Prevention Of Communicable Diseases.....

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  • 1. PREVENTION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Dr Soumar Dutta CDMO Guwahati Refinery Hospital
  • 2. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES An illness due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products capable of being directly or indirectly transmitted from man to man,animal to animal or from the environment (air,dust,soil,water,food) to man or animal.
  • 3. EPIDEMIOLOGY EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIAD
  • 4. DYNAMICS OF DISEASE TRANSMISSION
  • 5. MODES OF TRANSMISSION
  • 6. MODES OF TRANSMISSION
    • DIRECT TRANSMISSION
    • INDIRECT TRANSMISSION
  • 7. MODES OF TRANSMISSION
    • DIRECT TRANSMISSION
  • 8. MODES OF TRANSMISSION
    • DIRECT TRANSMISSION
      • Direct Contact
  • 9. MODES OF TRANSMISSION
    • DIRECT TRANSMISSION
      • Direct Contact
        • Skin to Skin.
        • Mucosa to Mucosa.
        • Mucosa to Skin.
        • Of the same person or different Person .
        • Eg-STD, AIDS, leprosy, skin and eye infections.
  • 10. MODES OF TRANSMISSION
    • DIRECT TRANSMISSION
      • Direct Contact
      • Droplet Infection
  • 11. MODES OF TRANSMISSION
    • DIRECT TRANSMISSION
      • Direct Contact
      • Droplet Infection
        • Direct Projection of a spray of droplets of saliva and naso-pharyngeal secretions during coughing, sneezing or speaking
        • to the surrounding atmosphere.
        • Eg: Respiratory infections, diphtheria, whooping cough, TB, Meningococcal meningitis.
  • 12. Droplet Sprayed into the Air from a Sneeze
  • 13. MODES OF TRANSMISSION
    • DIRECT TRANSMISSION
      • Direct Contact
      • Droplet Infection
      • Contact with Soil
      • Eg: Hookworm larva, Tetanus.
  • 14. MODES OF TRANSMISSION
    • DIRECT TRANSMISSION
      • Direct Contact
      • Droplet Infection
      • Contact with Soil
      • Inoculation into skin or mucosa
      • Eg: Rabies, infected needles.
  • 15. MODES OF TRANSMISSION
    • DIRECT TRANSMISSION
      • Direct Contact
      • Droplet Infection
      • Contact with Soil
      • Inoculation into skin or mucosa
      • Transplacental (vertical)
      • Eg: TORCH agents, syphilis, HBV, AIDS
  • 16.
      • INDIRECT TRANSMISSION
      • Traditionally 5F’s
            • Flies
            • Finger
            • Fomite
            • Food
            • Fluids
  • 17.
      • INDIRECT TRANSMISSION
      • Vehicle-borne.
          • Water (MC)
          • Food
          • Ice
          • Blood, Serum, Plasma
          • Tissues and organs
  • 18.
      • INDIRECT TRANSMISSION
      • Vehicle-borne.
      • Vector-borne.
  • 19.
      • INDIRECT TRANSMISSION
      • Vehicle-borne.
      • Vector-borne.
      • Air-borne.
  • 20.
      • INDIRECT TRANSMISSION
      • Vehicle-borne.
      • Vector-borne.
      • Air-borne.
      • Fomite-borne.
      • Inanimate article or substances other than water or food contaminated by infectious agents
  • 21.
      • INDIRECT TRANSMISSION
      • Vehicle-borne.
      • Vector-borne.
      • Air-borne.
      • Fomite-borne.
      • Unclean hand and finger.
  • 22. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES PREVALENT IN INDIA
    • Respiratory infections :
    • Chicken pox.
    • Measles.
    • Mumps.
    • Rubella.
    • Influenza .
    • Diphtheria.
    • Meningitis.
    • Whooping Cough.
    • ARI.
    • TB.
  • 23. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES PREVALENT IN INDIA
    • Intestinal Infections:
    • Poliomyelitis.
    • Viral hepatitis.
    • Acute diarrhoeal
    • disease.
    • Typhoid fever.
    • Cholera.
    • Food poisoning.
    • Amoebiasis.
    • Taeniasis.
    • Ascarasis.
    • Hookworm infestation.
  • 24. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES PREVALENT IN INDIA
    • Arthropod-borne Diseases
    • Malaria
    • Dengue.
    • Filariasis.
    • Zoonosis:
    • Viral
      • Rabies.
      • JE.
      • Avian flu.
    • Bacterial
      • Leptospirosis.
      • Brucellosis.
      • Human salmonellosis .
  • 25. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES PREVALENT IN INDIA
    • Surface Infections:
        • Trachoma
        • Tetanus
        • Leprosy
        • AIDS
        • STD
      • Hospital Acquired Infections.
  • 26.
    • Decrease your risk of infectious diseases by understanding how they spread and how you can protect yourself.
    Disease Prevention And Control
  • 27.
    • Wash your hands often:
    Disease Prevention And Control
  • 28. Disease Prevention And Control
    • Wash your hands often:
    • This is especially important before and after preparing food, before eating and after using the toilet.
  • 29. Disease Prevention And Control
    • Wash your hands often.
    • Get vaccinated.
  • 30. Disease Prevention And Control
    • Wash your hands often.
    • Get vaccinated.
    • Immunization can drastically reduce the chances of contracting many diseases.
  • 31. Disease Prevention And Control
    • Wash your hands often.
    • Get vaccinated.
    • Use antibiotics sensibly.
  • 32.
    • Only take antibiotics when necessary.
    • If they're prescribed, take them exactly as directed — don't stop taking them early because your symptoms have gone away.
  • 33. Disease Prevention And Control
    • Wash your hands often.
    • Get vaccinated.
    • Use antibiotics sensibly.
    • Stay at home if you have signs and symptoms of an infection.
  • 34. Disease Prevention And Control
    • Wash your hands often.
    • Get vaccinated.
    • Use antibiotics sensibly.
    • Stay at home if you have signs and symptoms of an infection.
    • Be smart about food preparation.
  • 35. Disease Prevention And Control
    • Wash your hands often.
    • Get vaccinated.
    • Use antibiotics sensibly.
    • Stay at home if you have signs and symptoms of an infection.
    • Be smart about food preparation.
    • Pay special attention to cleaning the 'hot zones' in your home.
  • 36. Disease Prevention And Control
    • Don't share personal items.
  • 37. Disease Prevention And Control
    • Don't share personal items.
    • Use your own
      • Toothbrush
      • Comb
      • Razor blade.
      • Avoid sharing drinking glasses or dining utensils .
  • 38. Disease Prevention And Control
    • Don't share personal items.
    • Travel wisely.
  • 39. Disease Prevention And Control
    • Don't share personal items.
    • Travel wisely.
    • Keep your pets healthy.
  • 40. ROLE OF DOCTORS IN PREVENTING COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
    • a) Controlling the reservoir
    • a. Early Diagnosis
      • Precise treatment
      • Epidemiological Investigation- study time place & person distribution of the disease and
      • For institution of prevention and control measures.
      • b.Notification
      • c. Isolation
      • d. Quarantine
  • 41. ROLE OF DOCTORS IN PREVENTING COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
    • b) Interruption of transmission
    • “ Breaking the chain of Transmission”
    • c) Susceptible Host
    • a. Active immunization.
    • b. Passive Immunization
    • c. Combined Active and passive immunization.
    • d) Non-specific measures
      • Better housing, water-supply, sanitation. nutrition and education.
      • Legislative measures- to formulate and effective implementation of measures.
  • 42.