). The “crossing” sign in B27 shows the sailing routefrom Great Abaco in the direction of Bermuda. The “boat” in B27 points to neighboringpassage B16, confirming the discovery of Bermuda 16 double generations ago.Passage A1 symbolizes the last King Unas in the kings series A1-9, but also Bermuda,at 31+1= 32°N. It also corresponds with the initial sailing direction from Great Abaco,32°NE. Both passage A12 of the Combination, having a “boat”, and the 12 passages ofthe edge, each encode the sailing distance involved, 12 moiras= 12°= 720 NM. A4 isthe 5th passage of the generation series A31 plus A1-4. Passage A4 is equal to A1,showing the discovery of Bermuda by King Unas in the 5th and last generation of thisDynasty.Passage A4 also encodes Cape Hatteras South, at 31+4= 35°N. Passage A19 on thefront side indicates King Unas, as shown before. Neighboring passage A20 (E2), witha “route” sign and an “archipelago”, but also B2 with the “boat”, provides his 31+2=33 years of reign. The other neighboring passage A18, which is part of the importantCombination with the “boats”, corresponds with the initial sailing direction from CapeHatteras South to Bermuda, 18° ESE. A18 and A19 contain together 6+2= 8 symbols,corresponding with the sailing distance, 8 moiras= 8°= 480 NM. A19 is in the 8thparagraph, confirming it. Passage A19 (E1) also confirms the latitude of Bermuda, at31+1= 32°N.Passage A26 with the “waterway” encodes the initial sailing direction from Bermuda tothe West Azores, 26° ENE. Passage B27 on the back side, with the “boat”, shows thesailing distance, 27 moiras= 27°= 1,620 NM. The “crossing” sign in the passage illus-trates the long sailing route. Passage B9, with the “boat” and the “route” sign,corresponds with the West Azores, at 30+9= 39°N. Passages A16-18 of the Combinationwith the “boats” form together 16+17+18= 51 units, confirming the West Azores, at thecomplementary latitude of 90-51= 39°N. So, during the 5th generation of the 5th DynastyKing Unas discovered the island of Bermuda (Table 8.1). After a visit to Central Ameri-ca, the return route via Bermuda to the Azores was an important alternative for the cros-sing from Newfoundland (Refs.21-24,31,32,69-83).
  • 26. Fig.9.8 The 9th and last king Unas (c.2403-2370) of the Fifth Dynasty discovered theReturn Route from Abaco Island via Bermuda to the Azores. He is especially known forthe Pyramid Texts, which appeared in the funerary chamber of his pyramid for the first time in history.9.9 HAWAII AND ANTARCTICA (Antef II and Mentuhotep II, 11th Dynasty)Discovery of HawaiiPassage B11 on the back side represents the 11th Dynasty. It has an “island” and a"wa-terway", suggesting an important boat voyage to the east. The paragraph-linepoints to the end of passage B20 on the edge, having the symbols of a “hidden sailingroute”, which suggest the discovery of the remote island of Hawaii, in the middle ofthe north-ern Pacific, at 20°N.Egypt is in the center of the disc (B1). The passage has an “island” and a “waterway”,maybe confirming this boat voyage. B1 points ESE to Singapore, at about 1°N. A lineruns to passage B10, having an “island” and a “crossing” sign. It encodes the positionof Christmas Island, 10 Moiras= 100°= 6,000 NM east of Singapore. Passage B2 has a“boat” and a “route” sign, encoding its latitude, at 2°N. Passage B7 has two “islands”and a “waterway”. It encodes the sailing direction from Christmas Island to Hawaii,7°NNE. The paragraph-line of B11 points to both passages B20 and B21, confirmingthe sailing direction to the north over a distance of about 2 Moiras= 20°= 1,200 NM.B21 has the symbols of a “hidden island”, referring to the remote Hawaii Archipelago,at about 21°N.B21 is the first passage of the generation series B21-24 (Ch.7), encoding the discovery ofthe islands of Hawaii, at 21°N, in the first generation of the Late FIP (2129-2098). B19 isthe first passage of a similar generation series B19-22. It has a “flower” and a "boat",confirming the discovery in the first generation of the Late FIP. The “boat” in the passagepoints to B10 above it, confirming the positions of Christmas Island and Hawaii, 10 Moi-
