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Seminar Kebangsaan Aplikasi Sains dan Matematik (SKASM2013)
29-30 Oktober 2013 @ UTHM Johor

Synthesis
and Elastic
Studies...
Introduction
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Introduction
Experimentals
Results & Discu...
Introduction ..
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Introduction
Experimentals

Tellurite g...
Introduction …
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Introduction
Experimentals
Results & Dis...
Borate Glass ….
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Introduction

Boro-tellurite glasses

E...
Tellurite Glass …..
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Introduction
Experimentals
Results ...
Lead BoroTellurite
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Introduction
Lead Boro-Tellurite
Exp...
Abstract
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Introduction
Experimentals
Results & Discussio...
Experimental Methods
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Introduction

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Experimentals

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...
Results and Discussion
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Introduction
Experimentals
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Composition and Density
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Introduction
Experimentals
Resu...
Composition – Density …
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

TeO2 – B2O3 glass

The density ...
Thermal Properties
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Introduction
Experimentals
Results &...
XRD Pattern
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

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Introduction

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Raman Spectra
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

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Elastic Properties
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Elastic Properties
Introduction

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Elastic Properties
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Elastic Behaviour of TeO2-B2O3 glass...
Conclusions
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Introduction

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Experimentals
Results & Di...
Acknowledgement
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Introduction
Experimentals
Results & Di...
References
Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

Introduction
Experimentals
Results & Discuss...
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Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System

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Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System presented Seminar Kebangsaan Aplikasi Sains dan Matematik 29-30 October 2013 ata UTHM Johor

