Consumer Motivation
Consumer Motivation Represents the drive to satisfy both physiological and psychological needs through product purchase an...
Consumer Motivation Represents the drive to satisfy both physiological and psychological needs through product purchase an...
Consumer Motivation Represents the drive to satisfy both physiological and psychological needs through product purchase an...
Types of Consumer Needs Physiological Needs Fundamental human needs, including food, water, and sleep
Types of Consumer Needs Safety and Health Needs Protecting our personal information and computers represents new types of ...
Safety and Health Needs
Types of Consumer Needs Need for Love and Companionship Humans are social creatures who need to experience and express lov...
Love and Companionship
Types of Consumer Needs Need for Financial Resources and Security A need that includes others important to the individual
Need for Financial Resources and Security
Types of Consumer Needs Social Image Needs Conspicuous consumption :  purchases motivated to some extent by the desire to ...
Social Image Needs
Types of Consumer Needs Need for Pleasure Products, services, and consumption activities provide fun and excitement
Consumers’ Need for Pleasure © SETH WENIG/Reuters/Landow
Types of Consumer Needs Need to Possess Consumers often acquire products simply because of their need to own such products...
Types of Consumer Needs Need to Possess Consumers often acquire products simply because of their need to own such products...
Consumers’ Need to Possess
Types of Consumer Needs Need to Give Give something back to others or reward ourselves Self-gifts let us motivate, reward,...
Types of Consumer Needs Need for Information One reason we read or watch TV Fuels Internet usage Plays an important role i...
Types of Consumer Needs Need for Variety Marketers may introduce different versions of original brand Variety may become f...
Motivational Conflict and  Need Priorities
Motivational Conflict and  Need Priorities Satisfying a need often comes at the expense of another need—these trade-offs c...
Types of Motivational Conflict Approach-approach : deciding between two or more desirable options Avoidance-avoidance : de...
Motivational Conflict and  Need Priorities Resolving motivational conflicts requires prioritizing needs Maslow’s hierarchy...
Motivational Conflict and  Need Priorities Because   of consumers’ different motivational priorities, companies  use  bene...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Motivational Intensity Motivational intensity : how strongly consumers are motivated to satisfy a particular need Depends ...
Motivational Intensity Motivational intensity : how strongly consumers are motivated to satisfy a particular need Depends ...
The Challenge of Understanding Consumer Motivation Reasons underlying consumer motivation are not always “obvious” Researc...
Unconscious Motivation
Motivating Consumers Motivating with Money Price cuts, specials, rebates, and coupons motivate purchase Resulting sales ma...
Motivating with Money
Motivating Consumers Provide Other Incentives Premiums, free products, contests, and sweepstakes are designed to motivate ...
Motivating with Other Incentives
Motivating Consumers Provide Other Incentives Premiums, free products, contests, and sweepstakes are designed to motivate ...
Motivating Consumers Implement a Loyalty Program Motivate repeat buying by providing rewards to customers based on how muc...
Participation in Loyalty Programs
Motivating Consumers Enhance Perceived Risk Perceived risk : consumers’ apprehensions about the consequences of their beha...
Informing Consumers of Their Risks
Motivating Consumers Arouse Consumers’ Curiosity For new products, educating potential customers is crucial Curiosity ofte...
Arousing Curiosity
Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views on human beings: </li></ul><ul><li>Theory X- Em...
Motivation-Hygiene Theory <ul><li>Fredrick Herzberg, a psychologist, raised two questions when studying human beings: </li...
<ul><li>He proposes two factors: Hygiene factor and motivation factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene factor is that whose pres...
Contemporary Theories of  Motivation <ul><li>Three- Needs Theory </li></ul><ul><li>David McClelland proposed three major r...
Goal – Setting Theory <ul><ul><ul><li>When goals are set clearly, it has been observed to be a source of motivation. </li>...
Reinforcement  Theory <ul><li>Behaviors that are needed for a certain goal achievement are encouraged and those are not ne...
Equity Theory <ul><li>Proposed by Stacy Adams, this theory is based on the fact that people compare each other either blat...
Expectancy Theory <ul><li>This theory proposed by Victor Vroom, is based on how the strength of a tendency to get motivate...