  • 27. ras east of Singapore, when measured along the equator. The “glove” touches the “is-land” in B10, which refers to the next passage B11 with the same symbol, which previ-ously encoded the 11th Dynasty. Its paragraph-line points to the end of B20 (Hawaii), ha-ving a “king”. It is the second passage of the kings series B19-24, encoding the secondking Antef II (c.2132-2084) of the 11th Dynasty, who discovered the archipelago of Ha-waii (Table 7.4).Passage A10 on the front side confirms the position of Christmas Island (and Hawaii), 10Moiras east of Singapore. It has a “sailing route” and an “archipelago”, also present inA7. The two passages indicate the latitude of Christmas Island, at 2°N. A7 encodes thesailing direction of 7°NNE to Hawaii. Passage A20 on the edge has a “flower”, a “route”sign, and an “archipelago”, encoding the island of Hawaii, at 20°N. Next passage A21has the symbols of a “hidden island”, referring to the remote archipelago of Hawaii, at21°N.Passage A10, just mentioned, has a “king”, who touches next passage A11. It symbolizesthe 11th Dynasty, and the discovery of Hawaii, 11 double generations ago (2129-2068).Its paragraph-line points to passage A21 on the edge. It is the first one of the generationseries A21-24 (Ch.7), encoding the discovery of the islands of Hawaii, at 21°N, in thefirst generation of the Late FIP (2129-2098). A21 is also the second passage of the kingsseries A20-22. It confirms, that the second king Antef II (c.2132-2084) discovered the is-lands of Hawaii (Refs.17-20).Passage A19 is the first of the generation series A19-22 (Ch.7). It confirms the discoveryof Hawaii in the first generation of the Late FIP. A19 belongs to the Combination withthe “boats”, describing religious boat voyages. Passage A18 of this combination has a“route” sign, a “boat”, and a “king”. It confirms the 30+18= 48 years of reign of kingAn-tef II (Refs.21-24).Discovery of AntarcticaPassage B11 on the back side represents the 11th Dynasty. It has an “island” and a "wa-terway", suggesting an important boat voyage. The paragraph-line points to the center ofthe generation series B19-22. Last passage B22 contains a "boat", suggesting a discoveryin the 4th and last generation of the Late FIP (2037-2007). It is the 4th passage on the ed-ge, encoding 30+4= 34 units, corresponding to the South Cape of South America, at thecomplementary latitude of 90-34= 56°S. In antiquity the use of complementary latitudeswas very common. It also has a “crossing” sign, suggesting a sailing voyage from thisCape to Antarctica, which is represented by the “scraper”. The dots in this symbol are themountains on this continent, poking through the icecap.The “scraper” has 27 dots, referring to B27 at the other side of the edge. This passage hasa "boat" and a “crossing” sign, encoding the north cape of the Antarctic Peninsula, at90-27= 63°S, as well as the sailing direction to it, c.63°SE. B27 is the 9th passage on theed-ge, corresponding to the sailing distance involved, 9 moiras= 9°= 540 NM. PassageB9 has a "boat" and a “route’ sign, confirming it. Next passage B10 has an “island” and a“crossing” sign, showing the discovery of Antarctica, 10 double generations ago(2068-2007). The paragraph-line of the similar passage B13 points to B23 on the edge,which has an “island”. It is the fifth passage of the kings series B19-24, encoding the 5thking Mentuhotep II (c.2026-2014) of the 11th Dynasty, who discovered Antarctica.Passage A11 on the front side, part of the Combination with the “boats”, also symbolizes
  • 28. the 11th Dynasty. Its paragraph-line points to the third passage on the edge, having thesymbols of a “hidden island”. It encodes 31+3= 34 units, which confirm the South Capeof South America at the complementary latitude of 90-34= 56°S. Passage A27 at theother side of the edge has a “hidden archipelago”, confirming the sailing direction ofc.63°SE to the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, at the complementary latitude of 90-27=63°S. The first 9 passages on the edge finish with the “king” in A27, present in the 9thparagraph. These data confirm the sailing distance to this coast, about 9 moiras= 9°= 540NM. The dots in the “archipelago” of A27 resemble the mountains on Antarctica, pokingthrough the icecap.The paragraph-line of A11 points to the second passage A21 of the kings series A20-22,confirming the second King Mentuhotep II (c.2026-2014), who discovered the continentof Antarctica. This passage has a “flute”, also