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  1. 1. Seminar Kebangsaan Aplikasi Sains dan Matematik (SKASM2013) 29-30 Oktober 2013 @ UTHM Johor Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead BoroTellurite Glass System H. A. A. Sidek, Z. A. Wahab, K. A. Matori and M. K. Halimah Glass Ceramic Composite Research Group (GCCG) Department of Physics, Faculty of Science Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  2. 2. Introduction Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Introduction Experimentals Results & Discussion Glass: Unique properties • • Conclusions Acknowledgement • References • • widely used in applications from medicine to transport to space flight. promising media for the development of photonic devices basic elements for the advance of optical communication networks and optical computing potential applications in various engineering and technological fields lower production costs with respect to single crystals • amorphous (noncrystalline) solid material • optically transparent • typically brittle • sufficient strength • excellent corrosion resistance
  3. 3. Introduction .. Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Introduction Experimentals Tellurite glasses are potentially applied in industries of electric, optical, electronic and etc due to their good physical properties (Khattak and Salim, 2002). Laser Quality Tellurium – an excellent piezo-optical material. TeO2 Glass • • Results & Discussion Conclusions Acknowledgement References High acousto-optical in making:• • • • • • • • • • • • acousto-optical modulators. imaging devices splitters deflectors tunable polarization filters radio frequency spectral analysers CD memory device Non-linear optical devices Electrochemical devices Optical switching device Laser host Infra-Red Fiber Optics • • • transparent in the visible and near IR regions from 400 nm to 6 micron m high refractive index n > 2, which allows the fabrication of fibers and waveguides with strong light confinement highest values of nonlinear refractive about 10–100 times larger than fused silica: essential for active nonlinear photonic devices, i.e. alloptical switches or modulators Glasses with heavy metal oxides (TeO2, GeO2, Bi2O3, WO3, PbO, Ag2O, etc.) are promising materials for IR technologies, nonlinear optics, and design of laser devices. Low fusion temperature (800 oC)
  4. 4. Introduction … Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Introduction Experimentals Results & Discussion Conclusions Acknowledgement References
  5. 5. Borate Glass …. Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Introduction Boro-tellurite glasses Experimentals • Results & Discussion • Conclusions Acknowledgement References Binary borate glasses (MO)x(B2O3)1-x MO represents the oxides etc.     Interesting physical properties for technological applications Non-linear optical properties Pure boron trioxide B2O3 is covalently bonded with interesting physicochemical properties B2O3 shows unique structural properties (boron anomaly) with BO3 convert to BO4 • • • industrial importance material in making glasses with desirable optical properties Both B2O3 and TeO2 are present in boro-tellurite glass, leads to complex specification in the glass structure TeO2 and B2O3 are glass forming oxides Tellurite glass has laminar network structure based on triangular TeO3 pyramids or square TeO4 pyramids B2O3 in its glassy form is a laminar network with boron atoms 3-fold coordinated with oxygen form sixmembered boroxol rings (B3O6)
  6. 6. Tellurite Glass ….. Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Introduction Experimentals Results & Discussion Conclusions Acknowledgement References
  7. 7. Lead BoroTellurite Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Introduction Lead Boro-Tellurite Experimentals • Results & Discussion Conclusions Acknowledgement References • Pb gives excellent infrared transmission (high refractive index) compared with conventional glass Glasses containing heavy-metal oxides has potential application in radiation shielding
  8. 8. Abstract Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Introduction Experimentals Results & Discussion Conclusions Acknowledgement References This paper reports the physical and elastic properties of the (PbO)x(B2O3)y(TeO2)z (where x = 10– 30, y = 21–36 and z = 42 – 63 mol%) ternary lead boro tellurite (PBT) glass system. The PBT glass series were synthesized by the conventional rapid melt quenching technique. The composition dependence of the physical, mainly density and molar volume, and elastic properties are conferred in term of the PbO modifiers addition that are likely to produce quite significant changes in their properties. The lack of any crystalline peaks in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the present glass samples designates the amorphous nature. The addition of PbO increased the values of the densities in ternary PBT glass systems. The longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves propagated in each glass sample were measured using a MBS8020 ultrasonic data acquisition system at 15 MHz resonating frequency and at room temperature. The longitudinal modulus (L), shear modulus (G), Young’s modulus (E), bulk modulus (K) and Poisson’s ratio ( ) are obtained from both velocities data and their respective density. Experimental data shows the density and elastic moduli of each PbO–B2O3-TeO2 series are found strongly depend upon the glass composition. The addition of PbO modifiers into the borotellurite causes substantial changes in their density, molar volume as well as their elastic properties.
  9. 9. Experimental Methods Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Introduction • Experimentals • Results & Discussion • Conclusions Acknowledgement References • Ternary (TeO2)y [(PbO)x (B2O3)1-x]1-y glass system prepared using a conventional meltquenching method All samples are homogenous, transparent and bubble free TeO2 (Alfa Aesar 99.99%), lead oxide, litharge PbO (99%) and boron oxide - B2O3 (Alfa Aesar, 97.5%).