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  1. 1. Consumer Motivation
  2. 2. Consumer Motivation Represents the drive to satisfy both physiological and psychological needs through product purchase and consumption
  3. 3. Consumer Motivation Represents the drive to satisfy both physiological and psychological needs through product purchase and consumption Gives insights into why people buy certain products
  4. 4. Consumer Motivation Represents the drive to satisfy both physiological and psychological needs through product purchase and consumption Gives insights into why people buy certain products Stems from consumer needs: industries have been built around basic human needs
  5. 5. Types of Consumer Needs Physiological Needs Fundamental human needs, including food, water, and sleep
  6. 6. Types of Consumer Needs Safety and Health Needs Protecting our personal information and computers represents new types of safety needs Businesses provide a variety of products and services to appeal to safety and health conscious consumers
  7. 7. Safety and Health Needs
  8. 8. Types of Consumer Needs Need for Love and Companionship Humans are social creatures who need to experience and express love and companionship Services and products help individuals find and attract others Products are often used as symbols of love and caring
  9. 9. Love and Companionship
  10. 10. Types of Consumer Needs Need for Financial Resources and Security A need that includes others important to the individual
  11. 11. Need for Financial Resources and Security
  12. 12. Types of Consumer Needs Social Image Needs Conspicuous consumption : purchases motivated to some extent by the desire to show other people how successful they are Companies reinforce the notion that products enable users to communicate their social image
  13. 13. Social Image Needs
  14. 14. Types of Consumer Needs Need for Pleasure Products, services, and consumption activities provide fun and excitement
  15. 15. Consumers’ Need for Pleasure © SETH WENIG/Reuters/Landow
  16. 16. Types of Consumer Needs Need to Possess Consumers often acquire products simply because of their need to own such products— e.g., collectors
  17. 17. Types of Consumer Needs Need to Possess Consumers often acquire products simply because of their need to own such products— e.g., collectors Plays a role in impulse buying : where consumers unexpectedly experience a sudden and powerful urge to buy something immediately
  18. 18. Consumers’ Need to Possess
  19. 19. Types of Consumer Needs Need to Give Give something back to others or reward ourselves Self-gifts let us motivate, reward, and console ourselves
  20. 20. Types of Consumer Needs Need for Information One reason we read or watch TV Fuels Internet usage Plays an important role in persuasion—if an ad appears when consumers need information, they are more likely to pay attention than when they don’t need the information
  21. 21. Types of Consumer Needs Need for Variety Marketers may introduce different versions of original brand Variety may become focus of product positioning
  22. 22. Motivational Conflict and Need Priorities
  23. 23. Motivational Conflict and Need Priorities Satisfying a need often comes at the expense of another need—these trade-offs cause motivational conflict
  24. 24. Types of Motivational Conflict Approach-approach : deciding between two or more desirable options Avoidance-avoidance : deciding between two or more undesirable options Approach-avoidance : behavior has both positive and negative consequences
  25. 25. Motivational Conflict and Need Priorities Resolving motivational conflicts requires prioritizing needs Maslow’s hierarchy Some needs take precedence over other needs—physiological needs take top priority Differences in the importance attached to various needs affects how consumers evaluate products
  26. 26. Motivational Conflict and Need Priorities Because of consumers’ different motivational priorities, companies use benefit segmentation : dividing consumers into different market segments based on benefits they seek from purchase and consumption
  27. 27. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  28. 28. Motivational Intensity Motivational intensity : how strongly consumers are motivated to satisfy a particular need Depends on need’s importance
  29. 29. Motivational Intensity Motivational intensity : how strongly consumers are motivated to satisfy a particular need Depends on need’s importance Involvement : degree to which an object or behavior is personally relevant Motivational intensity and involve-ment determine amount of effort consumers exert in satisfying needs
  30. 30. The Challenge of Understanding Consumer Motivation Reasons underlying consumer motivation are not always “obvious” Research is necessary to discover real motivations behind behaviors People don’t always want to disclose real reasons for their actions People don’t always know why they do what they do— unconscious motivation Motivations change over time
  31. 31. Unconscious Motivation
  32. 32. Motivating Consumers Motivating with Money Price cuts, specials, rebates, and coupons motivate purchase Resulting sales may increase, but profits may not Attracts consumers less likely to repeat Price reductions may increase price sensitivity
  33. 33. Motivating with Money
  34. 34. Motivating Consumers Provide Other Incentives Premiums, free products, contests, and sweepstakes are designed to motivate consumers to purchase
  35. 35. Motivating with Other Incentives
  36. 36. Motivating Consumers Provide Other Incentives Premiums, free products, contests, and sweepstakes are designed to motivate consumers to purchase There are limitations and shortcomings for this strategy in addition to the products offered as a premium being valued less ( value-discounting hypothesis )
  37. 37. Motivating Consumers Implement a Loyalty Program Motivate repeat buying by providing rewards to customers based on how much business they do with the company Tracks consumer purchases and provides estimates of Customer Lifetime Value
  38. 38. Participation in Loyalty Programs
  39. 39. Motivating Consumers Enhance Perceived Risk Perceived risk : consumers’ apprehensions about the consequences of their behavior (buying and consuming the product) Greater perceived risk increases search Educating consumers about risks may motivate them to make more informed choices that reduce exposure to risk
  40. 40. Informing Consumers of Their Risks