present in next passage A22. This passage,having a “route” sign and an “archipelago”, is the last passage of the generation seriesA19-22. It shows, that the discovery happened in the 4th and last generation of the LateFIP (2037-2007). Neighboring passage A12 has a “route” sign, a “boat”, and a “king”,confirming the 12 years of reign of King Mentuhotep II. Both edges of the disc each have12 passages, celebrating his 12 years of reign.Passage A22, just mentioned, has at the end a “shield, king”. Passage A31, at the end ofthis side, has it, too. It is the 11th paragraph, confirming the 11th Dynasty. Besides the“sailing route”, passage A10 has it also. It confirms the discovery of Antarctica 10 doublegenerations ago. Passage A24 has it also. It is the last passage of the similar generationseries A21-24. It confirms the discovery happened in the 4th and last generation of theLate FIP (2037-2007). According to the literature, King Mentuhotep II organized an ex-pedition with 3,000 men to the Land of Punt (Central America), which appears to be in a-greement with his discovery (Table 7.4) (Refs.21-24).9.10 DISCUSSIONIn 2002 we published the book "How the SunGod Reached America, c.2500 BC"(Ref.21). Based on megalithic monuments and petroglyphs in Europe and the US, datesof discovery were determined, which can be compared with those of the Phaistos Disc(Table 9.1). According to this book, the SW Cape of Greenland was discovered c.3250BC, Madagaskar c.2800 BC, Australia c.2700 BC, America via the Bering Sea c.2600BC, and America via the Atlantic, c.2500 BC (first via the Southern Crossing, slightlylater via the Upper North). All these dates are now confirmed by the Phaistos Disc. Thedate of discovery of Bermuda could not be determined with carbon-14 determinations.For that reason we carefully estimated a date of c.2200 BC, although the petroglyphs ofDissignac, Brittany, pointed to an earlier date. The Phaistos Disc now confirms thisdiscovery with a date of c.2400 BC. (Refs.70-84)TABLE 9.1DISCOVERY OF THE EARTH IN EGYPTIAN HISTORYACCORDING TO THE PHAISTOS DISC, 1458 BCPREHISTORYc.5700 Discovery of the Canary Islandsc.4600 Discovery of the Cape Verde Islandsc.4230 Discovery of Madeira
  • 29. c.3620 Discovery of the Azoresc.3380 Discovery of the Faeroes and Icelandc.3320 Discovery of GreenlandPRE-DYNASTIC PERIODc.3288 Start Pre-Dynastic Periodc.3272 1st generation, discovery of South Greenlandc.3211 3rd generation, attempts to cross Davis Strait are given up.ARCHAIC PERIOD1ST DYNASTYc.3105 Start 1st Dynasty (c.3048*)c.3027 Djer (#3)(31) and Djet (#4)(23), discovery of Sumatra, Kalimantan, the Philip- pines, and Taiwanc.2968 Anedjib (#6)(26) and Semerkhet (#7)(18), discovery of East Indonesia, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, and Solomon Islands2ND DYNASTYc.2922 Start 2nd Dynasty (c.2898*)c.2878 Raneb (#2)(39) or Weneg (#4)(17), discovery of Ascension and St. Helenac.2786 Peribsen (#7)(48), discovery of MadagascarOLD KINGDOM3RD DYNASTYc.2770 Start 3rd Dynasty (c.2778*)c.2746 Djoser (Netjerykhet) (#2)(30), discovery of Australiac.2674 Sa (#5)(19) and Huni (#7)(24), discovery of New Zealand, Micronesia, Mela- nesia, and Polynesia4TH DYNASTYc.2661 Start 4th Dynasty (c.2723*)c.2571 Menkaure (#5)(18), discovery of Japan, and America via the Aleutian Islandsand via the Bering Strait5TH DYNASTYc.2517 Start 5th Dynasty (2465*)c.2504 Sahura (#2)(12), discovery of America via the Southern Crossing of theAtlantic, and the Azores Crossingc.2482 Nefererkare (#3)(20), discovery of America via the Upper North (Greenland)c.2388 Unas (#9)(33), discovery of the return route via Bermudac.2370 End of Dynasty because of Comet Catastrophe, c.2344 (Ch.7)FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIODc.2190 Start of Early FIP (c.2160*)11TH DYNASTYc.2129 Start 11th Dynasty (Late FIP)c.2107 Antef II (48), discovery of Hawaiic.2020 Mentuhotep II (12), discovery of Antarcticac.2007 End FIP (c.2000*)* according to archaeological research(..) years of reign (Chs.7 & 8)