  10. 10. Results and Discussion Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Introduction Experimentals Results & Discussion Conclusions Acknowledgement DTA measurement using SETARAM X-ray diffraction using an X-ray diffractometer (Philips X’pert Pro Panalytical) IR and Raman spectroscopy using a Raman spectrometer (RSI 2001 B, Raman system, INC) References Elastic Properties Using MBS 8000 Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System
  11. 11. Composition and Density Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Introduction Experimentals Results & Discussion Conclusions Acknowledgement References Density Measurement (Archimedes Method) Molar volumes a   s   wawwac  ac      V  M  Volume occupied by one mole of material Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. • Intrinsic property of matter, meaning it remains the same regardless of sample size. • Important property capable of evaluating the compactness and casting the light on the short range structure of the glass. • It is considered a characteristic property of a substance and can be used for material’s classification
  12. 12. Composition – Density … Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System TeO2 – B2O3 glass The density and the molar volume of this glass system increases with increase in mole percentage of TeO2 /PbO is due to the atomic weight and size of the constituent oxides. Introduction Experimentals Results & Discussion Conclusions TeO2- PbO – B2O3 glass PbO – B2O3 glass References Density (g/cc) Acknowledgement PbO (mol%)
  13. 13. Thermal Properties Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Introduction Experimentals Results & Discussion Conclusions Acknowledgement References Studies of the thermal stability and crystallization behaviour in TeO2 based glasses
  14. 14. XRD Pattern Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System • Introduction • Experimentals • Results & Discussion • Conclusions • Acknowledgement References • Intensity (a.u) 3400 3200 3000 2800 2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 10 20 30 2 theta 40 50 TeO2 powder The XRD pattern show the partially crystalline precipitation. the partially crystalline glass fit the amorphous state as the amount of PbO increases. The presence of broad peak for 2θ around 20° - 35°. XRD reflections were assigned to the two polymorphic phases; hexagonal of tellurium and monoclinic of lead tellurite. The intensity of the XRD reflections indicate that more monoclinic crystals are reduced in quenched samples as the intermediate content increases. The structures of lead tellurite contain Pb3TeO6 probably consisting of TeO3 trigonal pyramid connected by 3(PbO) tetragonal forming a three-dimensional network.
  15. 15. Raman Spectra Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System • Introduction Experimentals Results & Discussion • Conclusions Acknowledgement References • • • Raman spectra show increasing peak at <100cm-1 which indicates the strong presence of Pb in the chemical bonding through vibrational mode due to addition of PbO. Decreasing on (symmetry stretching) Te-O-Te and B-O-B bending shoulder at approximately 490 cm-1 and 450 cm-1 ascribe that the splitting of Te-O-Te and B-O-B bonds and hence, the bridging oxygen’s (BOs) are converted into NBOs. The spectral features from 710 cm-1 to 730 cm-1 and 790 cm-1 correspond to the TeO4 bi-pyramidal arrangement and the TeO3+1 (or distorted TeO4) and TeO3 trigonal pyramids structures respectively. It can be clearly observed that the evolution of TeO3+1 and TeO3 units occurs as the TeO2 concentration decreases. The increasing peak on the TeO3 trigonal pyramids shows that modification of lattice and interstitial occurs in the system.
  16. 16. Elastic Properties Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Elastic Properties Introduction • Experimentals • Results & Discussion Conclusions • Acknowledgement • References • Provide information about the structure of solids internal arrangement of the constituent oxides directly related to the interatomic potentials Estimate the mechanical strength of the solids Elastic moduli (longitudinal, shear, bulk and Young’s), Debye temperature , Poisson’s ratio and etc.
  17. 17. Elastic Properties Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Elastic Behaviour of TeO2-B2O3 glass Wave Velocity (m/s) Experimentals Results & Discussion Acknowledgement References The results of the elastic moduli and those of Poisson’s ratio, micro hardness, softening temperature and Debye temperature shows a tightening in the bonding of the glass structure and increase in rigidity of the glass structure. VL VS Elastic Constant (GPa) Introduction Conclusions PbO – B2O3 glass L E K G PbO (mol%)
  18. 18. Conclusions Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Introduction • Experimentals Results & Discussion Conclusions • Acknowledgement References • • Lead Borate, Boro-Tellurite and Lead-boro tellurite glasses were successfully • prepared by melt quenching techniques. The structural rigidity and compactness of the glass were determined from the measurement of density and differential thermal • analysis (DTA). Their respective glass structure were estimated using Raman scattering. For Lead borate and Lead borotellurie, the addition of PbO results leads to the increasing of density and molar volume. However, the accumulation of PbO results in splitting of O-Te-O and B-O-B bonds and hence, the bridging oxygen’s (BOs) are converted into NBOs besides which leads to decrease the rigidity in the glass network. Experimental data shows the density and elastic moduli of each PbO–B2O3-TeO2 system are found strongly depend upon the glass composition.
  19. 19. Acknowledgement Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Introduction Experimentals Results & Discussion Conclusions Acknowledgement References • The author gratefully acknowledged Ministry of Science and Innovation (MOSTI), Ministry of Education (MoE) and University Putra Malaysia for financial assistance.
  20. 20. References Synthesis and Elastic Studies of Lead Boro-Tellurite Glass System Introduction Experimentals Results & Discussion Conclusions Acknowledgement References
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