Consumer Motivation Represents the drive to satisfy both physiological and psychological needs through product purchase and consumption
Consumer Motivation Represents the drive to satisfy both physiological and psychological needs through product purchase and consumption Gives insights into why people buy certain products
Consumer Motivation Represents the drive to satisfy both physiological and psychological needs through product purchase and consumption Gives insights into why people buy certain products Stems from consumer needs: industries have been built around basic human needs
Types of Consumer Needs Physiological Needs Fundamental human needs, including food, water, and sleep
Types of Consumer Needs Safety and Health Needs Protecting our personal information and computers represents new types of safety needs Businesses provide a variety of products and services to appeal to safety and health conscious consumers
Types of Consumer Needs Need for Love and Companionship Humans are social creatures who need to experience and express love and companionship Services and products help individuals find and attract others Products are often used as symbols of love and caring
Types of Consumer Needs Social Image Needs Conspicuous consumption : purchases motivated to some extent by the desire to show other people how successful they are Companies reinforce the notion that products enable users to communicate their social image
Types of Consumer Needs Need to Possess Consumers often acquire products simply because of their need to own such products— e.g., collectors
Types of Consumer Needs Need to Possess Consumers often acquire products simply because of their need to own such products— e.g., collectors Plays a role in impulse buying : where consumers unexpectedly experience a sudden and powerful urge to buy something immediately
Types of Consumer Needs Need to Give Give something back to others or reward ourselves Self-gifts let us motivate, reward, and console ourselves
Types of Consumer Needs Need for Information One reason we read or watch TV Fuels Internet usage Plays an important role in persuasion—if an ad appears when consumers need information, they are more likely to pay attention than when they don’t need the information
Types of Consumer Needs Need for Variety Marketers may introduce different versions of original brand Variety may become focus of product positioning
Motivational Conflict and Need Priorities Satisfying a need often comes at the expense of another need—these trade-offs cause motivational conflict
Types of Motivational Conflict Approach-approach : deciding between two or more desirable options Avoidance-avoidance : deciding between two or more undesirable options Approach-avoidance : behavior has both positive and negative consequences
Motivational Conflict and Need Priorities Resolving motivational conflicts requires prioritizing needs Maslow’s hierarchy Some needs take precedence over other needs—physiological needs take top priority Differences in the importance attached to various needs affects how consumers evaluate products
Motivational Conflict and Need Priorities Because of consumers’ different motivational priorities, companies use benefit segmentation : dividing consumers into different market segments based on benefits they seek from purchase and consumption
Motivational Intensity Motivational intensity : how strongly consumers are motivated to satisfy a particular need Depends on need’s importance
Motivational Intensity Motivational intensity : how strongly consumers are motivated to satisfy a particular need Depends on need’s importance Involvement : degree to which an object or behavior is personally relevant Motivational intensity and involve-ment determine amount of effort consumers exert in satisfying needs
The Challenge of Understanding Consumer Motivation Reasons underlying consumer motivation are not always “obvious” Research is necessary to discover real motivations behind behaviors People don’t always want to disclose real reasons for their actions People don’t always know why they do what they do— unconscious motivation Motivations change over time
Motivating Consumers Motivating with Money Price cuts, specials, rebates, and coupons motivate purchase Resulting sales may increase, but profits may not Attracts consumers less likely to repeat Price reductions may increase price sensitivity
Motivating Consumers Provide Other Incentives Premiums, free products, contests, and sweepstakes are designed to motivate consumers to purchase There are limitations and shortcomings for this strategy in addition to the products offered as a premium being valued less ( value-discounting hypothesis )
Motivating Consumers Implement a Loyalty Program Motivate repeat buying by providing rewards to customers based on how much business they do with the company Tracks consumer purchases and provides estimates of Customer Lifetime Value
Motivating Consumers Enhance Perceived Risk Perceived risk : consumers’ apprehensions about the consequences of their behavior (buying and consuming the product) Greater perceived risk increases search Educating consumers about risks may motivate them to make more informed choices that reduce exposure to risk
Motivating Consumers Arouse Consumers’ Curiosity For new products, educating potential customers is crucial Curiosity often leads to an enhanced need for information May advertise a benefit that is not normally associated with the product
Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views on human beings:
Theory X- Employees inherently dislike work and hence would avoid it. They need to be coerced, controlled through rewards/punishment to do work. They place security above other factors.
Theory Y- Employees view work as natural as rest and play. They are self-directed and have self control and commitment. They accept, even seek responsibility. They are creative and have the capacity to stretch.
He proposes two factors: Hygiene factor and motivation factor.
Hygiene factor is that whose presence is essential as a basis for motivation. The presence of Hygiene factor does not motivate, but the absence “quite” demotivates. For example: decent working conditions.
Motivation factor is that whose is essential as the core of motivation. In spite of presence of hygiene factor, motivation factor need to be introduced. For example: a decent working condition does not demotivate. It needs to be added up with factors such as monetary or non monetary means to make satisfaction happen.
Hygiene forms the background before motivation is introduced