  • 30. LITERATURE (Ch.9)1. Godart, L., The Phaistos Disc, The Enigma of an Aegean Script, Editions Itanos, 1995 (ISBN960-7549-02-3).2. Best, J.G.P., and Woudhuizen, F., Lost Languages from the Mediterranean, Leiden, the Netherlands(1989).3. Willetts, R.F., The Civilization of Ancient Crete, Phoenix Press, New York (1976) (ISBN1-84212-746-2).4. Mohen, J.-P., and Eluère, C., The Bronze Age in Europe. Gods, Hero’s and Treasures, Thames andHudson, 2000 (ISBN 0-500-30101-8).5. People of the Stone Age: Hunter-gatherers and Early Farmers, Weldon Owen Pty Limited, McMahonsPoint, Australia (1995).6. Old World Civilizations, The Rise of Cities and States, The Illustrated History of Humankind, WeldonOwen Pty Limited, McMahons Point, Australia (1995).7. Siliotti, A., Egypt, Temples, People and Gods, Bergamo, Italy, 1997.8. Hart, G., A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddes ses, Routledge, London, 1986 (ISBN 0-7102-0167-2).9. Wallis Budge, E.A., Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrec tion, 2 Vol., Dover Pub., N.Y., 1973 (ISBN0-486-22780-4).10. Adams, B., and Cialowicz, K., Protodynastic Egypt, Shire Egyptology, Princes Risborough, 1997.11. Breasted, J.H., Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol.2: The Eighteenth Dynasty, London, 1988.12. Kemp, B.J., Ancient Egypt, Anatomy of a Civilization, London, Routledge, 1991.13. Tompkins, P., Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Harper & Row, London, 1971 (ISBN 0-06-090631-6).(Dr. Stecchini)14. Lehner, M., The Complete Pyramids, Thames & Hudson, London (1997) (ISBN 90-5947-047-8).15. Wilkinson, R., The complete Temples of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, London (2000)(ISBN 90-246-0608-x).16. Strelocke, H., Egypte, Geschiedenis, kunst en cultuur van het Nijldal, Cantecleer, de Bilt (1981)(ISBN 90-213-0307-8). (Dutch)17. Casson, L., Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times, British Museum Press, 1994 (ISBN0-525-47545-1).18. Wachsmann, S., Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age, Levant, College Station, Texas,1998.19. Heyerdahl, T., The Ra Expeditions, George Allen & Unwin, London, 1971.20. Heyerdahl, T., The Tigris Expedition, George Allen & Unwin, London, 1983.21. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S, How the Sungod Reached America, A Guide to Megalithic Sites,MCS Inc., 2002 (ISBN 0-917054-19-9). Available: MCS Inc., Box 3392, Kirkland, Wa 98083-33-92,also on CD.22. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S, Website: www.howthesungod.com.23. De Jonge, R.M, Website: www.geocities.com/howthesungod.24. De Jonge, R.M., and IJzereef, G.F., De Stenen Spreken, Kosmos Z&K, Utrecht/ Antwerpen, 1996(ISBN 90-215-2846-0). (Dutch)25. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Discovery of the Atlantic Islands, 4600-3200 BC”, Migra-tion & Diffusion, Vol.3, No.11, pgs.69-109 (2002).26. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., "The Passage Grave of Karleby, Encoding the IslandsDiscovered in the Ocean, c.2950 BC", Migration & Diffusion, Vol.5, No.18, pgs.64-74 (2004).27. De Jonge, R.M., “Stonehenge, een Nieuwe Hypothese”, BRES 158, pgs.23-29 (1993). (Dutch)28. De Jonge, R.M., “De Ontdekking van de Megalithische Cultuur”, Avalon, Jaargang 8, Nr.2, pgs.5-11(1998). (Dutch)29. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Rings of Stenness, Brodgar & Bookan, Celebrating theDis-covery of South Greenland, c.3200 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.6, No.24, pgs.20-40 (2005).30. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “Greenland, Bridge between the Old and New World, c.2500BC”, Ancient American, Vol.11, No.67, pgs.12-20 (2006).31. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “A Nautical Center for Crossing the Ocean, America’s Stone-henge, New Hampshire, c.2200 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.4, No.15, pgs.60-100 (2003).32. Lambert, J.D., Americas Stonehenge, an Interpretive Guide, Sunrise Publications, Kingston, N.H.,1996 (ISBN 0-9652630-0-2).33. De Jonge, R.M., “Great Circle Mound: An Indiana Temple to the Egyptian Sun-God?”, AncientAmerican, Vol.9, No.60, pgs.31-32 (2004).34. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Paintings of Porcelano Cave, the Discovery of Guadalupe,Mexico, c.3000 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.6, No.21, pgs.30-45 (2005).35. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Stone Rows of Tormsdale: A Voyage to Central America,the Realm of the Dead” (Caithness, NE Scotland, c.1600 BC), Ancient American, Vol.11, No.70,pgs.28-34 (2006).
