Image: hd-wallpaper
Image by Laurie Williams
Things donot change;we change.        Henry Thoreau
‘Witty and instructive’ WallStreet Journal‘A fantastic book’ Wired.‘A must read’ Forbes.‘Any leader looking tocreate chang...
Popcorn experiment                     Image: Iconshock
Group I   Group II
Group I          Group IIGroup I consumed 153 %extra popcorn than Group II
Group I            Group II153 % more consumption           People Problem
Group I            Group II153 % more consumption           People Problem
Group I         Group II   Situation Problem
What is usually viewed asPeople Problem,is in fact, a
Situation Problem
Lesson No. 1What is usually viewed asPeople Problem,is in fact, aSituation Problem
Image: Frits Ahlefeldt
Image: Nanda Home
Image Clocky Ad
Changing environment works,
Changing environment works, but works only Temporarily
For a lasting effectOne needs to ChangeHeart and Mind
Image: Bsk77
RiderAnalyticRationalPlanning
RiderAnalyticRationalPlanning           Elephant           Strong           Passionate           Impulsive
Image: wikimedia
PlanningDirection
PlanningDirection            Energy            Strength
Planning DirectionOver analysisIndecisiveness                 Energy                 Strength
Planning DirectionOver analysisIndecisiveness   Instinctive                 Emotional                 Instant-            ...
Planning                 Perseverance DirectionOver analysisIndecisiveness       Instinctive                     Emotional...
Indecisiveness Rider                       Reluctant elephant
Indecisiveness Rider                                    in g                             o th                       e N   ...
Carrot or Cookie ExperimentCarrot Group       Cookie Group                                  Image: Ashley
Carrot or Cookie ExperimentCarrot Group       Cookie Group                                  Image: Ashley                 ...
Carrot or Cookie Experiment       Carrot Group            Cookie GroupPlayed puzzle for 8      Played puzzle for 19minutes...
Carrot or Cookie Experiment       Carrot Group            Cookie GroupPlayed puzzle for 8      Played puzzle for 19minutes...
Lesson 2 What is usually viewed as laziness problem is often aExhaustion problem.
Eat healthy Case study• Two health researchers  from West Virginia• Persuade people to ‘eat  healthy’• Number of ways to e...
Eat healthy Case study                         Image: H. Zell
Eat healthy Case study1% milkcampaignfor 2 weeks.
Eat healthy Case study1% milk          1% milk usagecampaign         18% 41%.for 2 weeks.
Lesson No. 3What looks likeresistanceis oftenlack of clarity                  Image:Flickr, quinn.anya
Confused Ridermakes elephantgo in circles.
UnmotivatedElephantdooms allchangeefforts.
Direct theRider             Motivate             the             Elephant
Three Surprises & Lessons• Resistance - Lack of clarity• Laziness - Exhaustion• People Problem - Situation
Three Surprises & Lessons• Resistance - Lack of clarity –Direct the Rider• Laziness - Exhaustion –Motivate the Elephant• P...
Direct the Rider
Case Study                •Save the Children,                 a US organization                •Vietnam                •Ma...
Tackling Malnutrition•   Elevate Poverty•   Improve sanitation•   Provide clean water•   Improve literacy
Tackling Malnutrition•   Elevate Poverty•   Improve sanitation•   Provide clean water•   Improve literacy         True but...
Solution                •Looked for the bright                spots                •Facilitated adopting the              ...
Focus on the Bright Spots What is working? How can we upscale it?• Direction to the Rider• Motivation & Hope for the Eleph...
Image: Laguna DesignAmplify the Positive Deviance
Hip arthritis Case study         Hip arthritis patients        slotted for Hip Surgery1 NSAID yet               2 NSAIDs y...
Hip arthritis Case study          Hip arthritis patients         slotted for Hip Surgery 1 NSAID yet                2 NSAI...
