Mixed Connective Tissue Disorders.ppt


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Mixed Connective Tissue Disorders.ppt

  2. 2. DEFINITION <ul><li>Connective tissue is the material inside the body that supports many of its parts. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the “cellular glue” that gives the tissues their shape and helps keep them strong. </li></ul><ul><li>It also helps some of the tissues do their work. </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage and fat are examples of connective tissue. </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare autoimmune disorder that causes signs and symptoms of other mixed connective tissue diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>People with mixed connective tissue disease experience features of three other diseases — lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. </li></ul><ul><li>For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease is sometimes referred to as an overlap disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms of these three other diseases usually don't appear all at once. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>This makes diagnosing mixed connective tissue disease somewhat complicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Often people with mixed connective tissue disease are first diagnosed with lupus. </li></ul><ul><li>As the disease progresses and other signs and symptoms become apparent, the diagnosis is corrected. </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed connective tissue disease occurs most often in women and is usually diagnosed in young adults in their 20s and 30s. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Children have also been diagnosed with mixed connective tissue disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed xonnective tissue disease is somewhat of a controversial term among arthritis specialists (rheumatologists). </li></ul><ul><li>Some question whether mixed connective tissue disease is its own specific disease or whether it's a precursor to another connective tissue disease. </li></ul>
  6. 6. showing a representative case of a generalized connective tissue disorder in spontaneous intracranial hypotension.
  7. 7. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS <ul><li>Mixed connective tissue disease doesn't have a unique set of signs and symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, people with mixed connective tissue disease usually have signs and symptoms of lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis, including: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Fatigue 2. Muscle weakness </li></ul><ul><li>3. Joint pain 4. Joint swelling </li></ul><ul><li>5. Swollen fingers 6. Mild fever </li></ul><ul><li>7. Raynaud's phenomenon — blood vessel spasms that interrupt blood flow to the fingers, toes, ears and nose </li></ul>
  8. 8. CAUSES <ul><li>Doctors don't know what causes mixed connective tissue disease. </li></ul><ul><li>The disease is part of a larger group of diseases known as autoimmune disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>When he/she have an autoimmune disorder, the immune system – the part of the body is responsible for fighting off disease – mistakes normal, healthy cells for intruders. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, healthy tissue in the body is damaged, causing signs and symptoms of disease. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>It isn't clear what causes immune system to attack the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors believe a complex mix of viruses, chemicals and genetic factors may be at play. </li></ul>
  10. 10. RISK FACTORS <ul><li>Doctors don't know what puts at risk of mixed connective tissue disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Other findings show an increased risk in people exposed to certain chemicals, including vinyl chloride and silica. </li></ul><ul><li>More research is needed to confirm these findings. </li></ul>
  11. 11. WHEN TO SEEK MEDICAL ADVICE <ul><li>Signs and symptoms of mixed connective tissue disease usually begin mildly and may not prompt to seek medical attention. </li></ul><ul><li>But if signs and symptoms become bothersome or interfere with daily routine, make an appointment with the doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>Also see the doctor if having been diagnosed with lupus or another connective tissue disease and begin developing new signs and symptoms. </li></ul>
  12. 12. SCREENING AND DIAGNOSIS <ul><li>Doctor may suspect mixed connective tissue disease based on the signs and symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>He or she will conduct a physical exam to look for signs such as swollen hands and painful, swollen joints. </li></ul><ul><li>A blood test determines the presence of certain antibody in the blood that indicates connective tissue disease. </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of this specific antibody – called U1-RNP – can confirm the doctor's suspicions. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Mixed connective tissue disease usually develops slowly, making it difficult to diagnose. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people are first diagnosed with lupus and later re-diagnosed with mixed connective tissue disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Others begin with a diagnosis of connective tissue disease only to later find they have lupus or another mixed connective tissue disorder. </li></ul>
  14. 14. COMPLICATIONS <ul><li>Pulmonary hypertension. </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Side effects of long-term steroid use. </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy complications. </li></ul>
  15. 15. TREATMENT <ul><li>No cure exists for connective tissue disease, although treatments can help manage the signs and symptoms of the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment may vary from one person to another because the signs and symptoms may be different. </li></ul><ul><li>While no standard treatment exists, the most common treatment for mixed connective tissue disease is corticosteroids, such as prednisone. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>People with mild forms of mixed connective tissue disease may not need any treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Or may require treatment only during flares or </li></ul><ul><li>May require constant medication. </li></ul><ul><li>Work with doctor to ensure that the signs and symptoms are adequately controlled. </li></ul>