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  • 1. PUBERTY
    • Onset of reproduction life
    • Endocrine/gametogenic function of gonads mature  adolescence – (9-15 years in male & 9-13 years in female)
    • Changes in testis, scrotum, penis in growth
    • Pubic hair growth / axillary / facial hair growth / spermatogenesis / acne.
    • Larynx – crackling  becomes masculine bass voice.
  • 2.
    • Female – Breast buds, menarche, uterine/vaginal/genitalia growth - later – psychological changes.
    • Factors – HRH / LH / FSH.
    • Estrogen / progesterone
    • Primary / second oocyte (ovulation)
    • From follicle into abdominal cavity is ovulation – 14 th day.
  • 3.  
  • 4. MENSTRUAL CYCLE
    • Endometrial change  Hypothalamus  pituitary and FSH / LH
    • Female hormones and ovaries  ovarian cycle  28 days
    • Single ovum is released from the ovary
  • 5. PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING PREGNANCY
    • CVS, respiratory system, kidney, endocrine, blood (30% > in blood volume) because of salt & water retention because of > aldosterone / estrogen
    • Weight = 11-12 kg increase
    • BMR becomes more because of thyroxine, cortisol, aldosterone, androgen
    • Fetus drains Iron from the mother
    • Uterus gains in size
    • Ovaries stop ovulation
    • Breasts enlarge.
  • 6. Check-up
    • Weight
    • Blood pressure
    • Edema
    • Hemoglobin
    • Blood sugar
    • Urine
  • 7. Fetoplacental unit Placenta Hormones (Functions) HCG Estrogen Progesterone
    • Oxygen diffusion
    • Glucose
    • Fatty acid
    • Potassium
    • Calcium
    • Sodium
  • 8. PREGNANCY TESTS Immunological Radiological Biological
  • 9. ANATOMY OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
  • 10.  
  • 11. FUNDAMENTALS OF REPRODUCTION Spermatozoa (X & Y) Ovum (X) Zygote XX XY 46 chromosomes + FEMALE MALE
  • 12. IMPLANTATION
    • 21-22 nd day  fetal heart, fetoplacental circulation
    • Fetal placenta, 2 umbilical arteries carry impure blood from fetus
    • Fetal blood flow through P = 400 mL/min – pumping action of fetal heart
  • 13. PLACENTAL FUNCTION
    • Respiratory
    • Excretory
    • Nutrition
    • Hormones / enzymes
    • Immunological function
    FETAL MEMBRANES
    • Chorion
    • Amnion – protects fetal
  • 14. FETAL MEMBRANES
    • Chorion
    • Amnion – protects fetal
  • 15.