Free to taste Jam at a mall10 X more tasters when there were 6 varietyof jams to taste
DecisionParalysis            Image:Flickr Sarah Ross
Script the Critical Moves• Don’t give a Big Picture• Ambiguity is enemy of Change• Don’t assume it to be Obvious
Script the Critical Moves• Don’t give a Big Picture  – Give precise Goals• Ambiguity is enemy of Change  – Make plans crys...
MotivatetheElephant
Re-Mission Case study      Children treated for cancer      Post chemotherapy compliance is      crucial for remission. Sk...
Increasedcomplianceby 20%, thatis doublingchances ofsurvival.
Change ProcessAnalyze   Think   Change
Change ProcessAnalyze      Think   Change          Assumption
Change ProcessAnalyze      Think   Change          Assumption See         Feel    Change
Change ProcessAnalyze      Think   Change          Assumption See         Feel    Change           Reality
Find the Feeling                   Image: wikimedia
Free wash Case study                 Image: Michiel 1972
Free wash for collecting      8 stamps
Free wash Case study          Free Car wash scheme8 Stamps2 Head start  Stamps+ 8 Stamps
Free wash Case study          Free Car wash scheme8 Stamps           19 %2 Head start  Stamps           37 %+ 8 Stamps
To keep elephant moving   Shrink the Change      Image: DanDee Shots
Easily demoralizedNeeds reassuranceEncouragement                     Image: wikimedia
Image: Flickr Ross@Texas
St Lucia Parrot                  Exists only in                  Caribbean island                  of St Lucia            ...
Paul Butler, a 21 yearfresh graduate, intothe scene asConservation advisor.Instead ofconventional action-plan, he focused ...
St. Lucia Parrot puppet shows2.Distributed T-shirts3.Car stickers4.Broadcasted songs
People embracedSt. Lucia ParrotParrot became theirNational identitySpecies came backfrom the brinkPoaching stoppedcomplete...
Image: Pete’s DVD Galleries          Grow your People
Medication errors Case study• Kaiser South San Francisco Hospital• Nurses administer 800 medications a  day• Impressive ac...
Distraction              Image: RishiB @ Flickr
A Simple Solution• Wear ‘Medication Vests’, a bright  colored vest, while administering  medication.• In six months, 46% d...
Tweak the environment                   Image: Vmenkov
Tweak the environment    Shape the Path
ICU Case study   Image: Cosmed
Simple solution• Dr Peter Pronovost compiled a 5-point  checklist.• Put into practice, over a period of 18  months, it sav...
Simple solution• Dr Peter Pronovost compiled a 5-point  checklist.• Put into practice, over a period of 18  months, it sav...
Build Habits               Image: GoalKards
Think of the lasttime you were in asituation where youwere not totally surehow to behave.
Rally the HerdImage: Cede Prudente
Keep theChange going
Thank YouHope you enjoyedthis presentation.You can gettranscript of thispresentation fromsurinderkumar.com.
How To Change Things When Change Is Hard
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How To Change Things When Change Is Hard

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  • Heraclites said, ‘You can’t step into the same river twice’. Change is law of nature.
  • But Change is hard. It needs patience, perseverance, and above all, a blue-print.
  • Most important point to realize is – things do not change; we change, Henry Thoreau
  • Movie goers in Chicago. Two groups at random. Both groups were given free popcorn buckets with soft drink. Popcorns were stale, difficult to chew. Quantity in buckets were too much to be finished. Conclusions are: 1. People ate not only for pleasure, they ate because of availability – popcorns were stale. 2. If something is available freely, people will use it.
  • Conclusions are: 1. People ate not only for pleasure, they ate because of availability – popcorns were stale. 2. If something is available freely, people will use it.
  • Surprisingly, group I has consumed 153% more popcorns than group II.
  • What is general impression – there are gluttons in group I! People problem.
  • People in group I was given bigger buckets.
  • Situation Problem
  • People do strange, mostly stupid, things when trapped in a bad situation.
  • People, caught up in bad situations, do stupid things – cheat, focus on short-term solutions.
  • Clocky alarm clock by Gauri Nanda.
  • The moment is goes off, Clocky start moving around in the room. So that one needs to chase it to catch and shut it off.