  • 31. 36. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Disc of Nebra, Germany, c.1600 BC”, Migration & Diffu-sion, Vol.5, No.17, pgs.32-39 (2004).37. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., Ancient American, "Germanys Bronze Age Disc RevealsTransatlantic Seafaring, c.1600 BC", Vol.9, No.55, pgs.18-20 (2004).38. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Three Rivers Petroglyph, A Guidepost for River Travel inAmerica, c.1500 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.3, No.12, pgs.74-100 (2002).39. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., The Embden Dragon Petroglyph, A Copper-Trading Route of theBronze Age (Kennebec River, Embden, Maine, c.1500 BC), Mid-western Epigraphic Journal, Vol.18/9,pgs. 56-82, 2004-5 (ISSN 1932-5703).40. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., “The Monument of Ales Stenar, A Sunship to the Realm of theDead, Sweden, c.500 BC”, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.5, No.19, pgs. 94-106 (2004).41. De Jonge, R.M., and Wakefield, J.S., Ancient American, "Ales Stenar, Swedens Bronze Age Sun-ship to the Americas, c.500 BC", Vol.9, No.56, pgs.16-21 (2004).42. Morwood, M.J., Visions from the Past (The Archaeology of Australian Aboriginal Art), Allen &Unwin, Crows Nest NSW (2002) (ISBN 1-86448-717-8).43. Roberts, D.A., and Parker, A., Ancient Ochres, The Aboriginal Rock Paintings of Mount Borradaile,Books Pty Ltd, Marleston, South Australia (2003) (ISBN 1-876622-42-3).44. Wilson, I., Lost World of the Kimberley (Extraordinary glimpses of Australia’s Ice Ageancestors), Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest NSW (2006) (ISBN 1-74114-391-8).45. White, P., “Exposure” Magazine, Vol.2, No.6, 1996.46. White, P., Website: www.crystalinks.com/egyptaustralia.html, 1996.47. Joy, A., and Elders, M., Website: www.kachina.net/~alunajoy/2002feb.html.48. Website: www.awarenessquest.com/research.htm.49. De Jonge, R.M., “The Burial Chamber of Lord Djes-eb”, (4th Dynasty of Egypt, c.2610 BC)(Gosford, Hawkesbury River, NSW, Australia) , to be published.50. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of Australia by King Djoser of the 3rd Dynasty (The RainbowSerpent Shelter, Mount Borradaile, Arnhem Land)”, to be published.51. De Jonge, R.M., “Rock Paintings of the Grampians (2700-2000 BC, Victoria, SE Australia)”, to bepublished.52. Thompson, G., American Discovery, Misty Isles Press, Seattle, 1994.53. Bailey, J., Sailing to Paradise, Simon & Schuster, 1994.54. Fell, B., America BC, Pocket Books, Simon & Schuster, 1994.55. Jairazbhoy, R.A., Ancient Egyptians and Chinese in America, Rowman & Littlefield, Totowa, N.J.,1974 (ISBN 0-87471-571-1).56. Zapp, I., and Erikson, G., Atlantis in America. Navigators of the Ancient World , AdventuresUnlimited Press, 1998 (ISBN 0-932813-52-6).57. New World and Pacific Civilizations. The Illustrated History of Humankind, Weldon Owen PtyLimited, McMahons Point, Australia (1995).58. Peterson, F.A., Ancient Mexico, 1959.59. Stuart, G.E., "New Light on the Olmec", National Geographic, Nov. 1993.60. Bernal, I., The Olmec World, University of California Press, London,1969 (ISBN 