  41. 41. Motivating Consumers Arouse Consumers’ Curiosity For new products, educating potential customers is crucial Curiosity often leads to an enhanced need for information May advertise a benefit that is not normally associated with the product
  42. 42. Arousing Curiosity
  43. 43. Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views on human beings: </li></ul><ul><li>Theory X- Employees inherently dislike work and hence would avoid it. They need to be coerced, controlled through rewards/punishment to do work. They place security above other factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Y- Employees view work as natural as rest and play. They are self-directed and have self control and commitment. They accept, even seek responsibility. They are creative and have the capacity to stretch. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Motivation-Hygiene Theory <ul><li>Fredrick Herzberg, a psychologist, raised two questions when studying human beings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do people seek from their jobs? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could they describe in detail, situations in which they feel exceptionally good or bad about their jobs? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The findings of the study revealed that the replies/reasons given by them when they felt good were significantly different from the ones given when they felt bad. </li></ul><ul><li>When they felt good. They attributed it to themselves or intrinsic conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>It was interesting to know that the opposite of satisfaction was not dissatisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Removing or minimizing dissatisfaction did not necessarily make the jobs satisfying. </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg proposed the presence of a dual continuum: The opposite of “satisfaction” is “no satisfaction” and the opposite of dissatisfaction” is “no dissatisfaction” </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>He proposes two factors: Hygiene factor and motivation factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene factor is that whose presence is essential as a basis for motivation. The presence of Hygiene factor does not motivate, but the absence “quite” demotivates. For example: decent working conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation factor is that whose is essential as the core of motivation. In spite of presence of hygiene factor, motivation factor need to be introduced. For example: a decent working condition does not demotivate. It needs to be added up with factors such as monetary or non monetary means to make satisfaction happen. </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene forms the background before motivation is introduced </li></ul>
  46. 46. Contemporary Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Three- Needs Theory </li></ul><ul><li>David McClelland proposed three major relevant motives or needs at the workplace : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The need for Achievement – n- Ach: the drive to achieve and excel and succeed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The need for Power – n – Power: the drive or need to control other and situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The need for Affiliation – n- Affiliation: the need to belong and be a part of a group. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Goal – Setting Theory <ul><ul><ul><li>When goals are set clearly, it has been observed to be a source of motivation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With goal clarity emerges a comfort zone within the individual leading to motivation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In other words, many people seem unaware or not sure of their goals. When they are directed to a goal with clarity, they get motivated. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is particularly seen to be the case at the operational level of working in organizations. By helping them set their own goals, they are seen to feel higher motivation than before. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Reinforcement Theory <ul><li>Behaviors that are needed for a certain goal achievement are encouraged and those are not needed or detrimental for the goal achievement is discouraged. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Reinforcement – encouraging behaviours that are needed. This is done through Rewards. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement – discouraging unwanted behaviours from occurring. This is done through punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>This theory is also called as Reward – Punishment Theory of Motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>It is applied throughout our workplace at all levels. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Equity Theory <ul><li>Proposed by Stacy Adams, this theory is based on the fact that people compare each other either blatantly or latently. </li></ul><ul><li>The comparison is more pronounced at the workplace since work gives people an identity and importance socially. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees naturally compare the work they do and the rewards they get with the work done by others and the rewards others get. </li></ul><ul><li>This comparison usually results in a feeling of inequity or inequality, resulting in “bad emotions” which could rob the employees of motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Adams proposed that the inequity should be removed and converted into equity, or a feeling of wellness or feel-good. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Expectancy Theory <ul><li>This theory proposed by Victor Vroom, is based on how the strength of a tendency to get motivated is dependent upon expectations and outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes three variables: Attractiveness, Performance-reward linkages, Effort-Performance linkages. </li></ul><ul><li>When a task is perceived attractive the individual feels it is worth it to put in efforts to perform. This is known as first-level outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>When the performance leads to expected results and rewards, he puts in more efforts, leading to better performance and better results. This is known as second level outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is said to occur highest when all three factors are at their peak: attractiveness. Performance-reward linkage, effort-performance linkage. </li></ul>
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