  • Changing situations helps, but only temporarily. Making manager shadow representative; supervising your child’s homework, everyday; do bring required results,
  • Changing situations helps, but only temporarily. Making manager shadow representative; supervising your child’s homework, everyday; do bring required results, But, it works only temporarily. Being very energy-intensive , it exhausts the supervisor.
  • Therefore, to bring a lasting effect, one needs to change both, heart and mind.
  • To bring in a change, to reach a destination, both rider and the elephant need to work in harmony. Rider is mind, elephant is heart. Bringing a change is like rider guiding an elephant. Can also be called conscious and subconscious, mind and heart
  • Rider is reflective, analytic, rational and planning. Rider is ego of Freud, intellect in Bhaghwad geeta
  • Elephant is emotional, instinctive and impulsive. Elephant is id of Freud, Horses of Geeta.
  • In case of conflict…..Rider has his say, temporarily, but in the long run elephant wins. A 70 kg rider is no match for a 7000 kg elephant. Elephant is very powerful. Smoking, new year resolutions, over eating. Numerous failed attempts like these is an example that it is elephant which has his way – knowledge, till sinks in, is useless.
  • Riders role is to provide planning, direction and perseverance to the elephant. Only he can to sacrifice short-term benefits for long-term gains.
  • Elephant has energy, strength and passion. It the strength of elephant that brings change.
  • Rider has his weaknesses – over-analysis, over thinking and indecisiveness.
  • Elephant’s weakness is emotional, instinctive, instant gratification, falls for quick payoffs, lazy.
  • Most Change-efforts fail because rider is not able to keep elephant on the road long-enough
  • Most Change-efforts fail because rider is not able to keep elephant on the road long-enough
  • Most Change-efforts fail because rider is not able to keep elephant on the road long-enough
  • College students. Two groups. Left alone in room. Carrot group stick to carrot group, and cookie to cookie group. None cheated. Will power at work.
  • Once the experiment was over, another set of experimenters entered asked them to solve geometrical puzzles, grouping remained the same.
  • College students. Two groups. Left alone in room. Carrot group stick to carrot group, and cookie to cookie group. None cheated. Will power at work. Is group a Lazy?
  • No they are exhausted of self control. People are at nadir to take initiatives, make right decisions, etc. after exhausting shopping, watching a sad movie, etc.
  • Two health researchers, Steve Booth-Butterfield and Bill Reger, professors at West Virginia university brain stormed on how to make people stick to healthy diet. They knew that people will change only if behavior expected of them is crystal clear. if the choices are many, rider will spin his wheels, analyzing and agonizing, never moving forward.
  • If people stick to 1% milk, saturated fat intake will fall to normal.
  • 1% milk campaign for 2 weeks. 1 glass of whole milk equals 5 strips of bacon in saturated fat contents.
  • and even 6 months, it remained 35%
  • Confused rider due to his failure to provide clarity (he makes elephant go in circles), and unmotivated elephant (due to exhaustion, situation) doom all change efforts.
  • Confused rider due to his failure to provide clarity (he makes elephant go in circles), and unmotivated elephant (due to exhaustion, situation) doom all change efforts.
  • Confused rider due to his failure to provide clarity (he makes elephant go in circles), and unmotivated elephant (due to exhaustion, situation) doom all change efforts.
  • What looks like resistance is often a lack of clarity. Force exhausts, what is usually viewed as laziness problem is often a Exhaustion problem. What is usually viewed as People Problem, is in fact a Situation Problem
  • What looks like resistance is often a lack of clarity. Force exhausts, what is usually viewed as laziness problem is often a Exhaustion problem. What is usually viewed as People Problem, is in fact a Situation Problem
  • In 1990, Jerry Sternin, a staff at Save the Children, a US non-gov organization, is sent to Vietnam to suggest solution to solve problem of malnutrition amongst children. Vietnam, poor due to recently lifted US sanction was hostile to his coming. He was perhaps 12 american in Hnoi. He was given 6 months time. Minimal staff, meagre salaries and hostile gov.