0-520-02891-0).61. Gruener, J., The Olmec Riddle, An Inquiry into the Origin of Precolumbian Civilization, VengreenPu-blications, 1987, Rancho Santa Fe, Cal. (ISBN 0-9421-85-56-0).62. Stengel, M.K., "The Diffusionists have Landed", Atlantic Monthly, Jan. 2000.63. Tedlock, D., transl., Popol Vuh. The Definitive Edition of the Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life andthe Glories of Gods and Kings, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1985 (ISBN 0-671-61771-0).64. Wilkins, H.T., Mysteries of Ancient South America, (1947), Adventures Unlimited Press, 2000 (ISBN0-932813-26-7).65. "Oldest City of Americas confirmed, Peruvian complex contemporary with Egypts pyramids." TheSeattle Times, A4, April 27, 2001.66. Ferryn, P., "5000 Years Before Our Era: The Red Men of the North Atlantic", NEARA Journal, Vol.XXXI, No.2 (1997).67. Kennedy, R.G., Hidden Cities: The Discovery and Loss of Ancient North American Civilization,Penguin Bks, NY, 1994 (ISBN 0-14-02.5527-3).68. Mallery, A.H., and Harrison, M.R., The Rediscovery of Lost America, The Story of thePre-Columbian Iron Age in America , Dutton, NY, 1979 (ISBN 0-525-47545-1).69. Peiser, B.J., Palmer, T., Bailey, M.E., Natural Catastrophes during Bronze Age Civilizations, BARInternational Series 728, Oxford, 1998 (ISBN 0-86054-916-X).70. Wakefield, J.S., and De Jonge, R.M., Rocks & Rows, Sailing Routes across the Atlantic and theCopper Trade, MCS Inc, 2010 (ISBN 0-917054-20-2). Available: MCS Inc, Box 3392, Kirkland, WaUSA 98033.71. De Jonge, R.M., Website: www.slideshare.net/rmdejonge72. De Jonge, R.M., Minoan Pendant (Cleveland, Ohio, c.1690 BC), Ref.71.
  • 32. 73. De Jonge, R.M., Discovery of the Islands in the Ocean (Cairn T, Loughcrew, Co. Meath, Ireland,c.3200 BC), Ref.71.74. De Jonge, R.M., “The Discovery of Three Continents (Santo Stefano, North Sardinia, Italy, c. 2300BC)”, Ancient American, Vol.12, No.76, pgs.28-29 (2007), Ref.71.75. De Jonge, R.M., “Houghton’s Petroglyph (Copper Country, Michigan, 2500-1200 BC)”, Ref.71, to bepublished.76. De Jonge, R.M., “The Mystic Symbol, mark of the Michigan Mound Builders”, Ref.71, to be pu-blished.77. De Jonge, R.M., “Discovery of America and the Flood (c.2300 BC, Ita Letra, Villarrica, Paraguay)”,Ref.71 to be published.78. De Jonge, R.M., “The Battersea Shield (River Thames, London, c.190 BC)”, Ref.71, to be publish-ed.79. De Jonge, R.M., “A Sword for America (Kirkburn, East Yorkshire, England, c.250 BC)”, Ref.71, to be published.80. De Jonge, R.M., The Phaistos Disc Decoded, New Testimony of a Lost Civilization, MidwesternEpigraphic Journal, Vol.20, 111-115 (2006), and Vol.21, 74-80 (2007), to be published.81. De Jonge, R.M., The Phaistos Disc Decoded, Website: www.slideshare.net/drsrmdejonge82. Wilkinson, R.H., Tempels van het Oude Egypte, Bosch & Keuning, Baarn (2001) (ISBN90-246-0608-x). (Dutch)83. Johnson, P., The Civilization of Ancient Egypt, Seven Dials, Cassell & Co, London (2005) (ISBN1-84188-068-X).84. De Jonge, R.M., “The Early Discovery of New Zealand (King Huni of the Third Dynasty of Egypt,c.2685-2661 BC)”, Ref.71, to be published.

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