Relation between oral infection and systemic infection

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Relation between oral infection and systemic infection

  1. 1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORAL INFECTION AND SYSTEMIC DISEASES Presented by: Dr. Shady A. M. Negm *Bachelors Degree of Dental Surgery, School of Dentistry, Pharos University. *Professional Diploma ofInfection Control from Oxford College, UK*Diploma in General Science 1
  2. 2. Introduction• Recently, it has been recognized that oral infection, especially periodontitis, may affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, bacterial pneumonia, diabetes mellitus, and low birth weight. 2
  3. 3. pathways linking oral infections to secondary systemic• Three mechanisms or pathways linking oral infections to secondary systemic effects have been proposed: (i) metastatic spread of infection from the oral cavity as a result of transient bacteremia, (ii) metastatic injury from the effects of circulating oral microbial toxins, and (iii) metastatic inflammation caused by immunological injury induced by oral microorganisms 3
  4. 4. Cardiovascular Disease• It is clear that periodontal disease is capable of predisposing individuals to cardiovascular disease, given the abundance of gram-negative species involved, the readily detectable levels of proinflammatory cytokines, the heavy immune and inflammatory infiltrates involved, the association of high peripheral fibrinogen, and the white blood cell (WBC) counts 4
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  6. 6. Bacterial Pneumonia• Microorganisms can infect the lower respiratory tracts by four possible routes: aspiration of oropharyngeal contents, inhalation of infectious aerosols, spread of infection from contiguous sites, and hematogenous spread from extrapulmonary sites of infection. 6
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  8. 8. Low Birth Weight• Pregnancy can influence gingival health. Changes in hormone levels during pregnancy promote an inflammation termed pregnancy gingivitis. This type of gingivitis may occur without changes in plaque levels. Oral contraceptives may also produce changes in gingival health. Some birth control pill users have a high gingival inflammation level but a low plaque level. Birth control pills may cause changes such as alteration of the microvasculature, gingival permeability, and increased synthesis of estrogen PGs 8
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  10. 10. Diabetes Mellitus• Diabetes is commonly categorized as type 1, or insulin dependent, and type 2, non- insulin dependent. The fundamental derangement in insulin-dependent diabetes is the hypoproduction of insulin due to destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas. In non-insulin-dependent diabetes, the derangement involves resistance of target tissue to insulin action 10
  11. 11. • Severe periodontal disease often coexists with severe diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is a risk factor for severe periodontal disease. The converse possibility that periodontal disease either predisposes or exacerbates the diabetic condition has received more and more attention 11
  12. 12. • Recently, a new model was presented by Grossi and Genco, in which severe periodontal disease increases the severity of diabetes mellitus and complicates metabolic control 12
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