  • Tackling malnutrition is very simple .. But all this is True but Useless knowledge. This will never happen.
  • Tackling malnutrition is very simple .. But all this is True but Useless knowledge. This will never happen.
  • He finds healthy children’s parents make them eat tiny shrimps and crabs and sweet potato greens – which were considered ‘low class’ and not fit for children, though adults take these regularly. After knowledge what ? Simply passing the knowledge will not work. People are anyway reluctant to adopt. Knowledge does not serve well. Crazy shrinks, obese/smoking doctors, divorced marriage counselors and sinful priests. He organized groups, who practice cooking and feeding children, the needed crabs, shrimps and sweet-potato greens, as group activity. Over 2 weeks nutrition sessions, 40% (of 300) kids became normally -nourished status, another 205 migrated from severely- to mod-malnourished. His visa was extended for another six months, and he end up spending 6 more years in Vietnam.
  • Many times there is a big diff between the scale of the problem and scale of the solution. When rider analyze a problem he seeks a solution to complement the scale. Rider is problem focused rather than solution focused. Don’t teach new knowledge, encourage new behavior. Let the deviant spread the word.
  • In 2001. Post chemotherapy compliance is crucial for remission. Skipping 20% medication, ups relapse by 200%. Pam Omidyar had conviction that a game, which makes children feel in control, will increase the compliance. Post chemotherapy compliance: report for fever, take medications, low dose chemotherapy and antibiotics, for two years.
  • She founded Hopelabs, and developed Re-mission. Main character is Roxxi, a nano-robot, who zaps the tumor cells. In between another character Smitty shows up and give clues. Study was published in Pediatrics, 2008. Game had 20 levels. Even the children who played only two levels had significantly benefit.
  • To motivate the elephant, find the feeling. Give feeling that change can be done. It is with in their reach.
  • Partly finished journey appears easier than a journey that is yet to start. Make them feel as they are already closer. Shrink milestones, one milestone at a time. one step at a time. encouragement at each step. Small rewards. And elephant keep on moving
  • Conventional Advice- Increase punishment for capturing or killing the parrot. Establish a ‘Parrot sanctuary’. Raise more money for conservatory efforts
  • 1988, Gov gave Butler full citizenship and later St Lucia Medal of Merit, one of the country’s highest honor.
  • Every human being want to grow. He wants to be part of a big cause. People join political parties, sects, religion, and for that sake, companies too, for their deep desire to be part of a big-show. Leader has to give them a cause-they are ready to jump. Elephant has to believe that he is capable. He needs training.
  • Richards, director of clinical services investigated. Errors were due to distraction & multitasking. Noisy hospital wards. Nurses, doctors, ward boys, patients talking. Since administering medication was considered to be a easy job, nurse who were administering medication were usually the first ones to be interfered and called in case of any help by others, usually by doctors whom they could not refuse.
  • To make the journey easier.
  • To make the journey easier.
  • In ICU all patients have iv line. If line gets infected, it follows serious complications, and, many times, takes life.
  • How did you behave? You behaved exactly how other were behaving! Create a good work-environment. Create a motivated team.
