Rural marketing environment 1


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Rural marketing environment 1

  1. 1. Rural Marketing Environment
  2. 2. The features of Indian rural markets are: <ul><li>Large and Scattered market </li></ul><ul><li>Low standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Outlook </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse socio-economic backwardness </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure Facilities </li></ul>
  3. 3. Large and Scattered market: <ul><li>The rural market of India is large and scattered in the sense that it consists of over 63 crores consumers from 5, 70,000 villages spread throughout the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Major income from agriculture: Nearly 60 % of the rural income is from agriculture. Hence rural prosperity is tied with agricultural prosperity. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Low standard of living: <ul><li>The consumer in the village area do have a low standard of living because of low literacy, low per capita income, social backwardness, low savings, etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Traditional Outlook: <ul><li>The rural consumer values old customs and tradition. They do not prefer changes. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Diverse socio-economic backwardness : <ul><li>Rural consumers have diverse socio-economic backwardness. This is different in different parts of the country. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Infrastructure Facilities: <ul><li>The Infrastructure Facilities like roads, warehouses, communication system, and financial facilities are inadequate in rural areas. Hence physical distribution becomes costly due to inadequate Infrastructure facilities. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Problem Areas in Rural Marketing: <ul><li>1. Physical Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>2. Channel Management </li></ul><ul><li>3. Sales force Management </li></ul><ul><li>4. Promotion and Marketing Communication </li></ul>
  9. 9. I. Managing Physical Distribution in Rural Markets: <ul><li>The special problems in physical distribution in the rural context are: </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Warehousing </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) Communication </li></ul>
  10. 10. i. Transportation problem: <ul><li>Railway: Though India has the fourth largest railway system in the world; many parts of the rural India remain outside the rail network. </li></ul><ul><li>Road: Nearly 50% of the 576000 villages in the country are not connected by roads at all. The government had planned to connect at least the bigger villages, i.e. villages with a population of 1500 or above, with all – weather roads by 1990 – but this is not accomplished yet. </li></ul><ul><li>Many parts of rural India have only kuchha roads and many parts of the rural interiors are totally unconnected by roads with any mandi level town. </li></ul>
  11. 11. ii. Warehousing problem: <ul><li>Business firms find it quite difficult to get suitable godowns in many parts of rural India, and there are no public warehousing agencies in the interiors of rural India. </li></ul><ul><li>Three tier warehouse structure: - </li></ul><ul><li>Top tier CWC and SWC -At nodal points/ major market centre </li></ul><ul><li>Second / Middle tier owned by cooperatives -At Mandi level </li></ul><ul><li>Third / Bottom tier owned by cooperatives - At villages </li></ul>
  12. 12. iii. Communication Problems: <ul><li>Communication infrastructure, consisting of posts or telegraph and telephones, is quite inadequate in rural areas. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Underdeveloped People and Underdeveloped Markets: <ul><li>The number of people below poverty line has not decreased in any appreciable manner. Thus underdeveloped people and consequently underdeveloped market by and large characterize the rural markets. Vast majorities of the rural people are tradition bound, fatalistic and believe in old customs, traditions, habits, taboos and practices. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Lack of Proper Physical Communication Facilities: Nearly fifty percent of the villages in the country do not have all weather roads. Physical communication of these villages is highly expensive. Even today most villages in the eastern parts of the country are inaccessible during the monsoon. Also the government has identified around 600 villages which it states are not feasible for Electrification </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Media for Rural Communication: Among the mass, Media at some point of time in the late 50's and 60's radio was considered to be a potential medium for communication to the rural people. Another mass media is television and cinemas. Statistics indicate that the rural areas account for hardly 2000 to 3500 mobile theatres, which is far less when compared to the number of villages. But not to forget, that they are Mobile Theatre and hence there reach still is significant. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Many Languages and Dialects: The number of languages and dialects vary widely from state to state, region to region and probably from district to district. The messages have to be delivered in the local languages and dialects. Even though the numbers of recognized languages are only 16, the dialects are estimated to be around 850. Communicating through Signs and Symbols involves a high risk of Mis-interpretation. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Dispersed Market: Rural areas are scattered and it is next to impossible to ensure the availability of a brand all over the country. Seven Indian states account for 76% of the country’s rural retail outlets, the total number of which is placed at around 3.7 million. Advertising in such a highly heterogeneous market, which is widely spread, is very expensive. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Low Per Capita Income: Even though about 33-35% of gross domestic product is generated in the rural areas it is shared by 74% of the population. Hence the per capita incomes are low compared to the urban areas. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Low Levels of Literacy: - The literacy rate is low in rural areas as compared to urban areas. This again leads to problem of communication for promotion purposes. Print medium becomes ineffective and to an extent irrelevant in rural areas since its reach is poor and so is the level of literacy. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Prevalence of spurious brands and seasonal demand: - For any branded product there are a multitude of ‘local variants’, which are cheaper, and, therefore, more desirable to villagers. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Different way of thinking: - There is a vast difference in the lifestyles of the people. The kind of choices of brands that an urban customer enjoys is different from the choices available to the rural customer. The rural customer usually has 2 or 3 brands to choose from whereas the urban one has multiple choices. The difference is also in the way of thinking. The rural customer has a fairly simple thinking as compared to the urban counterpart. Communicating to rural consumer is one of the biggest challenges for any marketer. </li></ul>
  22. 23. RETAILER CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>1) Rural market spread:- </li></ul><ul><li>Rural market comprises small dispersed villages, infrequent retail outlets and low off take per retailer. To build volumes one has to invest in distribution. But high costs are a serious impediment. As the distribution efforts remain unviable for a long period of time, the marketing effort is in effect a campaign to build volumes and hence to be treated as investment and not expenditure. Entry into rural markets requires long term perspective rather than short term gain. </li></ul>
  23. 24. 2) Retail premises:- <ul><li>In rural villages business is conducted from owned premises. Retailing is a part time chore. High costs incurred on traveling and transport. </li></ul>
  24. 25. 3) Retail shelf:- <ul><li>A study carried out by ICICI indicates that products like toiletries, cosmetics, packaged food stuffs (biscuits, sweets, toffees, and packaged vanaspati), packaged tea , bidis , stationery items used by school children , match boxes and kerosene lamps / lanterns were the popular items in interior villages. </li></ul>