  • How To Change Things When Change Is Hard

    1. 1. Image: hd-wallpaper
    2. 2. Image by Laurie Williams
    3. 3. Things donot change;we change. Henry Thoreau
    4. 4. ‘Witty and instructive’ WallStreet Journal‘A fantastic book’ Wired.‘A must read’ Forbes.‘Any leader looking tocreate change in hisorganization need notlook beyond this littlebook’ Business Week. Flipkart, Amazon
    5. 5. Popcorn experiment Image: Iconshock
    6. 6. Group I Group II
    7. 7. Group I Group IIGroup I consumed 153 %extra popcorn than Group II
    8. 8. Group I Group II153 % more consumption People Problem
    9. 9. Group I Group II153 % more consumption People Problem
    10. 10. Group I Group II Situation Problem
    11. 11. What is usually viewed asPeople Problem,is in fact, a
    12. 12. Situation Problem
    13. 13. Lesson No. 1What is usually viewed asPeople Problem,is in fact, aSituation Problem
    14. 14. Image: Frits Ahlefeldt
    15. 15. Image: Nanda Home
    16. 16. Image Clocky Ad
    17. 17. Changing environment works,
    18. 18. Changing environment works, but works only Temporarily
    19. 19. For a lasting effectOne needs to ChangeHeart and Mind
    20. 20. Image: Bsk77
    21. 21. RiderAnalyticRationalPlanning
    22. 22. RiderAnalyticRationalPlanning Elephant Strong Passionate Impulsive
    23. 23. Image: wikimedia
    24. 24. PlanningDirection
    25. 25. PlanningDirection Energy Strength
    26. 26. Planning DirectionOver analysisIndecisiveness Energy Strength
    27. 27. Planning DirectionOver analysisIndecisiveness Instinctive Emotional Instant- gratification Energy Strength
    28. 28. Planning Perseverance DirectionOver analysisIndecisiveness Instinctive Emotional Instant- gratification Energy Strength
    29. 29. Indecisiveness Rider Reluctant elephant
    30. 30. Indecisiveness Rider in g o th e N ie v c h A Reluctant elephant
    31. 31. Carrot or Cookie ExperimentCarrot Group Cookie Group Image: Ashley
    32. 32. Carrot or Cookie ExperimentCarrot Group Cookie Group Image: Ashley Puzzle image: Patafisik
    33. 33. Carrot or Cookie Experiment Carrot Group Cookie GroupPlayed puzzle for 8 Played puzzle for 19minutes an average minutes an averageAttempted 19 solutions Attempted 34 solutions Image: Ashley
    34. 34. Carrot or Cookie Experiment Carrot Group Cookie GroupPlayed puzzle for 8 Played puzzle for 19minutes an average minutes an averageAttempted 19 solutions Attempted 34 solutionsExhausted! Image: Ashley
    35. 35. Lesson 2 What is usually viewed as laziness problem is often aExhaustion problem.
    36. 36. Eat healthy Case study• Two health researchers from West Virginia• Persuade people to ‘eat healthy’• Number of ways to eat healthy
    37. 37. Eat healthy Case study Image: H. Zell
    38. 38. Eat healthy Case study1% milkcampaignfor 2 weeks.
    39. 39. Eat healthy Case study1% milk 1% milk usagecampaign 18% 41%.for 2 weeks.
    40. 40. Lesson No. 3What looks likeresistanceis oftenlack of clarity Image:Flickr, quinn.anya
    41. 41. Confused Ridermakes elephantgo in circles.
    42. 42. UnmotivatedElephantdooms allchangeefforts.
    43. 43. Direct theRider Motivate the Elephant
    44. 44. Three Surprises & Lessons• Resistance - Lack of clarity• Laziness - Exhaustion• People Problem - Situation
    45. 45. Three Surprises & Lessons• Resistance - Lack of clarity –Direct the Rider• Laziness - Exhaustion –Motivate the Elephant• People Problem - Situation –Shape the Path
    46. 46. Direct the Rider
    47. 47. Case Study •Save the Children, a US organization •Vietnam •Malnutrition among childrenJerry Sternin
    48. 48. Tackling Malnutrition• Elevate Poverty• Improve sanitation• Provide clean water• Improve literacy
    49. 49. Tackling Malnutrition• Elevate Poverty• Improve sanitation• Provide clean water• Improve literacy True but Useless
    50. 50. Solution •Looked for the bright spots •Facilitated adopting the behaviorJerry Sternin
    51. 51. Focus on the Bright Spots What is working? How can we upscale it?• Direction to the Rider• Motivation & Hope for the Elephant
    52. 52. Image: Laguna DesignAmplify the Positive Deviance
    53. 53. Hip arthritis Case study Hip arthritis patients slotted for Hip Surgery1 NSAID yet 2 NSAIDs yetnot tried not tried
    54. 54. Hip arthritis Case study Hip arthritis patients slotted for Hip Surgery 1 NSAID yet 2 NSAIDs yet not tried not tried43% doctors 28% doctorsgave a trial of gave a trial ofthe drug either of drug
    55. 55. Free to taste Jam at a mall10 X more tasters when there were 6 varietyof jams to taste
    56. 56. DecisionParalysis Image:Flickr Sarah Ross
    57. 57. Script the Critical Moves• Don’t give a Big Picture• Ambiguity is enemy of Change• Don’t assume it to be Obvious
    58. 58. Script the Critical Moves• Don’t give a Big Picture – Give precise Goals• Ambiguity is enemy of Change – Make plans crystal clear• Don’t assume it to be Obvious – SMART goals is the cure
    59. 59. MotivatetheElephant
    60. 60. Re-Mission Case study Children treated for cancer Post chemotherapy compliance is crucial for remission. Skipping 20% medication, ups relapse by 200%. Pam Omidyar had conviction that a game, which makes children feel in control, will increase the compliance.
    61. 61. Increasedcomplianceby 20%, thatis doublingchances ofsurvival.
    62. 62. Change ProcessAnalyze Think Change
    63. 63. Change ProcessAnalyze Think Change Assumption
    64. 64. Change ProcessAnalyze Think Change Assumption See Feel Change
    65. 65. Change ProcessAnalyze Think Change Assumption See Feel Change Reality
    66. 66. Find the Feeling Image: wikimedia
    67. 67. Free wash Case study Image: Michiel 1972
    68. 68. Free wash for collecting 8 stamps
    69. 69. Free wash Case study Free Car wash scheme8 Stamps2 Head start Stamps+ 8 Stamps
    70. 70. Free wash Case study Free Car wash scheme8 Stamps 19 %2 Head start Stamps 37 %+ 8 Stamps
    71. 71. To keep elephant moving Shrink the Change Image: DanDee Shots
    72. 72. Easily demoralizedNeeds reassuranceEncouragement Image: wikimedia
    73. 73. Image: Flickr Ross@Texas
    74. 74. St Lucia Parrot Exists only in Caribbean island of St Lucia In 1977, only 100 were left Estimates indicated species will to be extinct by 2000
    75. 75. Paul Butler, a 21 yearfresh graduate, intothe scene asConservation advisor.Instead ofconventional action-plan, he focused onmeans to makepeople rally for theparrot and to getpublic support
    76. 76. St. Lucia Parrot puppet shows2.Distributed T-shirts3.Car stickers4.Broadcasted songs
    77. 77. People embracedSt. Lucia ParrotParrot became theirNational identitySpecies came backfrom the brinkPoaching stoppedcompletelyNow about 700-800birds live
    78. 78. Image: Pete’s DVD Galleries Grow your People
    79. 79. Medication errors Case study• Kaiser South San Francisco Hospital• Nurses administer 800 medications a day• Impressive accuracy, only 1/1000 errors
    80. 80. Distraction Image: RishiB @ Flickr
    81. 81. A Simple Solution• Wear ‘Medication Vests’, a bright colored vest, while administering medication.• In six months, 46% drop in medication errors.
    82. 82. Tweak the environment Image: Vmenkov
    83. 83. Tweak the environment Shape the Path
    84. 84. ICU Case study Image: Cosmed
    85. 85. Simple solution• Dr Peter Pronovost compiled a 5-point checklist.• Put into practice, over a period of 18 months, it saved hospital and patient an estimated $175 million• Saved 1500 lives
    86. 86. Simple solution• Dr Peter Pronovost compiled a 5-point checklist.• Put into practice, over a period of 18 months, it saved hospital and patient an estimated $175 million• Saved 1500 lives A Humble Check-list
    87. 87. Build Habits Image: GoalKards
    88. 88. Think of the lasttime you were in asituation where youwere not totally surehow to behave.
    89. 89. Rally the HerdImage: Cede Prudente
    90. 90. Keep theChange going
    91. 91. Thank YouHope you enjoyedthis presentation.You can gettranscript of thispresentation fromsurinderkumar.com.

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